अंतरराष्ट्रीय प्रेस स्वतंत्रता दिवस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

antararashtriy pres svatntrata divas
antararashtriy pres svatntrata divas
vivaran 'antararashtriy pres svatntrata divas' '3 mee ko manaya jata hai. midiya ki azadi ka matalab hai ki kisi bhi vyakti ko apani ray kayam karane aur sarvajanik taur par ise jahir karane ka adhikar hai.
tithi '3 mee'
shuruat is divas ko manane ka nirnay varsh 1991 men yoonesko aur snyukt rashtr ke 'jan soochana vibhag' ne milakar kiya tha.
vishesh 'antararashtriy pres svatntrata divas' pres ki svatntrata ka moolyankan, pres ki svatntrata par bahari tatvon ke hamale se bachav aur pres ki seva karate hue divngat hue snvadadataon ko shraddhanjali dene ka din hai.
snbndhit lekh patrakarita, bharat men samachar patron ka itihas
any janakari samooche vishv men soochana tak sulabh pahunch ke bare men badhati chinta ko dekhate hue 'bharatiy snsad' dvara 2005 men pas kiya gaya 'soochana ka adhikar qanoon' bahut mahath‍vapoorn ho gaya hai. is qanoon men sarakari soochana ke lie nagarik ke anurodh ka nishchit samay ke andar javab dena bahut zaroori hai.

antararashtriy pres svatntrata divas (angrezi: World Press Freedom Day) pratyek varsh '3 mee ko manaya jata hai. pres kisi bhi samaj ka aina hota hai. pres ki azadi se yah bat sabit hoti hai ki us desh men abhivyakti ki kitani svatntrata hai. bharat jaise lokatantrik desh men pres ki svatntrata ek maulik zaroorat hai. aj ham ek aisi duniya men ji rahe hain, jahan apani duniya se bahar nikal kar asapas ghatit hone vali ghatanaon ke bare men janane ka adhik vakt hamare pas nahin hota. aise men pres aur midiya hamare lie ek khabar vahak ka kam karati hain, jo har savere hamari tebal par garama garm khabaren parosati hain. yahi khabaren hamen duniya se jode rakhati hain. aj pres duniya men khabaren pahunchane ka sabase behatarin madhyam hai.

shuruat

'antararashtriy pres svatntrata divas' manane ka nirnay varsh 1991 men yoonesko aur snyukt rashtr ke 'jan soochana vibhag' ne milakar kiya tha. isase pahale namibiya men vindnhaauk men hue ek sammelan men is bat par jor diya gaya tha ki pres ki azadi ko mukhy roop se bahuvad aur janasnchar ki azadi ki zaroorat ke roop men dekha jana chahie. tab se har sal '3 mee' ko 'antararashtriy pres svitntrata divas' ke roop men manaya jata hai.

pres ki azadi

'snyukt rashtr mahasabha' ne bhi '3 mee' ko 'antararashtriy pres svatntrata' ki ghoshana ki thi. yoonesko mahasammelan ke 26ven satr men 1993 men isase snbndhit prastav ko svikar kiya gaya tha. is din ke manane ka uddeshy pres ki svatntrata ke vibhinn prakar ke ullaghnnon ki gnbhirata ke bare men janakari dena hai, jaise- prakashanon ki kant-chhant, un par jurmana lagana, prakashan ko nilnbit kar‍ dena aur bnd kar‍ dena adi. inake alava patrakaron, snpadakon aur prakashakon ko pareshan kiya jata hai aur un par hamale bhi kiye jate hain. yah din pres ki azadi ko badhava dene aur isake lie sarthak pahal karane tatha duniya bhar men pres ki azadi ki sthiti ka akalan karane ka bhi din hai. adhik vyavaharik tarike se kaha jae, to pres ki azadi ya midiya ki azadi, vibhinn ilaiktronik madhyamon aur prakashit samagri tatha fotograf vidiyo adi ke jarie snchar aur abhivyakti ki azadi hai. pres ki azadi ka mukhy roop se yahi matalab hai ki shasan ki taraph se isamen koee dakhalndaji n ho, lekin snvaidhanik taur par aur any qanooni pravadhanon ke jarie bhi pres ki azadi ki raksha zaroori hai.[1]

midiya ki azadi ka matalab hai ki kisi bhi vyakti ko apani ray kayam karane aur sarvajanik taur par ise jahir karane ka adhikar hai. is azadi men bina kisi dakhalndaji ke apani ray kayam karane tatha kisi bhi midiya ke jarie, chahe vah desh ki simaon se bahar ka midiya ho, soochana aur vichar hasil karane aur soochana dene ki azadi shamil hai. isaka ullekh manavadhikaron ki sarvabhaumik ghoshana ke 'anuchhed 19' men kiya gaya hai. 'soochana snchar praudyogiki' tatha soshal midiya ke jarie thode samay ke andar adhik se adhik logon tak sabhi tarah ki mahatvapoorn khabaren pahunch jati hain. yah samajhana bhi utana hi mahatvapoorn hai ki soshal midiya ki sakriyata se isaka virodh karane valon ko bhi svayn ko sngathit karane ke lie badhava mila hai aur duniya bhar ke yuva log apani abhivyakti ke lie aur vyapak roop se apane samudayon ki akankshaon ki abhivyakti ke lie sngharsh karane lage hain. isake sath hi yah samajhana bhi zaroori hai ki midiya ki azadi bahut kamazor hai. yah bhi janana zaroori hai ki abhi yah sabhi ki pahunch se bahar hai. halanki midiya ki sachchi azadi ke lie mahaul ban raha hai, lekin yah bhi thos vastavikata hai ki duniya men kee log aise hain, jinaki pahunch buniyadi snchar praudyogiki tak nahin hai. jaise-jaise intaranet par khabaron aur riporting ka silasila badh raha hai, blaaug lekhakon sahit aur adhik intaranet par patrakaron ko pareshan kiya ja raha hai aur hamale kiye ja rahe hain.

bharat men pres ki sthiti

bharat jaise vikasashil deshon men midiya par jativad aur samh‍pradayavad jaise snkuchit vicharon ke khilaf sngharsh karane aur garibi tatha anh‍y samajik buraiyon ke khilaf ladaee men logon ki sahayata karane ki bahut badi jimh‍medari hai, kh‍yonki logon ka ek bahut bada varg pichhada aur anabhigy hai, isaliye yah aur bhi zaroori hai ki adhunik vichar un tak pahunchae jaen aur unaka pichhadapan door kiya jae, taki ve sajag bharat ka hish‍sa ban saken. is drishti se midiya ki bahut badi jimh‍medari hai.[1] bharat men snvidhan ke anuchh‍chhed 19 (1 e) men "bhashan aur abhivh‍yakti ki sh‍vatntrata ke adhikar" ka ulh‍lekh hai, lekin usamen shabh‍d 'pres' ka zikr nahin hai, kintu up-khnd (2) ke antargat is adhikar par pabndiyan lagaee gee hain. isake anusar bharat ki prabhusatta aur akhndata, rashh‍tr ki suraksha, videshon ke sath maitri snbndhon, sarvajanik vh‍yavash‍tha, shalinata aur naitikata ke snrakshan, nh‍yayalay ki avamanana, badanami ya aparadh ke lie ukasane jaise mamalon men abhivh‍yakti ki sh‍vatntrata par pabndiyan lagaee ja sakati hain.

soochana ka adhikar qanoon

samooche vishv men soochana tak sulabh pahunch ke bare men badhati chinta ko dekhate hue 'bharatiy snsad' dvara 2005 men pas kiya gaya 'soochana ka adhikar qanoon' bahut mahath‍vapoorn ho gaya hai. is qanoon men sarakari soochana ke lie nagarik ke anurodh ka nishchit samay ke andar javab dena bahut zaroori hai. is qanoon ke pravadhanon ke antargat koee bhi nagarik sarvajanik adhikaran (sarakari vibhag ya rajh‍y ki vh‍yavash‍tha) se soochana ke lie anurodh kar sakata hai aur use 30 din ke andar isaka javab dena hota hai. qanoon men yah bhi kaha gaya hai ki sarakari vibhag vh‍yapak prasaran ke lie apane ankadon tatha dastavezon ka kamh‍ph‍yootarikaran karenge aur kuchh vishesh prakar ki soochanaon ko prakashit karenge, taki nagarikon ko aupacharik roop se soochana n mangani pade. snsad men 15 joon, 2005 ko yah qanoon pas kar diya tha, jo 13 aktoobar, 2005 se poori tarah lagoo ho gaya.[1]

snkshep men, yah qanoon prath‍yek nagarik ko sarakar se saval poochhane, ya soochana hasil karane, kisi sarakari dash‍tavez ki prati mangane, kisi sarakari dash‍tavez ka nirikshan karane, sarakar dvara kiye ge kisi kam ka nirikshan karane aur sarakari kary men ish‍temal samagri ke namoone lene ka adhikar deta hai. 'soochana ka adhikar qanoon' ek maulik manavadhikar hai, jo manav vikas ke lie mahatvapoorn‍ hai tatha anh‍y manavadhikaron ko samajhane ke lie pahali zaroorat hai. pichhale 7 varshon ke anubhav se, jab se yah qanoon lagoo hua hai, pata chalata hai ki soochana ka adhikar qanoon avashh‍yakata ke samay ek mitr jaisa hai, jo am adami ke jivan ko asan aur samh‍manajanak banata hai tatha use saphalatapoorvak jan sevaon ke lie anurodh karane aur inaka upayog karane ka adhikar deta hai.

snvadadataon ko shraddhanjali dene ka din

'antararashtriy pres svatntrata divas' pres ki svatntrata ka moolyankan, pres ki svatntrata par bahari tatvon ke hamale se bachav aur pres ki seva karate hue divngat hue snvadadataon ko shraddhanjali dene ka din hai. aj hamara midiya apana dayitv thik tarike se nahin nibha raha hai. kuchh logon ko chhodakar shraddhanjali dene ka kam bhi hamara midiya shayad hi thik se kar raha hai. jabaki hona to ye chahie ki kam se kam is din to sare desh ka midiya ekajut hokar is din ki sarthakata ko anjam deta. kam se kam aj ke din to khabaron men tadaka lagane se parahej karata, kintu ye bhi nahin hota. aisa hone par ti ar pi par asar pad sakata hai, jo ki haragij bardast nahin hai.

janata ka aina

halanki pres jahan ek taraf janata ka aina hota hai, vahin doosari or pres janata ko gumarah karane men bhi saksham hota hai isilie pres par niyntran rakhane ke lie har desh men apane kuchh niyam aur sngathan hote hain, jo pres ko ek dayare men rahakar kam karate rahane ki yad dilate hain. pres ki azadi ko chhinana bhi desh ki azadi ko chhinane ki tarah hi hota hai. chin, japan, jarmani, pakistan jaise deshon men pres ko poornat: azadi nahin hai. yahan ki pres par sarakar ka sidha niyntran hai. is lihaj se hamara bharat unase thik hai. aj midiya ke kisi bhi ang ki bat kar lijiye, har jagah dav-pench ka asar hai. khabar se jyada aj khabar dene vale ka mahattv ho chala hai. lekh se jyada lekh likhane vale ka mahattav ho gaya hai. pakshapat hona midiya men bhi koee badi bat nahin hai, jo log midiya se judate hain, adhikansh ka uddeshy jan jagarookata phailana n hokar apani dhak jamana hi adhik hota hain.

kuchh log khud ko sthapit karane lie bhi midiya ka rasta chunate hain. kuchh log chnd patr-patrikaon men likhakar apane samaj ke prati apane dayitv ki itishri kar lete hain. chhadam nam se bhi midiya men logon ke ane ka prachalan badha hai. saty ko svikarana itana asan nahin hota hai aur isilie kuchh log saty udghatit karane vale se bair rakhate hain. lekin phir kuchh log midiya men apana sab kuchh dav par lagakar bhi is raste ko hi chunate hain aur afasos ki phir bhi unaki vah poochh nahin hoti, jisake ki ve haqadar hote hain.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 vishv pres svatntrata divas (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 30 aprail, 2014.
  2. antararashtriy pres svatntrata divas kya aupacharikata bhar hai (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 30 aprail, 2014.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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