अंग्रेज़  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

angrez
angrez gavarnar raaubart klaiv
vivaran 'angrez' inglaind mool ke angrezi bhashi logon ko kaha jata hai. saph rng, bhoore bal aur safed v gori chamadi ke karan inhen pray: 'gore log' bhi kaha jata hai.
kul janasnkhya 100 miliyan (vishvabhar)
mukhy nivas kshetr snyukt rajashahi inglaind aur vels - 37.6 miliyan

snyukt rajy - 25 miliyan
aaustreliya - 7.2 miliyan
kanada - 6.6 miliyan
dakshin afrika - 1.6 miliyan
nyoojilaind - 44,000–282,000

mukhy bhasha angrezi
snbndhit lekh eest indiya kampani, bharat men gavarnar-janaral
any janakari purane samay se angrez gret briten ke any bhagon men aur uttari ayaralaind men basane lage the, lekin us samay unaki snkhya ka anuman nahin lagaya ja sakata tha, kyonki britani janaganana men aitihasik roop se is tarah ka dhyan nahin rakha jata tha.

briten men rahane vale nivasiyon ko angrez kaha jata hai. inaka rng saph, bal bhoore v safed aur chamadi gori hoti hai, isilie inhen pray: 'gore log' bhi kaha jata hai. kafi purane samay se angrez log gret briten ke any bhagon men aur uttari ayaralaind men basane lage the, lekin unaki snkhya ka anuman nahin lagaya ja sakata, kyonki britani janaganana men aitihasik roop se is tarah ka dhyan nahin rakha jata tha. bharat ke itihas men angrezon ka bahut hi mahattvapoorn sthan raha hai. bharatiy itihas ke na jane kitane hi adhyay angrezon ki kootaniti, dhokhebazi aur lalachi gatividhiyon se bhare pade hain. briten ke samrat 'jems pratham' ne pahale 1608 ee. men haaukins ko aur phir 1616 ee. men taaumas ro ko jahangir ke darabar men apana rajadoot banakar bheja tha. ajamer ke qile men taaumas ro ne mugal samrat jahangir ke samane khade hokar ek yachak ke roop men bharat men vyapar karane ki anumati mangi thi. jahangir se taaumas ro ka vyaparik samajhauta to nahin ho saka, kintu us samay gujarat ke soobedar 'khurram' (bad men shahajahan) ne use vyaparik kothiyan kholane ke lie faraman de diya tha. usi din se bharat ki gulami ki ibarat likh di gee.

bharat men pravesh

inglaind ki rani elijabeth pratham ke samay men 31 disambar, 1600 ko bharat men 'di garvanar end kampani aauf landal treding intoo di eest indij' arthath 'british eest indiya kampani' ki sthapana huee. is kampani ki sthapana se poorv maharani elijabeth ne poorv deshon se vyapar karane ke lie chartar tatha ekadhikar pradan kiya. prarambh men yah adhikar matr 15 varsh ke lie mila tha, kintu kalantar men ise 20-20 varshon ke lie badhaya jane laga. eest indiya kampani men us samay kul qarib 217 sajhidar the. kampani ka arambhik uddeshy bhoo-bhag nahin, balki vyapar tha.

haaukins ki jahangir se bhent

bharat men vyaparik kothiyan kholane ke prayas ke antargat hi briten ke samrat jems pratham ne 1608 ee. men kaiptan haaukins ko apane rajadoot ke roop men mugal samrat jahangir ke darabar men bheja. 1609 ee. men haaukins ne jahangir se milakar soorat men basane ki ijajat mangi, parantu purtagaliyon tatha soorat ke saudagaron ke vidroh ke karan use svikriti nahin mili. haaukins farasi bhasha ka bahut achchha janakar tha. kaiptan haaukins tin varshon tak agara men raha. jahangir ne usase prasann hokar use 400 ka manasab tatha jagir pradan ki. 1616 ee. men samrat jems pratham ne sar taaumas ro ko apana rajadoot banakar jahangir ke pas bheja. taaumas ro ka ekamatr udeshy tha - 'vyaparik sndhi karana'. yadyapi usaka jahangir se vyaparik samajhauta nahin ho saka, phir bhi use gujarat ke tatkalin soobedar 'khurram' (bad men shahajahan ke nam se prasiddh) se vyaparik kothiyon ko kholane ke lie faraman prapt ho gaya.

vyaparik kothiyon ki sthapana

taaumas ro ke bharat se vapas jane se poorv soorat, agara, ahamadabad, bhadaunch men angrezon ki vyaparik kothiyan sthapit kar li geen. 1611 ee. men dakshin-poorvi samudr tat par sarvapratham angrezon ne 'masulipattam' men vyaparik kothi ki sthapana ki. yahan se vastr ka niryat hota tha. 1632 ee. men golakunda ke sultan ne ek sunahara faraman diya, jisake anusar 500 pagoda salana kar dekar golakunda rajy ke bandaragahon se vyapar karane ki anumati mil gayi. 1639 ee. men madras men tatha 1651 ee. men hugali men vyaparik kothiyan kholi geen. 1661 ee. men inglaind ke samrat charls dvitiy ka vivah purtagal ki rajakumari 'kaitharin' se hua, tatha charls dvitiy ko bambee dahej ke roop men prapt hua, jise unhonne 1668 ee. men das paund varshik kiraye par ise eest indiya kampani ko de diya. poorvi bharat men angrezon ne apana pahala karakhana udisa men 1633 ee. men khola. shighr hi angrezon ne bngal, bihar, patana, balasor evn dhaka men apane karakhane khole. 1639 ee. men angrezon ne chndragiri ke raja se madras ko patte par lekar karakhane ki sthapana ki tatha karakhane ki qilebandi kar use 'fot sent jarj' ka nam diya. 'fort sent jarj' shighr hi koromandal samudr tat par angrezon ki bastiyon ke mukhyalay ke roop men masulipattam se age nikal gaya.

vyapar kar men chhoot

1651 ee. men bngal men sarvapratham angrezon ko vyaparik chhoot prapt huee, jab 'greviyan vantan', jo bngal ke soobedar shahazada shahashuja ke sath darabari chikitsak ke roop men rahata tha, kampani ke lie ek faraman prapt karane men saphal hua. is faraman se kampani ko 3000 rupaye varshik kar ke badale bngal, bihar tatha udisa men mukt vyapar karane ki anumati mil gayi. shahazada shahashuja ki anumati se angrezon ne bngal men apani pratham kothi 1651 ee. men hugali men sthapit ki. 'brijamain' ko 1651 ee. men hugali men sthapit angrezon ki faiktri ka pradhan niyukt kiya gaya. hugali ke bad angrezon ne kasim bazar, patana aur rajamahal men apane karakhane khole. 1656 ee. men doosara faraman mnjoor kiya gaya. isi prakar kampani ne 1672 ee. men shaista khan se tatha 1680 men aurngazeb se vyaparik riyayaton ke snbndh men faraman prapt kiya.

mugal rajaniti men hastakshep

dhire-dhire angrezon ka mugal rajaniti men hastakshep prarambh ho gaya. 1686 ee. men hugali ko lootane ke bad angrez aur mugal senaon men sngharsh hua, jisake parinamasvaroop eest indiya kampani ko soorat, masulipattam, vishakhapattanam adi karakhanon se apane adhikar khone pade, parantu angrezon dvara kshama yachana karane par aurngazeb ne unhen dedh lakh rupaye muavaja dene ke badale punah vyapar ke adhikar de diye aur 1691 ee. men ek faraman nikala, jisamen 3000 rupaye ke nishchit varshik kar ke badale bngal men kampani ko sima shulk dene se chhoot de di gee. 1698 ee. men tatkalin bngal ke soobedar 'ajimushshan' dvara kampani ne tin ganv- sutanati, kalakatta aur govindapur ki zamidari 12000 rupaye bhugatan kar prapt kar li. 1700 ee. tak 'jaaub charanak' ne ise vikasit kar kalakatta ka roop diya. kalakatta men fort viliyam ki sthapana huee. isaka pahala garvanar 'charls ayar' hua.

aurngazeb se kshama

bngal men soobedar shahashuja ke faraman ke bad bhi angrezon ko bngal men bal-poorvak chuginyan ada karani padati thin, jisake karan kampani ne apani suraksha khud karane ke uddeshy se thana ke mugal qilon par adhikar kar liya. 1686 ee. men mugal sena ne angrezon ko hugali se palayan karane evn jvaragrast phulta dvip par sharan lene ke lie majaboor kiya. faravari, 1690 men ejent jaaub charanak ko badashah aurngazeb se kshama mangani padi. bad men kampani ko punah usake adhikar prapt ho ge. lekin kampani ko kshatipoorti ke lie 1 lakh pachas hazar rupaya harjana dena pada.

farrukhasiyar ka faraman

1715 ee. men jaaun sarman ke netritv men ek vyaparik mishan tatkalin mugal badashah farrukhasiyar se milane gaya. is vyaparik mishan men 'edavard stifensan', 'viliyam haimiltan' (sarjan) tatha 'khvaja sehurd' (armeniyaee dvibhashiya) shamil the. daauktar viliyam haimiltar, jisane samrat farrukhasiyar ko ek pran ghatak phode se nijat dilaee thi, ki seva se khush hokar 1717 ee. men samrat farrukhasiyar ne eest indiya kampani ke lie nimnalikhit suvidhaon vala faraman jari kiya-

  1. bngal men kampani ko 3000 rupaye varshik dene par niahshulk vyapar ka adhikar mil gaya.
  2. kampani ko kalakatta ke as-pas ki bhoomi kiraye par lene ka adhikar de diya gaya.
  3. kampani dvara bambee ki takasal se jari kiye gaye sikkon ko mugal samrajy men manyata pradan ki gee, aur
  4. soorat men 10,000 rupaye varshik kar dene par niahshulk vyapar ka adhikar prapt ho gaya.

jerald angiyar

itihasakar 'orms' ne farrukhasiyar dvara jari kiye gaye is faraman ko 'kampani ka mahadhikar patr' kaha. 1669 ee. se 1677 ee. tak bambee ka garvanar 'jerald angiyar' hi vastav men bambee ka mahanatam snsthapak tha. 1687 tak bambee pashchimi tat ka pramukh vyaparik kendr bana raha. jerald angiyar ne bambee men qilebandi ke sath hi godi ka nirman karaya tatha bambee nagar ki sthapana aur ek nyayalay aur pulis dal ki sthapana ki. jerald angiyar ne bambee ke garvanar ke roop men yahan se tanbe aur chandi ke sikke dhalane ke lie takasal ki sthapana ki. jerald angiyar ke samay men bambee ki janasnkhya 60,000 thi. usaka uttaradhikari 'rault' (1677 - 1682 ee.) hua tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah