अंग्रेज़ी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

angrezi varnamala

angrezi arthath ingalish inglaind desh ke nivasiyon ki bhasha hai. ab isi samany arth men is nam ka prayog hota hai, kintu yah bhasha n keval inglaind men varanh apane nyoonadhik parivartit roop men amerika, astreliya, nyoojilaind tatha dakshin afrika ke katipay bhagon men kam men layi jati hai. isake atirikt snsar ke anek deshon men sanskritik tatha vyaparik adan-pradan ke lie angrezi bhasha ka prayog bahusnkhyak log karate hain. nishchit roop se yah kahana ki angrezi bolane vale logon ki snkhya snsar men kitani hai, kathin hai. prophesar aee. e. richard ka anuman hai ki pray: 20 karod log angrezi bhasha bolate hain. navi shati men ingalish (english) shabd se un sabhi bolachal ki bhashaon ka bodh hota tha, jo ki briten ke aingl, saiksan aur joot jati ke nivasiyon men prachalit thi. is tarah ingalish bhasha ka namakaran ingalaind desh ke namakaran ke poorv hi ho chuka tha. angrezi bhasha hind-yooropiy bhasha parivar ki bhasha hai aur is prakar se hindi, urdoo, farasi adi bhashaon ke sath isaka door ka snbndh hai. ise duniya ki sarvapratham antarrashtriy bhasha mana jata hai. ye duniya ke kee deshon ki mukhy rajabhasha hai aur aj ke daur men kee deshon men vigyan, kampyootar, sahity, rajaniti, aur uchch shiksha ki bhi mukhy bhasha hai. angrezi bhasha roman lipi men likhi jati hai.

itihas

eesa poorv navin shati ke lagabhag kelt jati ke logon ne adhunik inglaind aur ayaralaind ke dvipon par adhikar prapt kiya. taduparant unhin ki sabhyata aur bhasha ka prachar hua. roman logon ne is dvip samooh ko 43 ee. men apane adhin kiya aur panchavin shati ke arambh tak vahan par rajy karate rahe. unaki sabhyata ka desh par vyapak prabhav pada. panchavin shati men jab barbar jatiyon ne roman samrajy ko akrant kiya, us samay roman briten ko chhodakar chale gaye. usi shatabdi men jarmani men elb nadi ke tat par basane vali tyootan jatiyon ne briten par hamala kiya. in jatiyon men pramukh thin– aingl, saiksan aur joot. lagabhag dedh sau varshon ke antargat in sashakt jatiyon ne pray: sampoorn briten ko apane adhikar men kar liya aur kelt jati ke logon ne bhagakar vels, karnaval, kent adi doorasth bhagon men ashray liya. angrezi bhasha ka pradurbhav inhin navagat jatiyon ki bolachal ki bhasha ke roop men hua. vibhinn jatiyon ke log apani alag-alag bhasha bolate the, kintu unamen ek samany ekata thi. in bolachal ki bhashaon par keltik bhasha ka bhi prabhav pada. ingalish nam ki vyutpatti aingl se hai. is prarambhik kal se lekar 11vin shati tak angrezi bhasha ka jo roop tha, use 'old ingalish' arthath 'prachin angrezi' bhasha ki sngya di jati hai. 1066 ee. men narman raja viliyam-di-kankarar ne hestings ke yuddhakshetr men angrezon ko parast kiya aur tab se angrezi bhasha ke itihas men ek navin yug ka arambh hua. narman moolat: den jati ke log the, jo ki anek shatabdiyon se frans men bas gaye the. ve frans ke mool nivasiyon men ghul-mil gaye the aur frech bhasha bolate the. is bhanti unake agaman se angrezi bhasha par narman athava fransisi bhasha ka gahara prabhav pada. kuchh samay tak saiksan aur narman bhashaen alag rahin, kintu bad men unaka mishran hone laga aur donon ne milakar bhasha ka ek navin roop dharan kiya. 11vin shati se 15vin shati ke bich vikasit hone vali angrezi bhasha ko 'midil ingalish' arthath 'madhyam angrezi' bhasha kahate hain. 15vin shati men sarvapratham angrezi ka adhunik parinishthit svaroop prakat hua. is navin vikas ke anek karan the. chaausar ki kavita, jisamen bhasha ki navin visheshata thi, lokapriy huee aur usake sath-sath lndan ki darabari aur kachahari bhasha tatha aauksaphord ke vidvanon ki parimarjit bhasha ka bhi prachalan badha. in sabake mel-jol se ek aisi samany parishkrit bhasha ka avirbhav hua, jisamen tindal ne baibil ka anuvad kiya (1525 ee.) aur jisamen likhi huee pustak ko kaikstan ne apane chhapakhane men chhapakar deshabhar men prasarit kiya. tab se ab tak usi parinishthit angrezi bhasha ka kramik vikas hota aya hai. inglaind ke vibhinn pranton ki bolachal ki apani niji bhashaen hain. in bolachal ki bhashaon ka mahattv din-prati-din ghatata ja raha hai aur parinishthit angrezi bhasha ka adhipaty badhata hi ja raha hai. yahi bhasha aj inglaind ki sahityik bhasha hai. adhunik parinishthit angrezi bhasha ka sabase sidha sambandh madhyavarti inglaind ki bolachal ki bhasha se hai. san 1500 ke bad angrezi ka adhunik kal arnbh hota hai. isamen yoonani bhasha ke kuchh shabd milane arnbh ho gaye the. yah daur sheksapiyar jaise sahityakar se arnbh hota hai. yah samay sanh 1800 tak chala hai. yah angrezi ka adhunikatam daur kahalata hai. isamen angrezi vyakaran saral ho chuka hai aur usamen angrezon ke ne aupaniveshik eshiyaee aur aphriqi logon ki bhashaon ke bhi bahut se shabd shamil ho gaye hain.

shabdavali

  • angrezi bhasha ka nirman do vibhinn upakaranon se hua hai. usaka mool dhancha un prachin jarman boliyon se liya gaya hai, jinaka ullekh ham oopar kar chuke hain. at: jarman bhasha aur angrezi bhasha men ek prakar ka samy nihit hai. kintu madhy angrezi aur punarjagaran ke kal se lekar aj tak adhunik angrezi bhasha ne bahusnkhyak laitin mool ke shabdon ko grahan kiya hai.
  • angrezi shabdavali men laitin, frech, itailiyan prabhriti bhashaon se liye gaye shabdon ki kafi snkhya hai. angrezi ki grahikashakti vishesh ullekhaniy hai. is jivit bhasha men shabdon ko grahan tatha atmasath karane ki adabhut kshamata hai. isaka sabase achchha praman vartaman yug men amerika men milata hai.
  • yoonaited stets ki bhasha pradhanat: angrezi hai, kintu usamen vividh sroton se anaginat shabd akar ghulamil gaye hain. angrezi men farasi, arabi, snskrit, hindi adi ke bhi bahusnkhyak shabd liye gaye hain. adhunik angrezi bhasha ki ek aur vishesh pravritti yah hai ki usamen vibhaktiyon ka parityag karake arth ki abhivyakti ke lie upasargon aur muhavaron se adhikadhik kam liya ja raha hai. is bhanti purani angrezi ki apeksha adhunik angrezi men arth vistar tatha sookshm bhavon ke prakashan ki shakti badh gayi hai.
  • angrezi shabdon ki varnarachana aur unake uchcharan men kabhi-kabhi bhed dekha jata hai, aur kuchh log ise bhasha ka dosh manate hain; kintu is asngati ka karan keval yah hai ki angrezi bhasha ke vikas men shabdon ki dhvani ko hi vishesh mahattv diya gaya, unake aksharon dvara chitramay pradarshan ko nahin. dhvani ki drishti se sarvatr kuchh n kuchh taratamy avashy milata hai.

varnamala

angrezi bhasha men 26 aksharon ka prayog kiya jata hai. jo is prakar hain-
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angrezi sahity

purani angrezi ka jo sahity upalabdh hai, usake adhar par pata lagata hai ki prachin yug ke lekhakon aur kaviyon ki vishesh ruchi yatravarnan tatha rochak kahani kahane men thi. us yug ki pramukh rachanaen hain 'vidasith', 'di vandarar' tatha 'biolph'. madhy angrezi ki do bhashaen thi. pashchimi bhasha men poorvavarti englo-saiksan sahity ki parampara akshunn bani rahi. is shakha ki pratinidhi rachanaen hain viliyam laigalaind ki 'di vizan aph pipars plaumain' aur kisi agyat kavi ke dvara virachit 'gevet end di grin nait' tatha 'di parl'. doosari arthath dakshin-poorvi shakha ke pratinidhi lekhak the-

  • jaaun govar (1325-1408 ee.) tatha
  • chaausar (1340-1400 ee.).

chaausar ko adhunik angrezi ka pratham kavi mana jata hai aur usaki rachanaon ka angrezi sahity men vishesh mahattv hai. isake uparant pray: dedh sau varshon tak usaka anusaran hota raha aur koee mahanh kavi nahin paida hua. isi kal men pahale kaikstan ne inglaind men chhapakhana sthapit kiya. mudran ki suvidha se gady sahity ki vishesh unnati huee. lagabhag 16vin shati ke madhy se inglaind men yooropiy navajagaran (rinesan) ka prabhav prakat hone laga. prachin sahity ke adhyayan ke sath hi sath frech tatha itailiyan sahity ka bhi adhyayan hone laga aur in tinon ke sammilit prabhav se angrezi sahity ka navotthan hua.



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