अफ़ग़ानिस्तान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

afaganistan ka dhvaj

afaganistan ya afagan islamik ganarajy jnboodvip (eshiya) ka ek desh hai. yah dakshini madhy eshiya men avasthit desh hai jo charon or se zamin se ghira hua hai. prayah isaki ginati madhy eshiya ke deshon men hoti hai par desh men lagatar chal rahe sngharshon ne ise kabhi madhy poorv to kabhi dakshin eshiya se jod diya hai. isake poorv men pakistan, uttar poorv men kashmir tatha chin, uttar men tazikistan, kazakistan tatha turkamenistan tatha pashchim men eeran hai. sthiti :- 290u.se 380 350 u.a., 60050' poo.se 750 poo.de.. kshetraphal: 2,50,00 vargamil. janasnkhya: 1,59,44,275 (sanh‌ 1969 ee.): pathan 60%, tajik '30, 7%, uzabek 5% hazara (mugla) 3%. aphaganistan men jatiy ekata ka abhav hai. pakistan ki sima ke nikat vajiri, aphridi evn mangal adi pathan jatiyan rahati hain jo badi hi svechchhachari hain.

  • afaganistan ka nam afagan aur stan se milakar bana hai jisaka shabdik arth hai afaganon ki bhoomi. stan is kshetr ke kee deshon ke nam men hai jaise- pakistan, turkamenistan, kazakhastan, hindustan ityadi jisaka arth hai bhoomi ya desh. afagan ka arth yahan ke sabase adhik vasit nasl (pashtoon) ko kahate hain.
  • afaganistan kee samraton, akramanakariyon tatha vijetaon ki karmabhoomi raha hai. inamen sikandar, farasi shasak dara pratham, turk, mugal shasak babar, muhammad gori, nadirashah ityadi ke nam pramukh hain.
  • afaganistan aryon ki puratan bhoomi hai. eesa ke 1800 sal pahale aryon ka agaman is kshetr men hua. eesa ke 700 sal pahale isake uttari kshetr men gandhar mahajanapad tha jisake bare men bharatiy srot mahabharat tatha any grnthon men varnan milata hai. yah mahabharat kal men gandhar mahajanapad tha. kauravon ki mata gandhari aur prasiddh mama shakuni gandhar ke hi the.
  • vedon men varnit somaras ka paudha jise som kahate hain afaganistan ki pahadiyon par hi paya jata hai.
  • sikandar ke faras vijay abhiyan ke tahat afaganistan bhi yoonani samrajy ka ang ban gaya. isake bad yah shakon ke shasan men ae. hindi-yoonani, hindi-yooropiy, hindi-eerani shasakon ke yahan varchasv ko lekar yahan jhagade bhi hue aur unhonne yahan shasan bhi kiya. bharatiy maury, shung, kushan adi shasakon ne yahan shasan kiya.
  • maury aur kushanon ne yahan buddhadharm ka prachar, prasar kiya. kamboj, pashto aur baiktriya ka shasan yahan raha.
  • shak skithiyon ke bharatiy ang the. eesapoorv 230 men maury shasan ke tahat afaganistan ka snpoorn ilaqa a chuka tha par mauryon ka shasan adhik dinon tak nahin raha. isake bad parthiyan aur phir sasani shasakon ne faras men kendrit apane samrajyon ka hissa ise bana liya.
  • sasani vnsh islam ke agaman se poorv ka akhiri eerani vnsh tha. arabon ne khorasan par sanh 707 men adhikar kar liya. samani vnsh, jo farasi mool ke, par sunni the, ne 987 eesvi men apana shasan gazanaviyon ko kho diya jisake phalasvaroop lagabhag snpoorn afaganistan gazanaviyon ke hathon a gaya.
  • gor ke shasakon ne gazani par 1183 men adhikar kar liya. madhyakal men kee afagan shasakon ne dilli ki satta par adhikar kiya ya karane ka prayatn kiya jinamen lodi vnsh ka nam pramukh hai. isake alava bhi kee muslim akramanakariyon ne afaganashahon ki madad se hindustan par akraman kiya tha jisamen babar, nadirashah tatha ahamadashah abdali shamil hai. afaganistan ke kuchh kshetr dilli saltanat ke ang the. british senaon ne bhi kee bar afaganistan par akraman kiya. afaganistan ke pramukh nagar hain -
  1. rajadhani qabul
  2. kandhar

lo jiraga (graind naishanal asenbali) dvara sitnbar, 1964 men svikrit evn aktoobar, 1965 men lagoo ne snvidhan ke anusar aphaganistan men snsadiy janatntr ki sthapana ho gee hai jisamen vidhan snbndhi sabhi adhikar janata dvara nirvachit dvisadani snsadh ko prapt hain. muhammad zahirashah snvaidhanik rashtraghyaksh (badashah) aur daau. abdul zahir vartaman pradhanamntri hain. badashah ko pradhanamntri tatha sarvochch nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ki niyukti ka adhikar hai. vidhanapalika, nyayapalika tatha karyapalika ityadi shasan ki ikaiyan alag alag hain aur apane apane kshetr men prabhusattasnpann hain. snpoorn desh ko 29 pranton men vibhakt kar diya gaya hai aur har prant ka prashasan gavarnar ke dvara chalaya jata hai . kabul, kapisa, paravan, varadak, logar, nanagarahar, paktaya, kahavaz, tatha uragan, jabul, knjar uroozagan, bamiyan, herat, badaghis, pharayab, jaujagan, balkh, halamnd, pharah, nimarooz, gor, samngan, kunadooz, takhar, badakhyan, baghalan tatha pulenkhapuri, laghamaman or kunar pranton ke nam hain. yahan sunni musalamanon ki prajanata hai. shiya musalamanon ki janasnkhya desh ki janasnkhya ki keval ath pratishat hai. kabul aphaganistan ki rajadhani evn pramukh nagar hai; isaki janasnkhya 4,80,383 (sanh‌ 1959) hai. kndhar, herat, mazar-e-sharif aur jalalabad adi any mukhy nagar hai. rajyabhashaen pashto aur farasi hain.

uttar men turkistan ke maidani khnd ko chhodakar aphaganistan gaganachunbi parvaton evn oonche patharon ka desh hai, jo jnbashila (shel) aur choone ke pattharon ke bane hain. inake tal men grenait tatha sainait patthar milate hain. matsy (devoniyan) aur karbanaprad (karbaniferas) yugon ke pahale yah kshetr tethis sagar ka ek ang tha. bad men yah oopar uthane laga tatha yahan ke patharon evn parvaton ka nirman tritiy kalp (tarshiyari era) men himalay aur alps ke nirman ke sath hua.

aphaganistan ki mukhy parvatashreni hindookush hai. yah pamir pathar se dakshin pashchim tatha pashchim ki or lagabhag 600 mil tak chalakar herat prant men lupt ho jati hai. koh-e-baba, phiroz koh, aur koh-ai-safed isake any bhagon ke nam hain. isaki dakshini shakha suleman parvat hai jae poorv men toraghar tatha syah koh aur pashchim men spinaghar tatha saphed koh kahi jati hai. hindookush parvat ke pramukh darre khaibar, gomal evn bolan hai. ye darre vanijyapath ka kam dete hain. prachin kal men inhin darro se hokar sarvapratham ary log tatha bad men musalaman, mugal tatha any videshi bharat men pahunche.

aphaganistan chhah prakritik bhagon men banta ja sakata hai:


(1) baiktriya athava aphagani turkistan, jo hindookush parvat ke uttar amoo tatha usaki sahayak kundaj tatha kokcha nadiyon ka maidani bhag hai.
(2) hindookush parvat, jisaki ausat unchaee 15,000 phut se adhik hai. isaki chotiyan , jo 18,000 phut se bhi oonchi hain, sarvada himachchhadit rahati hain.
(3) badakhshan, jo uttari poorvi aphaganistan men, turkistan ke poorv, ek ramanok pradesh hai. isi ke antargat 'chhota pamir' parvat hai.
(4) kabulistan, jisake antargat kabul ka pathar aur charadeh tatha koh-e-daman ki samriddh ghatiyan hain. kabul ke pathar ki oonchaee, 5,000 se 6,000 phut tak hai, yah kabul nadi tatha usaki sahayak logar, pnjashir evn kunar se sinchit, samriddh evn ghani abadi ka kshetr hai.
(5) hajara, jo madhy aphaganistan ka parvatiy evn viral abadi ka pradesh hai.
(6) dakshini maroosthal, jisake pashchimi bhag men sistan evn poorv men regastan namak maroosthal hain. ye maroosthal desh ka chauthaee bhag chhenke hue hain. is kshetr ka jalaparivah (drenej) hamun--e--helamand tatha gaud--e--jirreh namak jhilon men jama hota hain.
amoo, hari rood, murghab, helamand, kabul adi aphaganistan ki pramukh nadiyan hain. amoo, tatha kabul ke atirikt any nadiyan ant:sthal parivahi (inalaind drenejavali) hain. amoo nadi roshan evn daravaz namak parvat shroniyon se nikalakar lagabhag 480 mil tak aphaganistan ki uttari sima nirdharit karati hai. helamand aphaganistan ki sarvadhik lnbi nadi hai jae 600 mil tak hajara evn dakshini pashchimi maroosthal se hoti huee sistan kshetr men girati hai.

aphaganistan khanij padartho men dhani hai, parntu unaka vikas abhi tak nahin ho saka hai. nimn koti ka koyala ghorabnd ki ghati men aur latabad ke samip milata hai. isaki snchit nidhi 1,50,00,000 tan kooti jati hai, kintu varshik utpadan 10,00 tan se badhakar 1967-68 men 1,51,000 tan ho gaya tha. namak katagham kshetr men milata hai. isaka varshik utpadan 1967-68 men lagabhag 31,000 tan tha. any khanij padartho men tanba hindookush men, sisa hajara men chandi hazarajat evn pnjashir ki ghati men, loha ghorabnd ki ghati evn kaphiristan men, gndhak mayamana prant evn kamard ki ghati men, abhrak pnjashir ki ghati men, esbestas jidra jile men, kromiyam logar ki ghati men tatha sona, manik, phirojae, vaidoory (laipis laijooli) evn any bahumooly patthar badakhshan men milate hain. hal men khanij tel uttari aphaganistan ke herat prant men prapt hua hai.

aphaganistan ki jalavayu ati shushk hai. yahan dainik tatha varshik tapantar adhik tatha vayuveg atynt tivr rahata hai. grishm ritu men ghatiyan tatha kam unche pathar ushn ho jate hain. amoo ki ghati, kadhar evn jalalabad men tap 110 se 150 pharenahait tak chadh jata hai tatha dakshin pashchim ke marusthal men dhool evn balukayukt prachnd havaen 100 mil prati ghnte se bhi adhik veg se chalati hain. kabul, gazani, hajara adi 3,000 phut se adhik unche kshetron men tap 00 pha. se bhi kam ho jata hai. yahan janavari tatha pharavari ke mahinon men tusharapat aur march tatha aprail men varsha hoti hai. aphaganistan ki ausat varsha 11 inch hai. isake adhikashn men varsha aparyapt hoti hai. dakshin pashchim ke marusthal vishesh roop se shushk hain, jahan varsha aparyapt hoti hai. dakshin pashchim ke marusthal vishesh roop se shushk hain, jahan varsha char inch se bhi kam hoti hai. 6,000 phut se oonche sthalon men vasnt tatha sharad rituen ati priy aur manamohak hoti hain.

jngal 6,000 se 10,000 phut ki oonchaee tak milate hain. in jngalon men konadhari (chid adi) vriksh tatha shridaroo (larch) ki prachurata hai. in vrikshon ki chhaya men gulab evn any sundar phool ugate hain. 3,000 se 6,000 phut ki unchaee men banj (ok) evn akharit ke vriksh milate hain. 3,000 phut se niche jngali jaitoon (aauliv), gulab, ber tatha babool pae jate hain.

aphaganistan pashupalak evn krishipradhan desh hai. isaka adhikansh parvatiy evn shushk hone ke karan krishi ke lie upayukt nahin hai. phir bhi yahan ke maidanon evn anek urvar ghatiyon men naharon adi dvara sinchaee karake phal, sabjiyan evn ajh upajae jate hain. kuchh bhagon men bina sinchaee ki krishi bhi prachalit hai. jade men gehoon, jau tatha matar aur garami men dhan, makka, jvar, bajara ki phasalen hoti hain. thode pariman men ruee, tnbakoo, tatha ganja bhi paida kiya jata hai. kuchh varsho se helamand tatha argdaab nadiyon par jal--sngrah--tadag aur hari rood par bandh banakar krishi ko vikasit kiya jae raha hai. yahan grishmakal ki shushk jalavayu phal upajane ke lie upayukt hai. angoor, shahatoot aur akharot ke atirikt seb, nashapati, ber, anjir, khoobani, sataloo adi phal bhi upajae jate hain. angoor visheshat: bharat ko niryat kiya jata hai.

yahan ki mukhy snpatti bheden tatha any pashusamuday hain aur pradhan udyam pashupalan hai. katagham aur majar ke kshetron men sarvotkrisht jati ke ghode pale jate hain. andakhooee ke nikat bhed ka sarvotam chamada milata hai. moti poonchh ki bheden, jo dakshin men milati hain, oon mans tatha charbi ke lie prasiddh hai. oon ka varshik utpadan lagabhag 7,000 tan hai.

aphaganistan men keval chhote udyogon ka vikas ho paya hai. kabul nagar men diyasalaee, batan, joota, sngamaramar tatha lakadi ke saman banae jate hain. kundan men rooee dhunane aur jibel--us--siraj, pul--e--khumari tatha gulabahar men sooti kapade bunane ke karakhane hain. baghalan evn jalalabad men chini ke karakhane hain. hal men jibel--us--siraj men siment udyog ka vikas hua hai.

is rajy men avagaman ki samasya jatil hai jahan relon ka sarvatha abhav hai aur sadakon ki sthiti achchhi nahin hai. at: motar gadiyon ka prayog dinodin badhata ja raha hai.

charon or any deshon se ghire hone ke karan aphaganistan ka 90% vaideshik vyapar pahale pakistan dvara hota tha, kintu 2 joon, 1955 ee. ko aphaganistan tatha roos ke bich pnchavarshiy parivahan sndhi hone ke bad aphaganistan ka vyapar vishesh roop se roos dvara hone laga hai. mukhy ayat sooti kapada, chini, jatu ki bani samagri, pashu, chay, kagaj, petrol, siment adi hain, jo visheshat: bharat roos tatha pakistan se prapt hote hain. sookhe evn rasadar phal, masale, karakul namak charm, dariyan, ruee evn kachcha oon yahan ke mukhy niryat hain, jo pradhanat: bharat, roos, snyukt rajy (amarika) tatha briten ko bheje jate hain.


itihas

18vin shatabdi ke madhy tak aphaganistan nam se vihit rajy ki koee prithakh‌ satta nahin thi at: aphaganistan ki bhaugolik sngya ka usaki aitihasik prishthabhoomi ke sath upayog bahut kuchh 1747 ke poorv tak anuvnshik tha. isake ek sngathit rashtriy ekatntr ke roop men uday hone se poorv is desh ka itihas atynt vaividhyapoorn hai.

aryo ke agamanakal (ee.poo. dvitiy tatha pratham sahasrabdi) men rajy eerani jatiyon dvara adhikrit the. bad men kurooshh‌ ne in rajyon ko hakhamani samrajy men sammilit kar liya. ee.poo. chauthi shatabdi men sikndar ne in rajyon ko vijit kar liya. sikndar ke pashchath‌ paravarti yoonani shasak shakon aur parthavon dvara hata die ge. ee.poo. pratham shatabdi men unapar kushanavnsh ke shasakon ka adhipaty raha jo kujul kadaphisis tatha kanishk ke kal men apane poorn utkarsh ko prapt hua. kanishk ki mrityu ke pashchath‌ usaka samrajy adhik samay tak nahin tik saka, kinntu kushan shasak hindookush ki dakshini poorvi ghatiyon men tab tak bane rahe jab tak shvet hoonon ne unapar adhikar nahin jama liya. in hoonon ne eesa ki panchavin aur chhathi shatabdi men aphaganistan ke uttari evn poorvi bhagon par adhikar kar liya tha 7vin shatabdi eesvi ke madhy poorvi aphaganistan ki rajanitik avastha ka samyakh‌ varnan henatsang ne kiya hai.

7vin shatabdi men arabavijay ka jvar aphaganistan pahuncha. is akraman ki ek lahar sijistan hokar gujari, kintu pratham tin shatabdiyon men yahan se hone vale kabul vijay ke prayatn nishphal siddh hue. kabuli prant, any poorvi pranton ki apeksha islamikaran ka pratirodh adhik samay tak karata raha. sulatan mahamood gajanavi (997-1030) ke kal men aphaganistan ek mahanh‌ kintu alpijivi samrajy ka pradhan kendr bana jisake antargat eerak tatha kaispiyan sagar se ravi nadi tak ke vistrit bhoobhag the. mahood ke uttaradhikari guridon dvara 1186 ee. men parajit hue. tatpashchath‌ aphaganistan alp samay ke lie khvarizmi shahon ke hathon aya. 13vin shatabdi men isapar mngolon ne adhikar jama liya jo hindookush ke uttar jam ge the. ugude ki mrityu ke bad mngol samrajy chhinn-bhinn ho gaya aur aphaganistan pharas ke ilkhamon ke hisse pada. inhin ke prabhutv men tajikistan ka 'kart' namak ek rajavnsh shasanaroodh hua aur desh ke adhikansh par pray: do shatabdiyon tak shasan karata raha. ant men taimoor ne akar is vnsh ka ant kar dala tatha hirat vijay ke pashchath‌ uttari aphaganistan men apane ko dridh kar liya.

16vin shatabdi ke arnbh men, babar ke samay, ye rajy kabul aur knjar men kendrit ho ge the, jo bharatiy mugal samrajy ke prant ban ge. kintu, hirat pharas ke shahon ke adhikar men chala gaya. ek bar aphaganistan pun: vibhajit hua, phalat: balkh ujabekon aur knjar eeraniyon ke bant pada. 1708 men knjar ke glazaiyon ne eeraniyon ko nikal bhagaya aur 1722 men pharas par akraman kar usapar apana asthayi shasan sthapit kar liya. 1737-38 men nadirashah ne, jo pharas ke mahattam shasakon men se tha, knjar dakhal kar kabul jit liya.

1747 men nadirashah ke marane par knjar ke aphagan saradaron ne ahamad khan (bad men ahamadashah abdali ke nam se vikhyat) ko apana mukhiya chuna aur usake netritv men aphaganistan ne itihas men pratham bar ek svadhin shasanasata dvara shasit, apana rajanitik astitv prapt kiya. ahamadashah ne durrani rajavnsh ki ninv dali aur apane rajy ka vistar pashchim men lagabhag kaispiyan sagar, poorv men pnjab aur kashmir tatha uttar men amoo dariya tak kiya.

19vin shatabdi men aphaganistan dotaraphadabaya gaya; ek or roos amoo dariya tak badh aya aur doosari or briten uttar pashchim men khaibar kshetr tak chadh aya. 1839 men ek bharatiy briten sena ne knjar, gajani aur kabul par adhikar kar liya. dostamuhammad ko hatakar shahashuja namak ek paravarti asaphal shasak ko amir bana diya gaya. is parivartan ke viruddh vahan bhishan pratikriya utpann huee, phalat: shahashuja aur kee british adhikari talavar ke ghat utar die gaye. 1842 ke disnbar men british sarakar ne aphaganistan ko khali kar diya aur dostamuhammad ko phir se amir hone ki svikriti de di. 1849 men dostamuhammad ne sikkhon ki british sarakar ke viruddh unaki ladaee men sahayata ki, phalat: peshavar ka kshetr hath se nikal gaya jo british bharat men mila liya gaya. 1863 men dost muhammad ne hirat ko eeraniyon se pun: chhin liya. usake bete sherali khn ne roosiyon ko svikriti to de di, kintu british ejenton ko rakhane se inkar kar diya. isase dvitiy aphagan yuddh (1878-81) chhid gaya, phalat: sherali khan bhaga aur usaki mrityu ho gee. usake bete yakoob khan ne british sarakar se ek sndhi ki. usane khaibar darre ke sath sima ke kee pradeshon ko chhod diya aur briten ko aphaganistan ve vaideshik snbnjaain ko niyntrit karane ki svikriti de di. is prabndh ke visddh bhadakanevale janadvesh aur krodh ke parinamasvaroop british rejident ki hatya huee aur yakoob khan gaddi se utar diya gaya. tatpashchath‌ dostamuhammad ka pota abdurrahaman khan amir ke roop men many hua. abdurrahaman ne apana prabhutv kndhar aur hirat tatha bad men kaphiristan tak badha liya. usane sthaniy jatiy saradaron dvara niyntrit ek sashakt kendriy shasan sthapit karane, achchhi prakar se shikshit ek sthayi sena ko sngathit karane, vidrohon ko kuchalane aur karavyavastha ko duroost karane ke lie aphaganistan ko adhunik rashtr ki bhanti taiyar karane ki avashyakata ka path prashast kiya. abdurrahaman ke bete habibulla khan ne, jae 1901 men gaddi par baitha, mautarakaron, teliphonon, samacharapatron aur kabul ke lie prakashayukt vidyuth‌ vyavastha ka samarnbh kiya .

1919 men habibulla ke ek bhatije amanulla khan ne gaddi snbhali. usane turnt aphaganistan ke poorn svarajy ki ghoshana ki aur gret briten se ladaee chhed di jo shighr hi ek sndhi se samapt ho gee. usake anusar gret briten ne aphaganistan ke poorn svatntray ko manyata di aur aphaganistan ne vartaman ainglon aphaganistan sima svikar kar li.

amanulla ne amir ka pad samapt kar diya aur usake sthan par 'badashah' upadhi nijaerrit ki tatha sarakar ko ek kendrit pratinidhi rajatntr ke antargat manyata di. usane aphaganistan ko adhunik banane ke lie vahan vegavan tatha drut sujaron ki badh la di. mullaon ke jarmik aur khanon (samnton) tatha kabayali saradaron ke laukik adhikaron ke prati usaki chunauti ne unake prabal pratirodh ko janm diya jisake parinamasvaroop 1929 ka vidroh hua aur amanulla ko gaddi chhod videsh bhag jana pada. varsh ke bhitar hi pichhali ladaiyon ke ek yoddha muhammad nadir khan ne pun: shakti arjit ki aur nadirashah ke roop men rajyapramukh bana. 1933 men kabul men usaki hatya kar di gee aur usaka uttaradhikar muhammad jahirashah ko mila jae 1965 tak aphaganistan ka ekachhatr shasak raha.

bhasha tatha sahity

aphaganistan ki pradhan bhashaen pashto aur pharasi hain. pashto samanyat: aphagani jatiyon ki bhasha hai jo aphaganistan ke uttari-poorvi bhag men boli jati hai. kabul ka kshetr aur gajani mukhy roop se pharasi--bhasha--bhashi hain. rashtriy ekata ko badhane tatha shiksha ke vistar ko protsahit karane ke uddeshy se sarakar ne pashton ko rashtriy bhasha ke roop men pratishthit karane ka prayatn kiya hai.

yadyapi vistrit roop se pashto bharatiy aryabhasha se nikali hai, phir bhi apane srot aur gathan men yah eerani bhasha hai. dhvaniparivartanon aur bahmagraharan ne pashton ko ek svaravyavastha di hai jisake antargat aise bahut se shabd hain jinaki dhvanyatmakata pharasi bhasha ke lie aparichit hai. pashto ke tin akshar usake lie vilakshan lagate hain jo pharasi men nahin prayukt hote.

sanh‌ 1940-41 men abdul hee habibi ne sulema makoo dvara virachit 'tazakiratululiya' namak kavyasngrah ke kuchh ansh prakashit kie jo 11vin shatabdi ke rache batae ge hain. kintu unaki pramanikata abhi poornat: sthapit nahin ho saki hai. ravarti ke anusar pashton men likhi gee prachinatam kriti khoj nikali gee hai jo 1417 men likhit shekhamali ki yoosufajaez namak itihas pustak hai. akabar ke shasanakal men raushaniya andolan ke puraskarta bayajid ansari (l. 1585) ne pashto men kee pustaken likhin. usaka khairool-bayan atynt prasiddh kriti hai. khushal khan khattak (l. 1694) ne , jo adhunik aphaganistan ka rashtriy kavi hai lagabhag sau kritiyon ka pharasi se pashton men anuvad kiya hai. usake pote afajal khan ne tarikhi-murassa namak aphaganon ka itihas likha. 18tin shatabdi men avdurrahaman aur abdul hamid namak pashton ke do lokapriy kavi ho ge hain. 1872 men vidyarthiyon ke upayog ke lie kalid aphagani namak ek rachana rachi gee thi jisamen pashto gady aur pady ke namoone prapt hote hain. 1829 men kharakov ke rajakiy roosi vishvavidyalay ke praphesar bi. dorn ne pashto ka angreji vyakaran likha. pashto akadami ne abhi hal men hi anek sahityik kritiyon ka prakashan kiya hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 150,151,152,153 |

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