अद्वैतवाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

advaitavad
gaudapadachary
vivaran 'advaitavad' sanatan darshan vedant ke sabase prabhavashali maton men se ek hai. advaitamat ke anusar jiv aur brahma ki bhinnata ka karan maya hai, jise avidya bhi kahate hain.
snsthapak gaudapadachary
vishesh madhyakalin darshanik shnkarachary ne gaudapad ke siddhanton ke adhar par mukhyat: vedant sootron par apani tika 'sharirik-mimansa-bhashy' men is mat ka vikas kiya tha.
snbndhit lekh gaudapad, shnkarachary
any janakari advaitamat ke anusar maya ke sambandh se hi brahma jiv kahalata hai. yah mayaroop upadhi anadikal se hi brahma ko lagi huee hai aur is avidya ke karan hi jiv, apane apako brahma se bhinn samajhata hai.

advaitavad (snskrit shabd, arthath 'ekatvavad' ya 'do n hona'), bharat ke sanatan darshan vedant ke sabase prabhavashali maton men se ek hai. isake anuyayi manate hain ki upanishadon men isake siddhanton ki poori abhivyakti hai aur yah vedant sootron ke dvara vyasthit hai. jahan tak isake upalabdh path ka prashn hai, isaka aitihasik arnbh mandook upanishad par chhnd roop men likhit tika 'mandooky karika' ke lekhak gaudapad se juda hua hai.

sthapana

'advaitavad' vicharadhara ki niv gaudapadachary ne 215 karikayon (shlokon) se ki thi. inake shishy govindachary hue aur unake shishy dakshin bharat men janme svami shnkarachary hue, jinhonne in karikayon ka bhashy racha tha. yahi vichar 'advaitavad' ke nam se prasiddh hua tha. svami shnkarachary atynt prakhar buddhi ke advitiy vidvanh the, jinhonne bharat men phail rahe nastik bauddh aur jain mat ko shastrarth men parast kar vaidik dharm ki raksha ki. unake prachar se bharat men nastik mat to samapt ho gaya, par 'mayavad' arthath 'advaitavad' ki sthapana ho gayi.[1]

gaudapad dvara vyakhya

gaudapad satavin shatabdi se poorv, shayad pahali panch shatabdiyon ke kalakhnd men kabhi hue the. kaha jata hai ki unhonne bauddh mahayan ke shoonyata darshan ko apana adhar banaya tha. unhonne tark diya ki 'dvait' hai hi nahin; mastishk jagrit avastha ya svapn men maya men hi vicharan karata hai; aur sirph 'advait' hi param saty hai. maya ki agyanata ke karan yah saty chhipa hua hai. kisi vastu ka svayn ya kisi any vastu se kisi vastu ka astitv men ana hai hi nahin. antat: koee vaiyaktik sv ya jiv nahin hai, keval atman ya paramatma hai, jisamen jiv asthayi roop se ankit ho jata hai, bilkul usi tarah jaise poornakash ka ek ansh kisi patr men bhar jata hai aur patr ke tootane par vah vaiyaktik akash phir se poornakash ka ansh ho hata hai.

shnkarachary ka tark

madhyakalin darshanik 'shnkar' ya shnkarachary (lagabhag 700-750) ne gaudapad ke siddhanton ke adhar par mukhyat: vedant sootron par apani tika 'sharirik-mimansa-bhashy' men is mat ka vikas kiya. shnkar ne tark diya ki upanishad brahm (param tattv) ki prakriti ki shiksha dete hai aur sirph advait brahm hi param saty hai. shnkarachary ke kee anuyayiyon ne unaken karyon ko jari rakha aur vistar pradan kiya, jinamen nauvin shatabdi ke darshanik vachaspati mishr ullekhaniy hain. advait sahity behad vistrit hai aur hindoo vicharadhara men yah pramukh bhoomika ada karata hai. svami shnkarachary brahma ke do roop manate hain, ek avidya upadhi sahit hain, jo jiv kahalata hain aur doosara sab prakar ki upadhiyon se rahit shuddh brahma hai. avidya ki avastha men hi upasy, upasak adi sab vyavahar hain aur jab jiv avidya se rahit hokar 'ahamh brahmasmi' arthath 'men brahma hoon', is avastha ko pahunch jata hain to jiv ka jivapan nasht ho jata hai.

maya ka svaroop

advaitamat ke anusar maya ke sambandh se hi brahma jiv kahalata hai. yah mayaroop upadhi anadikal se hi brahma ko lagi huee hai aur is avidya ke karan hi jiv, apane apako brahma se bhinn samajhata hai. svami shnkarachary ke anusar maya ko parameshvar ki shakti, trigunatmika, anadiroopa, avidya ka nam diya gaya hai. ise anirvachaniy[2] mana gaya hai.

jagat mithya

advaitamat ke anusar jagath mithya hai. jis prakar svapn joothe hote hain tatha andhere men rassi ko dekhakar sanp ka bhram hota hai, usi prakar is bhranti, avidya, agyan ke karan hi jiv, is mithya snsar ko saty man raha hai. vastav men n koee snsar ki utpatti, n pralay, n koee sadhak, n koee mumukshu (mukti) chahane vala hai, keval brahma hi saty hai aur kuchh nahin. advaitamat ke anusar yah antaratma n karta hai, n bhokta hai, n dekhata hai, n dikhata hai. yah nishkriy hai. soory ke pratibimb ki bhanti, jivon ki kriyaen, buddhi par chidabhas[3] se ho rahi hain.[1]

maya ki samiksha

advaitamat ke anusar jiv aur brahma ki bhinnata ka karan maya hai, jise avidya bhi kahate hain. jis samay jiv se avidya door ho jati hai, us samay vah brahma ho jata hai. hamara pratham akshep hai ki yadi avidya brahma ka svabhavik gun hai, tab to avidya ka nash nahin ho sakata, kyoonki svabhavik gun sada hi apane ashrit dravy ke adhar par sthir rahata hai. yadi yah avidya nemaitik hai to kis nimit se brahma ka avidya se snpark hua. yadi koee aur nimit mana jaye to brahma ke sath us nimit ko bhi nity manana padega aur use nity manane par dvait siddh hota hai. phir advaitavad nahin rahata. doosare is avidya ka nash vedadi shastron ke gyan dvara hota hai to phir vah nirupadhi brahma ved gyan ko kaise utpann karata hai?


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 ved aur advaitavad (hindi) agnivir phen. abhigaman tithi: 21 agast, 2014.
  2. jo kahin n ja sake
  3. chaitany pratibimb chhaya (Reflection)

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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