अठारह बौद्ध निकाय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

  • bhagavan buddh ke parinirvan ke anantar buddhavachanon men prakshep (any vachanon ko dal dena) aur apanayan (kuchh buddhavachanon ko hata dena) n hone dene ke lie kramash: tin sngitiyon ka ayojan kiya gaya. pratham sngiti buddh ke parinirvan ke tatkal bad pratham varshavas ke kal men hi rajagrih men mahakashyap ke snrakshakatv men sampann huee. isamen anand ne sootr (isamen abhidharm bhi sammilit hai) aur upali ne vinay ka sngayan kiya. is tarah is sngiti men sammilit panch sau arhat bhikshuon ne pratham bar buddhavachanon ko tripitak adi men vibhajan kiya. bhagavan buddh ke parinirvan ke bad sau varsh bitate-bitate ayushman yash ne vaishali ke vajjiputtak bhikshuon ko vinay viparit das vastuon ka acharan karate hue dekha, jisamen sone-chandi ka grahan bhi ek tha. anek bhikshuon ki drishti men unaka yah acharan anuchit tha. isaka nirnay karane ke lie dvitiy sngiti bulaee gee. mahasthavir revat ki adhyakshata men sampann is sngiti men sammilit sat sau arhat bhikshuon ne un (vajjiputtak bhikshuon) ka acharan vinayaviparit nishchit kiya. vaishali ke vajjiputtak bhikshuon ne mahasthaviron ke is nirnay ko amany kar diya aur kaushambi men ek prithakh sngiti ayojit ki, jisamen das hazar bhikshu sammilit hue the. yah sabha 'mahasngh' ya 'mahasngiti' kahalaee tatha is sabha ko manane vale 'mahasanghik' kahalae.
  • is prakar bauddh sngh do bhagon ya nikayon men vibhakt ho gaya, sthaviravadi aur mahasanghik. age chalakar bhagavan ke parinirvan ke 236 varsh bad samrat ashok ke kal men ayojit tritiy sngiti ke samay tak bauddh sngh atharah nikayon men vikasit ho gaya tha.
  • mahasanghik bhi kalantar men do bhagon men vibhakt ho ge-
  1. ekavyavaharik aur
  2. gokulik.
  • gokulik se bhi do shakhaen vikasit huee, yatha-
  1. prgyptivadi aur
  2. bahulik ya bahushrutik.
  • bahulik se chaityavadi namak ek aur shakha prakat huee. is tarah mahasanghik se panch shakhaen nikali, jo mahasanghik ke sath kul 6 nikay hote hain.
  • doosari or sthaviravadi bhi pahale do bhagon men vibhakt hue, yatha- vajjiputtak aur mahishasak. vajjiputtak 4 bhagon men vibhakt hue, yatha-
  1. dharmottariy,
  2. bhadrayanik,
  3. chhanragarik (shannagarik) aur
  4. sammitiy.
  • mahishasak se bhi do shakhaen vikasit huee, yatha-
  1. dharmaguptik aur
  2. sarvastivadi.
  • sarvastivadiyon se kramash: kashyapiy, kashyapiy se sankrantik aur sankrantik se sootravadi sautrantik nikay vikasit hue. is prakar sthaviravadi nikay se 11 nikay vikasit hue, jo sthaviravadi nikay ke sath kul 12 hote hain. donon prakar ke nikayabhed milakar kul atharah nikay hote hain.

nikayon ki paribhasha

nikay-parampara

achary vinitadev adi pramukh acharyon ki manyata hai ki char hi mool nikay hain, jinase age chal kar sabhi atharah nikay vikasit hue. ve hain-

  1. ary sarvastivadi,
  2. ary mahasanghik,
  3. aryasthavir evn
  4. ary sammitiy.

moolasngh se jo yah vibhajan hua ya atharah ya usase adhik nikayon ka jo janm hua, vah kisi gatishil shreshth dharm ka lakshan hai, n ki hras ka. bhagavan buddh ne svayn hi kisi bhi shasta ke vachan ya kisi pavitr granth ke vachan ko antim praman manane se apane anuyayi bhikshuon ko mana kar diya tha. unhonne svatantr chintan, apane anubhav ki pramanikata, vastusangat drishti aur udar vicharon ke jo bij bhikshusngh men nikshipt (sthapit0 kiye the, unhin bijon se kalantar men vibhinn shakhaon vala saddharm roopi mahavriksh vikasit hua, jisane bharat sahit vishv ke koti-koti viney janon ki akankshaen apane pushp, phal, patr aur chhaya ke dvara poorn kin aur aj bhi kar raha hai.

atharah nikayon ke samany siddhant

achary vasumitr, bhavavivek adi mahapanditon ke granthon ke darshanik siddhanton se sabhi atharah nikay pray: sahamat hain-

gyan men grahy (vishay) ke akar ka abhav

bauddh darshanikon men is vishay par paryapt charcha upalabdh hoti hai ki gyan jab apane vishay men pravritt hota hai, tab vishay ke akar ko grahan karake arthath vishay ke akar se akarit (sakar) hokar vishay grahan karata hai ya nirakar rahate hue. sautrantikon ka manana hai ki chakshurvigyan nilakar hokar nil vishay men pravritt hota hai. unaka kahana hai ki jis samay chakshurvigyan utpann hota hai, us samay usaka grahy (nil alamban) niruddh rahata hai. kyonki nil alamban karan hai aur chakshurvigyan usaka kary. karan ko kary se niyat poorvavarton hona chahien isalie nil alamban chakshurvigyan se ek kshan poorv niruddh ho jata hai. kintu gyan men vishay ka akar vidyaman hone se vah gyan 'nilgy' kaha jata hai.

gyan men svasnvedanatv ka abhav

vaibhashik pramukh sabhi atharah nikayon men gyan men jaise gyey (vishay) ka akar nahin mata jata arthath jaise use nirakar mana jata hai, usi prakar gyan men grahak-akar arthath apane svaroop (svayn) ko grahan karane vala akar bhi nahin mana jata. svayn (apane svaroop) ko grahan karane vala gyan 'svasnvedan' kahalata hai. ashay yah ki ve (vaibhashik adi) svasnvedan nahin manate. gyat hai ki bauddh naiyayik sautrantik adi char pratyaksh manate hain-

  1. indriy pratyaksh,
  2. manas pratyaksh,
  3. svasnvedan pratyaksh aur
  4. yogi-pratyaksh.

inamen se vaibhashik adi kyonki svasnvedan nahin manate, isalie inake mat men shesh tin pratyaksh hi mane jate hain.

bahyarth ka astitv

vaibhashik adi ke mat men gyan men atirikt bahy vastuon ki satta mani jati hai. ve roop, shabd adi bahy vastuen paramanuon se arabdh (nirmit) hoti hain, n ki vigyan ke parinam ke roop men mani jati hain- jaisa ki yogachar vigyanavadi manate hain. yogachar matanusar samast bahyarth alayavigyan ya manovigyan men sthit vasana ke parinam hote hain. vaibhashik aisa nahin manate. vaibhashik matanusar ghat adi padarthon men sthit paramanu chakshurindriy ke vishay hote hain tatha chakshurindriy men sthit paramanu chakshurvigyan ke ashray hote hain. isalie inake mat men paramanu se nirmit sht adi sthool vastuon ki vastusatta nahin mani jati. sautrantikon ke matanusar ghat adi men sthit pratyek paramanu chakshurvigyan ka vishay nahin hota, at: chakshurvigyan men bhasit hone vale ghat adi sthool vastuon ki vastusatta mani jati hai. jaise vaisheshik darshanik avayavon se atirikt ek avayavi dravy ki satta svikar karate hain, vaise vaibhashik nahin manate, isalie ghat adi ke antargat vidyaman paramanu hi indriy ke vishay hote hain.

tinon kalon ki satta

jo sabhi atit, anagat aur pratyutpann kalon ka astitv manate hain, ve sarvastivadi char prakar ke hain, yatha-

  1. bhavanyathik. is mat ke pramukh achary bhadant dharmatrat hain. inake anusar adhvon (kalon) men pravartaman (gatishil) dharmon ki dravyata men anyathatv nahin hota. keval bhav men anyathatv hota hai.
  2. lakshananyathik. isake pramukh achary bhadant ghoshak hain. inake anusar adhvon men pravartaman atit dharm yadyapi atit-lakshan se yukt hota hai, phir bhi vah pratyutpann aur anagat lakshan se bhi aviyukt hota hai.
  3. avasthanyathik. isake pramukh achary bhadant vasumitr hain. inake anusar adhvon men pravartaman dharm bhinn-bhinn avasthaon ko prapt kar avastha ki drishti se bhinn-bhinn nirdisht kiya jata hai, n ki bhinn-bhinn dravy ki drishti se bhinn-bhinn nirdisht hota hai.
  4. anyathanyathik. isake pramukh achary bhadant buddhadev hain. inake anusar adhvon men pravartaman dharm poorv, apar ki apeksha se bhinn-bhinn kaha jata hai.

nirupadhishesh nirvan

vaibhashik adi nikayon ke mat men nirupadhishesh nirvan ki avastha men vyaktitv ki sarvatha nivritti (parisamapti) mani jati hai. is avastha men anadi kal men chali a rahi vyakti ki nam-roop santati sarvatha shant ho jati hai, jaise dipak ke bujh jane par usaki kisi bhi prakar ki santati avashisht nahin rahati.

bodhi se poorv gautam buddh ka prithagjan hona

in nikayon ke matanusar janm grahan karate samay rajakumar siddharth prithagjan hi the. vah bodhisattv avashy the aur marg ki drishti se sambharamarg ki avastha men vidyaman the. ghar se bahar hokar pravrajya grahan karane ke anantar jis samay bodhivriksh ke mool men samadhi men sthit the, tab unhonne kramash: prayogamarg, darshanamarg aur bhavanamarg ko prapt kiya. ant men unhonne usi asan par samyakh snbuddhatv ki prapti ki.

sthaviravad

paramarth dharm vichar

atharah nikayon men sthaviravad bhi ek hai. in dinon vishv men do hi nikay jivit hain-

  1. sthaviravad aur
  2. sarvastivad ki vinay-parampara.
  • sthaviravad ki parampara shrilnka, myamanr, thaeelaind, kambodiya adi dakshin poorvi eshiyaee deshon men pramavi dhng se prachalit hai. usaka vistrit palisahity vidyaman hai aur aj bhi rachanaen ho rahi hain. at: snkshep men yahan usake paramarthasaty tatha shilasamadhi aur prgya ka parichay diya ja raha hai. shil, samadhi aur prgya hi margasaty hai, jisase nirvan (moksh) jaise paramarthasaty evn param purusharth ki prapti sambhav hai.

paramarth

jo apane svabhav ko kabhi bhi nahin chhodata tatha jisake svabhav se kabhi parivartan nahin hota aisa tattv 'paramarth' kaha jata hai. jaise lobh ka svabhav (lakshan) asakti ya lalach hai. yah chahe manushy men ho athava pashu men ho apane asakti ya lalachi svabhav ko kabhi bhi nahin chhodata. bhautik (roop) vastuon men bhi prithvi ka svabhav 'kathor' hona hai. yah prithv kahin bhi kisi bhi avastha men apane kathor svabhav ko nahin chhodati. isalie chitt, sparshavedana adi chaitasik, prithvi aph adi mahabhoot aur bhautik vastu (roop) tatha nirvan paramarth kahe jate hain.

chitt-chaitasik

  • yadyapi chitt-chaitasik prithakh-prithakh svabhav vale hote hain tathapi ve donon ek vishay (alamban) men ek sath utpann hokar ek sath niruddh hote hain. inamen se varn, shabd adi vishayon (alamban) ko samany roopen janana matr 'chitt' hai. yahan chitt dvara alamban ka grahan karana ya prapt karana hi 'janana' kaha jata hai. janana, grahan karana, prapt karana, parichchhed (udgrahan) karana, ye paryayavachi hain.
  • chitt, man aur vigyan ek hi arth ke vachak hain jo snchay karata hai. (chinoti), vah chitt hai. yahi manash hai, kyonki yah manan karata hai (manute).yahi vigyan hai, kyonki vah apane alamban ko janata hai (alambann vijanati).

chaitasik

jab koee chitt utpann hota hai, tab sparsh vedana adi chaitasik bhi utpann hote hain. chitt se sambaddh hokar utpann hone ke karan, chitt men hone vale un sparsh vedana adi dharmon ko, 'chaitasik' kahate hain. yahan 'chitt' adhar hai tatha chaitasik usamen hone vale adhey hain- aisa nahin samajhana chahie. han, yah thik hai ki poorvagami chitt ke abhav men chaitasik nahin ho sakate, is sthiti men chitt ke n hone par chaitasikon ke krity nahin honge, chitt se sambaddh hone par hi ve sambhav hain, at: chitt men hone vale sparsh vedana adi dharm chaitasik hai- aisa bhi kaha jata hai. yah thik bhi hai, kyonki sparsh vedana adi sada sarvatha chitt men samprayukt hote hain. chitt ke bina chaitasik apane alambanon ko grahan karane men asamarth rahate hain. isilie chitt-chaitasikon ka sath-sa utpad nirodh mana jata hai tatha sath hi saman alamban ka grahan evn saman vastu (indriy) ka ashray karana mana jata hai.

roop

chitt chaitasik manushy ke chetan (abhautik) padarth (dharm) hain, inhen bauddh paribhasha men 'aroop dharm' ya 'nam dharm' kaha jata hai. ye nam dharm yadyapi bhautik (roop) dharmon ka ashray karake hi utpann hote hain. tathapi ve bhautik (roop) dharmon ka snchalan bhi karate rahate hain. usaka abhipray yah hai ki yadi roop dharm nahin hote hain to aroop (nam)¬ dharm bhi nahin hote. yadi aroop (nam) dharm nahin hai to roop dharm nishprayojan ho jate hain. yadyapi bhagavan buddh ka pradhan pratipady nirvan tha aur nirvan prapti ke lie kushal, akushal aroopadharmon ka vivechan karana bhi avashyak tha, tathapi roop dharmon ke vivechan ke bina aroopadharmon ka vivechan sambhav nahin tha, phalat: unhonne 28 prakar ke bhautik dharmon ka vivechan kiya. is prakar manushy jivan men yadyapi aroopadharm pradhan hai, tathapi roopadharmon ki bhi anivaryata hai. at: sabhi abhidharmashastr roopon ka bhi vishleshan karate hain.

prithvi aph adi 28 roopon men se prithvi aph, tejas, vayu varn, gandh, ras aur ojash ye ath roop sada ek sath rahate hen. paramanu, jo sookshm padarth mana jata hai, usamen bhi ye ath roop rahate hain. inamen se prithvi, aph tejash aur vayu ko 'mahabhoot' kahate hain. kyonki in char roopon ka svabhav aur dravy any roopon se mahanh hote hain tatha ye hi moolabhoot hote hain in char mahabhooton ka ashray lekar hi varn adi any roopon ki abhivyakti hoti hai. varn, gandh adi roopon ka hamen tabhi pratyaksh ho sakata hai, jabaki inake mool men snghataroop mahabhoot hon. jab mahabhooton ka snghat rahega tab varn gandh adi ka bhi pratyaksh ho sakega.

manushy ke sharir men vidyaman char mahabhooton ke svabhav ko samajhane ke lie mrittika se bani huee murti ko upama se vichar kiya jata he. ek-ek roop-samuday (kalap) men vidyaman in char mahabhooton ko prakrit chakshu dvara nahin dekha ja sakata, ve paramanu namak atyant sookshm roop-samuday (kalap) hote hain anek roopon (kalapon-roop-samudayon) ka snghat hone par hi unhen prakrit chakshu dvara dekha ja sakata hai. is prakar anek roop-samudayon (kalapon) ka snghat hone par manushy ka bhautik sharir ban jata hai. bhautik sharir hone men manushy ke poorvakrit karm (chetana) mukhy karan hote hain.

nirvan

chitt, chaitasik aur roop dharmon ka yatharth gyan ho jane par nirvan ka sakshatkar kiya ja sakata hai. yatharth gyan ki prapti karane ke lie sadhana (vipashyana) karana chahie. sadhana (vipashyana) ke dvara jo gyan ko prapt karata hai, vah aryapudgal hai, aryapudgal hi nirvan ka sakshatkar kar sakate hain. jisake du:kh aur du:kh ke karan (trishna-samuday) nivritt ho jate hain, vahi nirvan ka sakshatkar kar sakata hai, at: du:kh tatha trishna se atyantiki nivritti hi 'nirvan' kahalata hai. yadyapi nirvan du:khon se atyantiki nivritti matr ka nirodh matr ko kahate hain, tathapi vah abhav nahin kaha ja sakata, kyonki vah aryajanon ke dvara sakshat karane yogy hai arthath nirvan gyanaprapt aryajanon ka vishay (alamban) hone se abhav nahin kaha ja sakata. vastut: vah atyant sookshm dharm hone se sadharan janon ke dvara janane evn kahane yogy nahin hone par bhi vah aryajanon ka vishay hota hai. isalie nirvan ko ek paramarth dharm kahate hain.

nirvan shanti sukh lakshan vala hai. yahan sukh do prakar ka hota hai-

  1. shanti sukh evn
  2. vedayitasukh.

shantisukh vedayitasukh ki tarah anubhootiyogy sukh nahin hai. kisi ek vishesh vastu ka anubhav n hokar vah upashamasukh matr hai arthath du:khon se upasham hona hi hai. nirvan ke svaroop ke vishay men ajakal nana prakar ki vipratipattiyan hain. kuchh log nirvan ko roop vishesh evn nam vishesh kahate hain. kuchh log kahate hain. ki nam-roopatmak skandh ke bhitar amrit ki tarah ek nityadharm vidyaman hai, jo namaroopon ke niruddh hone par bhi avashisht rahata hai, us nity, ajar, amar, avinashi ke roop men vidyaman rahana hi nirvan hai, jaise- any bharatiy darshanikon ke mat men atma. kuchh logon ka mat hai ki nirvan ki avastha men yadi namaroop dharm n rahenge to us avastha men sukh ka anubhav bhi kaise hoga ityadi.

shil-vimarsh

shil vimarsh ke antargat samanyatahacharan matr ate hain. vistar se padhen- shil vimarsh

samadhi—vimarsh

samadhi

  • shobhan vishayon men pravritt rag, dvesh moh se rahit pavitr chitt (kushal chitt) ki ekagrata (nishchalata) ko samadhi kahate hain. samadhi ka arth samadhan hai. arthath ek alamban (vishay) men chitt chaitasikon ka barabar (samh) tatha bhalibhanti (samyakh) pratishthit hona ya rakhana (aghan) 'samadhan' hai. isalie jis tattv ke prabhav se ek alamban men chitt-chaitasik barabar aur bhalibhanti vikshipt aur viprakirn n hote hue sthit hote hain, us tattv ko 'samadhi' kahate hain.
  • pntajali ne bhi chitt ki vrittiyon ke nirodh ko 'yog' kaha hai.[1]
  • vyas ne yog ko samadhi kaha hai.[2]
  • vrittikar ne yog ka arth 'samadhan' batalaya hai.[3]
  • is prakar bauddh aur bauddhettar acharyon ne 'samadhi' shabd ki vyutpatti samanaroop se ki hai.
  • anguttaranikay men buddh ne samadhi ki bahulata se vartaman jivan men sukhapoorvak vihar (drishtidharm-sukhavihar), divyachakshu-gyan, smriti-samprgyan se sampannata aur klesh (astrav) kshay adi anek gun bataye hain.[4] is prakar samadhi ka arth ekagrata se adhik mahaniy aur gambhir siddh hota hai.

karmasthan

karmasthan do prakar ke hote hain, yatha- shamath karmasthan aur vipashyana karmasthan. yogi jin alambanon ko apane bhavanakrity ki sampannata ke lie sadhan banata hai, unhen 'karmasthan' kahate hain. prithvi, aph adi chalis prakar ke sadhan 'samadhi' ke alamban' (shamath karmasthan) hain. tatha pnchaskandhatmak nam-roop adi sadhan prgya ke vishay (vipashyana karmasthan) hain. anapanasmriti – bauddh sadhana men shvas aur prashvas ko 'anapan' kahate hain. ise hi patnjal yog-darshan men 'pranayam' kaha gaya hai. yah shvas-prashvas (anapan) samadhilabh ke lie ek utkrisht sadhan hai. yah thik bhi hai, kyonki pran hi jivan hai. pran hi samast snsar ka mool karan hai. pran ke bina prani ka jivit rahana asambhav hai. sabhi jivon ke lie pran anivary ang hai. jab se jiv janm leta hai, tabhi se shvas-prashvas prakriya prarambh ho jati hai. isalie bauddh aur bauddhetar bharatiy yogashastr men pranayam ya anapan ka atyadhik mahattv pratipadit kiya gaya hai.

vishuddhi aur gyan

yahan yogi nam-roop snskar dharmon ke prati keval anity ya du:kh ya anatm ki bhavanamatr se marg evn phal gyan prapt nahin kar sakata, apitu use snskar dharmon ki anity, du:kh evn anatm-in tin svabhavon (lakshano) se vipashyana-bhavana karani padati hai. marg prapti ke poorv-kshan men yadi snskar dharmon ke anity svabhav ko dekhata hai to vah marg evn phal animittavimoksh kahalata hai. yadi marg prapti ke poorv-kshan men snskar dharmon ko du:kh svabhav athava anatm svabhav dekhata hai to vah marg evn phal apranihit athava shoonyatavimoksh kahalata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. yogashchittavrittinirodh: 1:2
  2. yog: samadhi: 1:1 par bhashy
  3. yogo yukti: samadhanamh 1:1 par bhojavritti
  4. angu. chatukkanipat 2-46

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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