अखण्डित पंजाब  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

akhandit pnjab arthath bharat ke vibhajan se poorv ka pnjab. vibhajan se poorv 'pashchimi pnjab', 'uttar-pashchimi simaprant', 'sindh', 'baloochistan' aur 'poorvi bngal' bhi bharat ka hi hissa the. san 1849 men pnjab poori tarah se british eest indiya kampani ke hathon men a chuka tha aur british shasan ke antargat ek prant ban gaya tha. varsh 1945 men doosara vishvayuddh samapt hua. isake bad kuchh samay se british sarakar hindoo-muslimon ko ladae rakhane ki niti barat rahi thi. san 1947 men bharat ke svatntr hone par pnjab ka british prant, bharat tatha pakistan ke ne snprabhuta snpann deshon ke bich bant diya gaya aur chhota poorvi hissa bharat ka ang bana.

itihas

vartaman pnjab ki adharashila bnda bahadur sinh ne rakhi thi, jo sadhu the aur bad men yoddha ban ge the. unhonne sikkhon ke ladakoo jatthe ke sath prant ke poorvi hisse ko 1709-1710 men kuchh samay ke lie mugal shasan se azad kara liya tha. 1716 ee. men bnda sinh ki har aur unhen phansi diye jane ke bad ek taraf sikkhon aur doosari or mugalon v afaganon ke bich lambe sngharshon ki shuruat huee. 1764-1765 men is kshetr men sikkhon ne apana adhipaty kayam kar liya tha. maharaja ranajit sinh (1780-1839 ee.) ne pnjab ko ek shaktishali rajy banaya aur isamen multan, kashmir v peshavar ke padosi pranton ko shamil kar liya.

angrezon ka adhikar

ranajit sinh ki mrityu ke bad pnjab, british satta ke lie bahut bade siradard ka karan ban gaya. angrezon ki kootaniti ne sikkhon ko ladaee ke lie majaboor kar diya aur antat: pnjab rajy ka bhi patan ho gaya. 1849 men pnjab british eest indiya kampani ke hathon men pad gaya aur british shasan ke antargat ek prant ban gaya. 50,000 varg mil upajaoo jamin aur 40 lakh tagade kisan british shasan ke adhin ho ge. parajay ke sath-sath sikkhon ko apaman bhi sahana pada. rajyachyut rajakumar dalip sinh eesaee bana kar inglaind bhej die ge. lahaur darabar ki sampattiyan nilami par chadha di geen. kohinoor hira british taj ki shobha badhane ke lie inglaind bhej diya gaya. laaurd dalahauzi amritasar ke darabar sahab men gaya aur us pavitr ahate ke andar joote pahanakar chalata raha.[1]

jaliyanvala bag narasnhar

19vin shatabdi ke uttarardh tak rajy men 'bharatiy rashtriy andolan' ki jaden mazaboot ho chuki thin. is andolan men ek pramukh ghatana ghati, jisamen british janaral renald ee.ech. dayar ke adesh par 1919 ee. men amritasar men 'jaliyanvala bag' ke narasnhar ko anjam diya. vah ravivar ka din tha aur as-pas ke ganvon ke anek kisan hinduon tatha sikkhon ka utsav baisakhi banane amritasar ae the. yah bag charon or se ghira hua tha. andar jane ka keval ek hi rasta tha. janaral dayar ne apane sipahiyon ko bag ke ekamatr tng pravesh marg par tainat kiya tha. bag sath-sath sati eenton ki imaraton ke pichhavade ki divaron se tin taraf se ghira hua tha. dayar ne bina kisi chetavani ke 50 sainikon ko goliyan chalane ka adesh diya aur chikhate, atnkit bhagate nihatthe bachchon, mahilaon, boodhon ki bhid par 10-15 minat men 1650 goliyan dag di geen, jinamen se kuchh log apani jan bachane ki koshish karane men lage logon ki bhagadad men kuchal kar mar ge. is hatyakand men hnsaraj nam ke ek vyakti ne dayar ko sahayog diya tha. is hatyakand men lagabhag 400 logon ki maut huee aur 1200 log ghayal hue, jinhen koee chikitsa suvidha nahin di gee.

inhen bhi dekhen: jaliyanvala bag

vibhajan

san 1945 men doosara vishvayuddh samapt hua. kuchh samay se british sarakar hindoo-muslimon ko ladae rakhane ki niti barat rahi thi. usi ka natija 'muslim lig' thi, jisane muslimon ko adhikaron ke lie alag se ladana shuroo kiya. bad men unake neta muhammad ali jinna hue, jinhonne hindustan ke bntavare ke lie andolan shuroo kiya. pnjab, bngal aur sindh men muslim adhik the. unhonne in hisson ko milakar pakistan nam se muslimon ka alag raj manga. hindoo aur muslimon men anaban hueen, jhagade hue aur donon or ke kuchh arajak tatvon ne logon ke sath marapit ki. bambee, bngal, bihar ki dharati hindoo-muslimon ke lahoo se rng gee. british sarakar ko to yah mnjoor tha hi. kangres ne bhi gandhiji ke virodh ke bavajood bntavara mnjoor kar liya. hindustan do hisson men bnt gaya. laaurd mauntabetan us samay vayasaray the. unhin ke intajam se 15 agast, 1947 ko 'pashchimi pnjab', 'uttar-pashchimi simaprant', sindh, baloochistan aur poorvi bngal ko milakar pakistan bana. shesh desh hindustan ya bharat raha.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. pustak, bharatiy svatntrata andolan ka itihas, dvitiy khnd, prishth snkhya- 44, lekhak-tarachnd)
  2. (pustak, bharat ki kahani, prishth snkhya- 64, lekhak- daauktar bhagavatasharan upadhyay)

snbndhit lekh