अफ़्रीका महाद्वीप  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

afrika ka manachitr

afrika prithvi par sthit sat mahadvipon men se ek mahadvip hai, jo prithvi ke poorvi golardh men aur eshiya ke dakshin-pashchim men hai. afrika, eshiya ke bad vishv ka sabase bada mahadvip hai. kshetraphal ki drishti se mahadvipon men aphrika ka dvitiy sthan hai. tatavarti dvipasamooh sahit isaka kshetraphal lagabhag 1,16,35,000 varg mil hai. vishuvat rekha is mahadvip ke madhy se jati hai. aphrika dakshin ki apeksha uttar men adhik chauda hai. aphrika ke poorv men hind mahasagar, pashchim men andhamahasagar ya atalantik mahasagar, uttar men bhoomadhyasagar hai. is mahadvip men vishal marusthal, atyant ghane van, vistrit ghas ke maidan, badi-badi nadiyan v jhilen tatha vichitr jngali janavar hain.

sthiti tatha vistar

kshetraphal ki drishti se mahadvipon men aphrika ka dvitiy sthan hai. tatavarti dvipasamooh sahit isaka kshetraphal lagabhag 1,16,35,000 varg mil hai. is prakar yah mahadvip kshetraphal men bharat ganatntr ke nau gune se bhi bada hai. akshanshiy vistar ki drishti se yah mahadvip advitiy hai: yah uttari tatha dakshini donon hi golardhon ke katibndhon men lagabhag saman doori tak vistrit hai. 37° 20' u.a. se 34° 51' d.a. tak tatha 17° 20' p.de. 51° 12' poo.de. tak yah phaila hua hai. isaki adhikatam lnbaeen uttar men rasaben sakka se dakshin men agulahas antarip tak, lagabhag 5,000 mil tatha adhikatam chaudaee pashchim men bard antarip se gvadiphuee antarip tak, lagabhag 4,500 mil hain. vishuvat rekha is mahadvip ke madhy se jati hai. isalie isaka adhikansh, lagabhag 90 lakh varg mil, ayanavrittiy katibndh men padata hai. dakshin ki apeksha yah uttar men adhik chauda hai. isake kshetraphal ka lagabhag do tihaee bhag uttari golardh men tatha ek tihaee bhag dakshini golardh ke antargat ata hai.

sima

aphrika ke poorv men hind mahasagar tatha pashchim men andh (atalantik) mahasagar sthit hai. uttar men bhoomadhyasagar hai, jisaki lnbaeen jibraltar ke muhane se siriya ke tat tak lagabhag 2,300 mil hai. jibraltar ka muhana 15 se 24 mil tak chauda hai. seed bndaragah se svej bndaragah tak lagabhag 107 mil lnbi 650 phut chaudi tatha 37 phut gahari svez nahar bhoomadhyasagar ko lalasagar se milati hai. is nahar ka udghatan 1869 ee. men hua. yuddhakalik tatha arthik drishti se yah nahar bade mahatv ki hai. hal men misr ne is nahar ka rashtriyakaran kar liya hai. isake nirman ke pashchath‌ bharat se yooropiy bndaragahon ki doori char-panch hajar mil kam ho gee hai; jab yah nahin bana tha tab aphrika ke dakshin se hokar jahajon ko jana padata tha. uttar-poorv men lalasagar bich men rahane ke karan aphrika eshiya mahadvip se prithakh‌ ho gaya hai. svej bndaragah se dakshinapoorv ki or lagabhag 1,600 mil ki doori par yah sagar sngirn ho jata hai. yahi snkirn bhag 'babul mndab' ka muhana hai, jisaka arth arabi bhasha ke anusar 'ansoo ka dvar' hai. is sthan par navikon ko sashnk evn savadhan rahana padata hai. isaki chaudaee lagabhag 20 mil hai aur perim namak dvip dvara yahan jalamarg do bhagon men vibhakt ho jata hai.

samudratat

aphrika ka samudratat adhik kata-chhnta nahin hai. pashchimi tat par gayana ki khadi ke roop men ek bahut bada ghumav hai jisake antargat benin ki khadi sthit hai. angola rajy men lobito ki khadi hai. dakshini tat par algojae tatha delagoa ki khadiyan hain. dakshin-poorv men mojanbik ka muhana madagaskar dvip ko aphrika se prithakh‌ karata hai. poorvi tat par ek chauda natodar ghumav hai. is ghumav ke uttar-poorv men shumalilaind ka prayadvip hai jise aphrika ka sing bhi kahate hain.

khoj

aphrika ka ghanishth snbndh bhoomadhyasagariy deshon ke sath adhik hona svabhavik hai. yah snbndh vnshanugat, sanskritik tatha vishuddh bhaugolik roop men milata hai. herodotas ke varnan se gyat hota hai ki misr desh ke raja neko ne yoonani darshanikon ke is prashn ko hal karane ki cheshta ki ki yah mahadvip dakshin men sagar dvara ghira hai ya nahin. usane pahale svej sthal damaroomadhy par nahar khudavane ka asaphal prayatn kiya. isake pashchath‌ usane lalasagar men yuddhapoton ka ek beda taiyar karaya aur chune hue phinoshiyan navikon ko is mahadvip ki parikrama kar jibraltar ke marg se vapas lautane ki agya di. dvitiy shatabdi men sikndariya men likhit apani bhoogol ki pustak men klaaudias taaulimi ne is mahadvip ke uttari bhag ka vistrit varnan kiya hai. arab ke pramukh bhoogolavetta idrisi (1100-1165) ne bhi poore mahadvip ka savistar varnan kiya hai, jisamen nil nadi ke udgam sthan tatha samipasth badi jhilon ka bhi varnan milata hai. 14vin tatha 15vin shatabdiyon men purtagal-nivasiyon ne is mahadvip men anek anveshan kie aur is mahadvip ki lagabhag thik-thik rooparekha ankit ki. us manachitr men badi jhilen bhi dikhaee gee hain. adhunik yug men mungopark, bartan, spek tatha livingstan sadrish anek sahasi yuvakon ne paryapt khoj ki hai. kep antarip (kep aauv gud hop) ke nikat se par hone ka sarvapratham shrey 1487 ee. men bartholomiu diash ko prapt hua, jinhonne alagoa ki khadi bhi dekhi thi. isake das varsh pashchath‌ vasko d gama aur age badhe tatha arabasagar par kar bharat pahunchane men saphal hue. us samay se 19vin shatabdi tak navikon dvara mahadvip ke tatavarti bhagon ki parikrama hoti rahi, kintu isaka adhikatar bhitari bhag gupt rahasy hi bana raha. isake anek bhaugolik karan the. at: yah mahadvip pichhali shatabdi tak andh mahadvip kaha jata tha.

prakritik banavat

is mahadvip ki bhoorachana tatha prakritik snrachana any mahadvipon ki apeksha adhik spasht evn saral hai. isaka adhikansh bhag pathari hai, jisapar bhaumik gatiyon (arth moovaments) ka prabhav bahut kam pada hai. pichhale kee yugon se yah ek achal bhookhnd ke roop men sthit raha hai. isaki mahadvipiy chhajjae (shelph) evn mahadvipiy dhal (slop) ke kinare pray: isake samudratat ke samantar hain, jisase gyat hota hai ki isaka nirman prithvi ki bahari parat ke tootane se hua hai. isake dharatal ki lagabhag ek tihaee par kaibriyanapoorv chattanen vartaman hain. is mahadvip ke pashchimottar pradesh tatha dakshin ke antaripiy bhag ko chhodakar pray: sarvatr mudane se bane parvaton ki shreniyon ka abhav hai. pashchimottar bhag men aitalas parvat yoorop ke alps parvat ka hi ek badha hua bhag hai. dakshin men anek chhoti-chhoti shreniyan hain; udaharanarth raaugavadabarg, niuvetabarg, sniubarg, drakensabarg, svartabarg, laaunjabarg ityadi. aphrika ke pashchimi tat par sthit bengela ko yadi lalasagar ke tat par sthit svakin se ek kalpit rekha dvara milaya jae, to yah rekha is mahadvip ko prakritik banavat ki drishti se do asaman bhagon men bant degi. uttari bhag ki ausat unchaee 3,000 phut se bahut kam tatha dakshini bhag ki ausat unchaee 3,000 phut se bahut adhik hai. uttari bhag men anek pathar hain jo kainbriyan poorv ya agney chattanon se nirmit hain. inamen ahagar, tasili, tibesti tatha darur pathar mukhy hain. isake atirikt is bhag men anek uchch pradesh bhi hain jinamen kango ki ghati ka uttari bhag tatha gayana tat ke prishthabhag men sthit uchch bhoomi ullekhaniy hai. kaimaroon ki choti (13,350 phut) ek pramukh jvalamukhi shikhar hai. gayana ki khadi men pharnndo po, prinsip, saothom adi anek dvip jvalamukhi dvara nirmit hain. is uttari bhag men kee prakritik droniyan (besin ) bhi hain jinamen pahunchakar nadiyon ka pani ya to sookh jata hai ya usase chhoti tatha chhichhali jhilen ban jati hain. mukhy khat shaautel jerid, shad jhil, debo jhil, baharel gajal adi hain. dakshini bhag men bhi gami tatha karoo namak do prakritik droniyan hain.

poorvi aphrika men sthit ek lnbi nibhng upatyaka (rift vaili) hai jae mahanh‌ nibhng upatyaka (di gret rift vaili) ke nam se vishvavikhyat hai. yah vishv ki sabase lnbi nibhng upatyaka hai. isaka uttari bhag eshiya men sthit hai tatha bich ke bhag men akab ki khadi evn lalasagar hai. aphrika men poorvi abisiniya ki khadi dhal tatha sumalilaind ke bich sthit nimn bhoomi, rudaaulph jhil, keniya desh ki naivaska jhil tatha any chhoti jhilon ki shrnkhala, nyas jhil aur shayer nadi ki ghati isi mahanh‌ nibhng upatyaka ke chhijhavashesh hain. is nibhng upatyaka ki ek shakha nyas jhil ke uttari chhor ke pas se nikalati hai, jise pashchimi nibhng upatyaka kahate hain. isamen taingainyika, kiboo, edavad, albart adi jhilen sthit hain. poorvi aphrika men pathar ki oonchaee kee jagah jvalamukhi chattanon ke jama hone se badh gee hai. pramukh chotiyan kilimainjaro (19,590 phut), keniya (17,040 phut), elgan (14,140 phut), tatha ras dashan (15,000 phut) hain. is bhag men rubenjari namak ek 16790 phut oonchi choti hai jo jvalamukhi dvara nirmit nahin hai. pathar ki bahari dhal khadi hai aur vah ek-doosare upakooliy maidan se ghiri hain.

jhinlen

aphrika ki sabase badi jhil viktoriya nyanjae namak jhil hai jo nil nadi ke udgam sthan ke samip hai. is jhil ka kshetraphal 26,000 varg mil, adhikatam lnbaeen 250 mil, chaudaee 200 mil tatha gaharaee 270 phut hai. isake nikat hi albart nyanjae namak jhil hai jae 100 mil lnbi, 22 mil chaudi aur 55 phut gahari hai. tengainyika 450 mil lnbi aur 40 mil chaudi jhil hai isaki adhikatam gaharaee 4,708 phut hai. doosari lnbi evn snkari jhil nyasa hai. (350 mil lnbi, 45 mil chaudi). kiboo jhil 55 mil lnbi tatha 30 mil chaudi hai. yah jhil puratan jvalamukhi pradesh men sthit hai. abisiniya pathar ke uttari bhag men 5,690 phut ki unchaee par sthit tana jhil arthik tatha rajanitik drishti se adhik mahatvapoorn hai. rudolph jhil poorvottar aphrika men sthit hai. isaki lnbaeen 185 mil tatha chaudaee 37 mil hai. rudolph jhil ke poorv men stephani jhil 40 mil lnbi aur 15 mil chaudi hai. pashchimottar madhy aphrika men chau tatha rodeshiya men baingaviooloo namak chhichhali jhilen hain. inake kshetraphal men rituon ke anusar hhras tatha vriddhi hua karati hai. baingabiooloo jhil ki adhikatam map 60 mil v 40 mil v15 phut hai. chau jhil men shari nadi girati hai. varsharitu men is jhil ki gaharaee 24 phut ho jati hai.

nadiyan

aphrika men panch mukhya nadiyan hain: nil (4,000 mil), naijar (2,600 mil), kango (3,000 mil), zabeji (1,600 mil) tatha aaurenj (1,300 mil) hai. inamen nil nadi pramukh hai. sabhyata ke ooshakal (lagabhag 4,000 ee.poo.) se hi is nadi ka aitihasik mahatv prakat hota hai. eesa se lagabhag char shatabdi poorv yoonani darshanik arastoo ne nil nadi ki varshik badh ka snbndh abisiniya ki grishmakalin varsha evn him ke dravibhoot hone se bataya tha. nil nadi men chhah prakritik jalaprapat hain. sabase nichala prapat asavan ke samip hai. is nadi par kee bandh banae ge hain jinamen asavan bandh sarvochch aur jagataprasiddh hai. sobat, nili nil tatha atavara nadiyan nil nadi ki mukhy sahayak hain. kango nil nadi se lagabhag 1,000 mil chhoti hai, kintu isamen apekshakrit jalarashi ka vahan atyadhik hota hai. apani sahayak nadiyon ke sath kangon nadi aphrika ke madhy men yatayat ka uttam sadhan hai. pashchimi aphrika men najar nadi tatha usaki sahayak benoo ke karan prashast jalamarg upalabdh hai. pashchimi bhag ki chhoti nadiyon men senegal tatha gaibiya ullekhaniy hain. zabezi aur araj dakshini aphrika ki mukhy nadiyan hain. is mahadvip ki adhikansh nadiyan vishalakay hote hue bhi yatayat ke lie upayukt nahin hain. kango nadi ka ellala prapat zabeji ka viktoriya prapat, naijar ka busa prapat tatha nil nadi ke anek prapat avagaman men badhak hote hain.

jalavayu

aphrika ki jalavayu par samipasth mahasagaron tatha mahadvipon ka paryapt prabhav pada hai. eshiya mahadvip ka prabhav isapar apekshakrit adhik padata hai. samudri jaladharaen bhi upakooliy pradeshon men apana prabhav dalati hain. pashchimi tat par uttar men kainari tatha dakshin men benguela namak thndi jaladharaen bahati hain. in donon dharaon ke madhy gayana tat ke nikat gayana namak ushn jara bahati hai. dakshin poorv men mozanbik dhara ullekhaniy hai. is mahadvip ko jalavayu ke vichar se anek bhagon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai. aphrika ki niji visheshata yah hai ki uttari aphrika ki jalavayu ke anuroop hi dakshini aphrika men bhi jalavayu paee jati hai. mukhyat: paauch prakar ki jalavayu yahan paee jati hai---
vishuvatiy jalavayu,
soodan sadrish ushn jalavayu,
ushn marusthaliy jalavayu,
bhoomadhyasagariy jalavayu aur
chin sadrish jalavayu. aphrika men vishuvatiy jalavayu ke bhi tin prabhed pae jate hain---
madhy aphrika sadrish,
gayana sadrish aur
poorv aphrika sadrish.
madhy aphrika sadrish jalavayu kango kshetr men 5° d.a. ke uttar men paee jati hai. tap varshabhar lagabhag 80° pha. rahata hai. varsha sal bhar hoti rahati hai, par aprail ya aktoobar men varsha adhik hoti hai. is kshetr ki varsha ka varshik yog 50² se 60² hai. apekshik ardrata barahon mahine oonchi rahati hai. kango nadi ke muhane ke samip shit jaladhara tatha sthaliy vayu ke karan varsha lagabhag 30² hi hoti hai. gayana sadrish jalavayu gayana ke upakooliy bhag tatha usake prishthabhag men paee jati hai. yah jalavayu pradesh siyera liyon se lekar kaimaroop tak 8° u.a. ke dakshin men hai. is jalavayu men kuchh mamooli lakshan pae jate hain. varsh bhar tap 75° se uncha rahata hai. apekshik ardrata bhi unchi rahati hai. varsha adhik hoti hai. grishmakal men vayu koolonmukh chalati hai aur shitakal men isaki gati viparit ho jati hai. phalat: grishmakal men hi varsha adhik hoti hai. udaharanarth, phrotoun men poore varsh ki varsha 170² hai, kintu disnbar se lekar pharavari tak keval 3² hi varsha hoti hai. sabase adhik varsha (400² ) kaimaroon parvat ke pashchimi dhal par hoti hai. shitakal men bahanevali thndi evn apekshakrit shushk vayu svasthyavardhak hoti hai. poorvi aphrika sadrish jalavayu pathari bhag 3° u.a. se 5° d.a. tak milati hai. pathar ki unchaee adhik (4,000 phut) hone ke karan tapaman kam rahata hai. varshik tapantar bhi kam rahata hai. dainik tapantar adhik hota hai. varsha ka varshik yog lagabhag 45² hai. prativati dhalon par varsha 60² se70 ² tak hoti hai, kintu anuvati dhalon par apekshakrit kam (lagabhag 20² ) hoti hai. nibhng upatyaka men varsha 30² se adhik nahin hoti.

soodan sadrish jalavayu vishuvatiy bhag ke uttar men lagabhag 600 mil chaude katibndh paee jati hai. isaka adhikatam tap lagabhag 90° pha. hai. masik tap ka madhyam man 70° pha. se kam nahin rahata. varshik tapantar 15° pha. se 20° pha. tatha dainik tapantar atyadhik hota hai. shitakal men u.poo. vanijy vayu tatha grishmakal men d.p. manasooni vayu bahati hai. varsha manasuni vayu se hoti hai. is peti ke dakshini bhag men varsha 40² se 50² tatha uttari bhag men 8² se 10² hoti hai. dakshin se uttar ki or varsha ki matra, avadhi tatha nirbharata ka kramik hhras hota jata hai. shitakal men haramatan namak shushk vayu bahati hai, jisake parinamasvaroop apekshik ardrata lagabhag 25 pratishat ho jati hai. vashpikaran ki tivrata ke karan paryapt matra men hone vali varsha ka bhi mooly manushy ke lie ghat jata hai. abisiniya men unchaee adhik hone se tap kam rahata hai. varsha, gayana ki khadi tatha hind mahasagar, donon se anevali ardr hava se hoti hai, dakshini tatha dakshini pashchimi bhagon men 60² se adhik hoti hai,kintu uttari tatha poorvi bhagon ki dasha marubhoomi tuly hai. dakshini aphrika soodan sadrish jalavayu kango kshetr se dakshin tatha makar rekha se uttar paee jati hai. prayadvipiy bhag ke karan yahan mahasagariy prabhav adhik hai. oonchaee ka bhi prabhav padata hai. grishmakal men ausat tapaman 82° pha. tatha shitakal 60° pha. rahata hai. shitakal men akash svachchh rahata hai tatha ardrata kam hoti hai. varsha grishmakal men hoti hai. varsha ki matra poorv se pashchim ki or ghatati jati hai. poovi upakooliy bhag men mozanbik jaladhara ka prabhav upekshaniy hai.

ushn marusthaliy jalavayu ka kshetr 18° u.a. ke uttar men andh mahasagar se lalasagar tak vistrit hai. isake bhi do vibhag hain_sahara sadrish tatha upakooliy marubhoomi sadrish. sahara sadrish jalavayu samudr se doorasth bhagon men paee jati hai. grishmakal ke aparahn men 120° pha. ho jata hai. shitakal men ausat tap 60° pha. rahata hai. akash nirbhedy rahane ke karan dainik tapantar varsh bhar lagabhag 50° pha. rahata hai. apekshik ardrata 30% se 50% tak rahati hai. varsha atyalp hoti hai. upakooliy marubhoomi sadrish jalavayu uttari aphrika ke pashchimi upakooliy bhag men, dakshin aphrika ke kalahari pradesh men tatha shoomalilaind ke upakooliy bhag men paee jati hai. in pradeshon men samudri prabhav ke karan tap ghat jata hai. dainik tapantar kam tatha apekshik ardrata adhik rahati hai. varsha lagabhag 5² hoti hai.

bhoomadhyasagariy jalavayu pashchimottar aphrika tatha prayadvipiy aphrika ke dakshini chhor par lagabhag 35° a. ke bahar paee jati hai. is jalavayu ki mukhy visheshata yah hai ki varsha shitakal men hoti hai aur grishmakal shushk hota hai. tap grishm men lagabhag 75° pha. tatha shitakal men 45° pha. se oopar harata hai. varsha ki matra sthal ki prakritik banavat par nirbhar rahati hai. chin sadrish jalavayu aphrika ke dakshinapoorv men paee jati hai. samudri prabhav ke karan jalavayu samoshn bani rahati hai. varshik tapantar adhik nahin ho pata. parvatiy bhagon men tap apekshakrit kam rahata hai. varsha grishmakal men hoti hai aur usaki matra poorv se pashchim ki or kramash: ghatati jati hai. apekshik ardrata adhik rahati hai.

mitti

aphrika ki mitti ka adhyayan abhi tak paryapt roop se nahin ho paya hai. amarika ke shri si.eph. marbat ne pahale pahal aphrika ki mittiyon ke prakar tatha unaka vitaran batane ki cheshta ki. 1923 ee. men unake nishchayon ka saransh prakashit hua. aphrika ke ayanavrittiy bhag men pray: sarvatr lal domat paee jati hai. ushn marusthaliy bhag ki mitti men jivansh (hyoomas) kam paya jata hai aur mitti ka rng phika hota hai. kahin-kahin ksharamishrit oosar bhi milata hai. transaval ki nimnabhoomi tatha dakshini rodeshiya men charnogyem namak kali matiyar mitti paee jati hai. isamen jivansh ki matra adhik hoti hai. is mitti ki ek mekhala uttari aphrika ke soodan rajy ke madhy men bhi milati hai. aaurenj phri stet tatha transaval ke nikatavarti uchch pradeshon men gadhe bhoore rng ki upajaoo mitti paee jati hai. uttar men soodan ke adhikansh bhag men yahi mitti milati hai. shitakalin varshavale kshetron (kep prant ke pashchimi bhag tatha aitalas parvatiy pradesh) men bhoore rng ki domat adhik hai. netal tatha kep prant ke poorvi dhalon par domat paee jati hai. nil nadi ki ghati ki mitti atyadhik upajaoo hai.

prakritik vanaspati

prakritik vanaspatiyon ki snkhya men aphrika snsar men advitiy hai. vishuvatiy pradesh, adhik tap tatha varsha ke karana, sadaharit ghane jngalon se achchhadit hai. isaka vistar avyavasthit roop men gainbiya ke muhane se lekar kango kshetr tak milata hai. gayana tat ke madhy bhag tatha kango ki ghati ke nichale bhag men in vanon ka abhav ullekhaniy hai. poorvi aphrika ke ayanavrittiy bhag tatha maidagaiskar dvip ke poorvi, upakooliy bhag men bhi aise van pae jate hain. in vanon ke vriksh adhik unche aur ghane hote hain. inake niche chhote-chhote paudhe bhoomi ko poornat: dhak lete hain. mahogani, nariyal tatha rabar mukhy vriksh hai.

vishuvatiy vanasthali ke uttar tatha dakshin men ghas ka savaina namak vistrit kshetr hai. yahan adhik varshavale bhag men labi ghas ke sath-sath, vriksh bhi ug ate hain, kintu varsha ki kami ke sath vrikshon ki snkhya bhi ghatane lagati hai. marusthal ke nikat babool tatha any kantedar jhadiyan adhik milati hain aur ghas bhi lnbi nahin hoti. savaina mndal men mukhy vriksh baobab hai. dakshinapoorv aphrika men ghas ka veld namak samashitoshn maidan paya jata hai. yahan ghas savaina ghas ki apeksha chhoti hoti hai. abisiniya, maidagaiskar tatha poorvi aphrika ke oonche patharon par bhi ghas ke maidan pae jate hain. bhoomadhyasagariy jalavayuvale pradeshon men jaitoon (aauliv) aur rasile phalon ke vriksh tatha kuchh jhadiyan milati hain. marusthali bhag vanaspati se pray: shoony hain. maroodyanon men kuchh kantedar jhadiyan aur khajoor ke vriksh dikhaee padate hain.

vanajntu

vishuvatiy van kide makodon tatha pakshiyon se bhara hai. brihatkay jntu nadiyon, daladalon tatha ghane vanon ke anchal men adhik hain. inamen hathi, dariyaee ghode, gainde, magar, ghadiyal, ityadi mukhy hain. ped ki daliyon par vas karanevale baiboon, gorilla, chinpainji adi nana jati ke bndar yahan pae jate hain. savaina mndal vany pashuon ka bhandar hai. ghas ke is khule maidan men jiraph, jebara, barahasinga adi tivragami pashu svachchhnd vihar karate hain. in ahinsak pashuon par jinavale sinh, chite, tendue, lakadabagghe, banaile sooar adi shikari jntu bhi pae jate hain. shuturmurg nam ka ek vichitr pakshi bhi milata hai. jngali jivon se upalabdh honevali vastuon men shuturmurg ka par tatha hathidant mukhy hain. hathidant ke labhadayak vyapar ke lalach se hi arab ke vyapari idhar adhik akarshit hokar pravisht hue the. jngalon men ajagar bhi milate hain. aphrika ka ajagar vishaila hota hai. in jntuon ke atirikt maleriya tatha pila jvar sadrish bhayanak rog phailanevale machchhad, tasetsi makkhi aur anek prakar ke jaharile kidon tatha chintiyon ke lie aphrika kukhyat hai.

khanij snpatti

aphrika ke kuchh bhag khanij snpatti se snpann hain. yoorop nivasiyon tatha aphrika ke adivasiyon ke bich snbndh sthapit karane men belajiyan kango sthit katnga ki banbevali khan tatha dakshini aphrika ki sone aur hire ki khanon ka pramukh hath raha hai. sahara marubhoomi men oonton ka lnba karavan vahan pae janevale namak ke vyapar ke lie hi jata tha. aphrika men koyale, petroliyam, sise tatha jaste ki kami hai, kintu hira, sona, mainganij, ailyuminiyam, plaitinam tatha ranga prachur matra men prapt hote hain. snsar ka pramukh tanba utpadak kshetraphrika men hi hai. yah belajiyan kango se rodeshiya tak, 200 mil lnbi mekhala ke roop men, phaila hua hai. loha uttari tatha dakshini donon bhagon men paya jata hai. alajiriya, morakko tatha tyoonishiya ki khanen uttari bhag men lauh ke utpadan ke lie adhik prasiddh hain. maidagaiskar dvip men koyale ke avikasit kshetr hain. yahan abhrak, sona tatha ratn bhi nikalate hain. snyukt rajy (amarika) dvara utpadit lohe ke 18ven bhag ke barabar loha aphrika men nikala jata hai. snsar ka 20 pratishat mainganij tatha 16 pratishat tanba is mahadvip men utpann hota hai. mainganiz ki mukhy khan ghana desh ke sikndi bndaragah se 34 mil door sthit hai. poorvi bhag ke netal rajy men koyale ki khanen hain. aphrika snsar men kobalt ka sabase bada utpadak hai.

sinchaee

vishuvatiy pradesh tatha usake samipasth savaina mndal ke paryapt vrishtivale bhag ko chhodakar aphrika ke adhikansh bhag men sinchaee ki avashyakata padati hai. jahan sinchaee ki vyavastha nahin hai, vahan krishi ka vikas poorn roop se nahin ho paya hai. alp vrishtivale pradeshon men pashupalan bhi jal ki sulabhata par hi ashrit hai. nil nadi ki ghati men sinchaee ka samuchit prabndh kiya gaya hai. asavan tatha senar sadrish vishal bandh isake jvalnt praman hain. ainglo eejipshiyan soodan ke prayadvip men tatha misr desh ke nichale bhag men sinchaee ke bina ruee ki kheti kadapi snbhav nahin thi. dakshini aphrika men bhi sinchaee ki avashyakata adhik thi aur is bat par adhik dhyan diya gaya hai. is bhag men sthit valabaink jalashay, jisase lagabhag ek lakh ekad jamin sinchi jati hai, dakshini golardh ka sabase bada sinchaee ka sadhan mana jata hai. pashchimottar aphrika men phransisi sarakar ne sinchaee ki vyavastha par adhik dhyan diya hai. alajiriya tatha tyoonishiya ke dakshini bhagon men patalatod koopon ka nirman hua hai. alajiriya ki sheliph nadi ki ghati men do sinchaee yojanaen bani hain. naijeriya ke uttari bhag men kuon se sinchaee hoti hai. naijar tatha volta nadiyon par banae ge banjaain se pashchimi aphrika men sinchaee ka achchha prabndh ho gaya hai. morakko desh men is disha men kuchh vikas hua hai. poorvottar aphrika ke iritriya desh ke antargat bhi nadiyon ka pani sinchaee ke kam men laya jata hai.

krishi

aphrika ke adhikansh bhag men krishi prachin dhng se ki jati hai. vahan ke adivasi apane avashyakatanusar ann upajate hain. makka, jvar tatha bajara unake mukhy khadyajh hain. unake kheton men striyan purushon ki bhanti kathor parishram karati hain. ye log krishi ke adhunik dhng se pray: anabhigy hain. ve kheton men bajaroo khad ka prayog nahin karate. jahan videshi bhoomipatiyon ki dekharekh men kheti ki jati hai, vahn aphrika ke adivasi majadooron ke roop men parishram karate hain. ye bhoomipati labhaprad shasyon ko upajane par vishesh aur mote ann par apekshakrit kam dhyan dete hain.

aphrika men paida honevale kuchh paudhe to vahan anadi kal se pae jate hain, udaharanarth nil, rendi, tatha kahava; kintu kuchh paudhe videshiyon dvara bahar se lakar bhi lagae ge hain. kela, katahal, nariyal, khajoor, anjir, san, jaitoon, jvar, bajara, ganna tatha jan snbhavat: yahan eshiya mahadvip se lae ge aur makka, kasava, moongaphali, shakaraknd, aruee, sem, papita tatha amarood vyapariyon dvara amarika se akar pashchimi aphrika men lagae ge. tnbakoo bhi amarika se hi laya gaya.

vishuvatiy pradesh men jugal ko svachchh kar kahin-kahin jan, gajha, aruee, shakaraknd, moongaphali, kela, koko tatha kasava namak knd ki kheti ki jati hai. savaina mndal ki mukhy upajen makka, jvar tatha bajara hain. shitakal men gehoon tatha au ki kheti hoti hai. isake atirikt kahin-kahin moongaphali aur ruee bhi upajaeee jati hai. veldavale bhag men makka, tnbakoo, gehoon, jau tatha jee ki kheti hoti hai. sinchaee ki sahayata se rasadar phalon ke vriksh bhi lagae jate hain. marusthaliy bhagon men bina sinchaee ke kuchh bhi paida nahin hota. maroodyanon ki mukhy upaj khajoor tatha gehoon hai. nil nadi ki ghati ruee ki kheti ke lie vishvavikhyat hai. bhoomadhyasagariy pradeshon men gehoon ki kheti hoti hai aur angoor, sataloo, sntara sadrish rasadar phal tatha jaitoon ke vriksh lagae jate hain.

pashupalan

misr deshavasiyon ko snbhavat: 3,500 eesavi poorv se hi oonton ki janakari hai, kintu lagabhag 325 eesavi poorv tak ve oonton ka vyavahar nahin karate the. parntu ghodon ka vyavahar ve lagabhag dhaee hajar eesavi poorv se janate hain. jngal tatha marusthal ke madhyasth khule bhagon men ghodon ka vyavahar ladaee ke kam men kiya jata tha. gopalan doodh, mans aur chamade ke utpadan ke lie tatha kahin-kahin dharmik vichar se adhik mahatvapoorn hai. uttari tatha pashchimottar aphrika men khachcharon ka vyavahar adhik hata hai. musalamanon ko chhodakar any sabhi dharmavalnbi sooar palate hain. bakariyan pray: sabhi ganvon men paee jati hain. bheden visheshakar dakshini aphrika men pali jati hain. beljiyan kango men api ke pas jngalon men kam karane ke lie hathi pale ge hain.

savaina mndal, veld kshetr tatha uchch pathari ghas ke maidan pashupalan ke lie upayukt hain. kahin-kahin jal ki samasya utpann hoti hai, kintu kooon tatha kritrim jalashayon ka nirman karake yah samasya adhikansh bhag men hal ki ja chuki hai. marusthalon ke anchaliy bhagon me abhi yah samasya vartaman hai aur vyavasayik pashupalan men badhak siddh hoti hai. marusthaliy bhagon men oont, uttar ke savaina mndal men gay aur ghode tatha poorvi, dakshini aur pashchimottar aphrika men bhed tatha bakariyan mukhy palit pashu hain.

udyog-dhndhe

udyog dhndhon ki drishti se aphrika pichhada hua mahadvip hai. adhunik yug ke udyogon ka vikas abhi yahan nahin ho paya hai. isake mukhy karan hain avagaman ke sadhanon ki asuvijae, kushal karigaron ki kami tatha koyala jaise eedhnn ka asaman vitaran. is mahadvip men jalavidyuth‌ ki snbhavana bahut adhik hai (snsar ki lagabhag 40 pratishat), kintu isaka vikas paryapt roop se nahin ho paya hai. ab dhire-dhire aphrika ke vibhijh bhagon men kal-karakhane khul rahe hain aur is disha men vishesh dhyan diya ja raha hai.

misr desh men sooti-vastr udyog ka vikas hua hai. yahan soot katane tatha sooti kapade bunane ke anek karakhane hain. isake atirikt ata, tel, chini, sigaret, siment tatha chamade ke bhi kee karakhane hain. khajoor ka phal dabbon men bnd karake bahar bhejana yahan ka ek mukhy dhnjae hai. dakshini aphrika men eedhnn sasta hai. yahan audyogik vikas any bhagon ki apeksha adhik hua hai. pritoriya men loha tatha ispat ka ek adhunik karakhana hai. dakshini aphrika men siment, sabun, sigaret, vastr, rel snbndhi samagri tatha visphotak padarth banane ke anek karakhanen hain. is bhag ke bndaragahon men machhali marane ka udyog bhi ullekhaniy hai. yuganda men oven-prapat-bandh ke udghatan ke sath hi us desh ke audyogik vikas ka marg khul gaya. vastr tatha siment ke udyog arnbh ho ge hain. beljiyan kango men bhi audyogik vikas ho raha hai. vahan nariyal ke tel ke anek karakhane hain. inake atirikt vastr, sabun, chini tatha joote banane ke karakhane bhi khule hain. is audyogik vikas ka mukhy karan us kshetr men jalavidyuth‌ ka vikas hai. vishuvatiy pradesh men lakadi chirane ka udyog tivrata se badh raha hai.

parivahan ke sadhan

aphrika men parivahan ke sugam sadhanon ka pray: abhav hai. kuchh hi bhagon men inaka vikas ho paya hai. adhikansh men saman dhone ke prachin sadhanon ka hi vyavahar hota raha hai. nil nadi men nav, madhy aphrika men dongi tatha majadoor, marusthalon men oont, aitalas pradesh men khachchar tatha dakshini aphrika men bailagadi se bojh dhone ka kam liya jata hai. in sadhanon se vartaman yug ki avashyakataen poori nahin hoti. at: pakki sadaken tatha relamarg banane par vishesh dhyan diya jane laga hai. relamarg banane men is mahadvip men anek prakritik badhaen upasthit hoti hain. ab tak aphrika men relamarg ka kramahin dhancha matr khada hua hai, anyany deshon ki bhanti isaka jael nahin bichh paya hai. dakshini tatha pashchimottar aphrika, vishuvatiy pradesh tatha nil nadi ki nichali ghati men rel ki kee lainen bichh gee hain. sabase adhik vikas dakshini aphrika men hua hai. kep aauv gud hop se jae lain poorvi pathari pradesh ko par karati huee uttar ki or badh gee hai vah kep-kairo-lain ke nam se vikhyat hai, kintu misr tatha soodan ki madhyasth sima ke pas vichchhijh hone ke karan isaka nam sarthak nahin hai. badi nadiyan, jinamen saikadon mil tak chhote jahaj chalate hain, is mahadvip ke bhitari bhagon ke lie sugam jalamarg hain. antararashtriy vyapar men svej nahar ka advitiy mahatv hai. upakooliy bhagon men samudri marg se vyapar hota hai. aphrika ke samudri kool par kuchh mahatvapoorn bndaragah sthit hain, jinamen port seed, sikndariya, tripoli, aljiyars, dakar, aka, mosameds, kepataun, portailijaeveth, daraban, laaurenso marks, jnjibar, monbasa, svej ityadi mukhy hain. is mahadvip men vayumarg ki vyavastha achchhi hai. lnbi doori tatha any sugam sadhanon ke abhav ke karan hi isaka itana vikas hua hai. kairo, khartoom, nairobi, jaehansabarg, elijaebethavil, liyopolsadavil, kano, dakar, aljiyars ityadi vayumarg ke mukhy kendr hain.

vyapar

aphrika ka antararashtriy vyapar mukhyat: yoorop ke audyogik deshon ke sath hai. pichhali shatabdiyon men yah mahadvip gulamon ki bikri ke lie prasiddh tha. isake gulamon ka mukhy grahak snyukt rajy (amarika) tha. is samay aphrika visheshakar kachcha padarth vibhinn deshon niryat karata tatha videshon men nirmit padarthen ka ayat karata hai. yahan se niryat honevale padarthon men sona, mainganij, kobalt, tanba, nikal, phaausphet, rabar, koko, nariyal ka tel, kapas, phal, gond, oon, hathidant, shuturmurg ke par ityadi mukhy hain. videshon se kal purje, motar gadiyan, rel ke injan, davaen, kritrim khad, chhote jahaj, vayuyan, ladaee ke hathiyar ityadi ayat kie jate hain.

is mahadvip ki kul anumit janasnkhya lagabhag 27 karod aur janasnkhya ghanatv 23 vyakti prati vargamil hai.

nivasi

aphrika ke nivasiyon men pramukh sthan yahan ke adivasiyon ka hai. inamen habashi, hamait, shami (semait), baune, bushamen, haautentaaut tatha masani mukhy jatiyan hain. sharirik banavat tatha mukhakriti ki drishti se habashiyon ki kee upajatiyan mani jati hain, kintu pashchimi aphrika ka habashi poore samuday ka pratiroop mana jata hai. usaka sharir bharakam, kad sadharan ya ooncha, sir lnba, nak chaudi, honth mote, nichala jabada kuchh age nikala hua, rng gadha bhoora (karib-karib kala) aur bal kala tatha ghungharala hota hai. madhyakango kshetr ke habashi ka kad sadharan ya chhota tatha sir chauda hota hai. nil nadi ke udgam ke asapas basanevale nilotik habashi lenbe kad (lagabhag 6' 6)ke hote hain. hamait jati ke logon ka sharir durbal, rng halka, bal sidhe ya ghungharale, nak patali tatha honth patale hote hain. is jati ke log sahara tatha poorvottar aphrika men pae jate hain. jahan inaka snbndh habashiyon ke sath ho gaya vahan habashi jati ke kuchh lakshan inamen bhi spasht dikhaee padate hain.

aphrika ke uttari tatha poorvi bhag men rahanevale log shami jati ke hain. inaka rng halka bhoora, hamaiton ki tarah hi nak aur honth patale hote hain. sanvale rng ke atirikt inake any sabhi lakshan kakeshas ki gori jati ke saman hi hain. hamait tatha shami donon jatiyon ke manushy habashi gulamon ko bechane ka vyapar karate the.

beljiyan

beljiyan kango kshetr ke poorvottar pradesh men baune nivas karate hain. inaka sharir sugathit hota hai aur ye chatur shikari hote hain. inaka sir bada, gardan chhoti, dhad lnba, pair chhote tatha hath panv patale hote hain. inaki chal men dagamagahat rahati hai. inaki ausat oonchaee 4 6 hoti hai. striyan isase bhi chhoti hoti hain. inaki nak adhik chaudi hoti hai. ye chaukanne dikhaee padate hain. inaka rng habashiyon ki tarah kala nahin hota, balki pilapan lie hue kuchh bhoora hota hai.

bushamen

bushamen dakshini aphrika men kalahari men rahate hain. inaka kad chhota aur sharir ki banavat habashiyon se bhinn hoti hai. inaka sir lnba, hath pair ghad ki apeksha chhote tatha bat ghungharale hote hain. haautentaaut ke sharir ki banavat bhi bushamain ki tarah hoti hai kintu bushamain ki apeksha inaki oonchaee adhik, sir lnba aur sir ke oopari bhag ka chapatapan kam hota hai. inake jabade age ki or adhik nikale hote hain. poorvi aphrika ke pathari pradesh men masabi log pashupalan dvara apani jivika arjit karate hain. uparyukt nivasiyon ke atirakti bharatiy log tatha kee svarthasadhak videshi bhi yahan adhik snkhya men a base hain.

aphrika ke desh

aphrika ka rajanitik manachitr rngabirnga dikhaee padata hai. deshon ki itani adhik snkhya kisi any mahadvip men nahin milati. isaka mukhy karan hai yooropiy rashtron ki svarthaparata, jinhonne apani svarthasiddhi ke lie is mahadesh ke tukade kar apas men bant liya hai aur isaki prakritik snpatti ka upayog kar svayn samriddhishali ban ge hain. aphrika ke deshon ki soochi nimnalikhit hai:

morakko, spainish morakko, aljiriya, tayunishiya, spainish sahara, mauritaniya, mali, naijr, senegal, gayana, aivari kost, aparavolta, togo, dahomi, pigainya, purtagij gayana, siyara liyon, laiberiya, ghana, naijeriy, chad (shad), kairoon, madhy aphrika ganatntr, kango, spainish gayana, libiya, snyukt arab ganarajy, soodan, ithiopiya, phrench shoomali laind, shumali ganatntr, jaire (kango ya kinshasa), yooganda, keniya, tnjaniya, angola, dakshin pashchimi aphrika, janbiya, rodeshiya, botsvana, dakshin aphrika ganatntr , mojanbik, malagasi ganatntr, malavi, lesotho, svajilaind, ityadi.

videshi adhipaty

yah mahadvip apaniveshavad ka jvalnt udaharan tha. yahan mistr, ithiopiya, laiberiya aur ghana ko chhodakar any deshon par pratyaksh ya aprntyaksh roop se kisi n kisi videshi sarakar ka adhipaty tha. aphrika ke vibhinn deshon par apana adhipaty jamaneval rashtron men yoorop ke briten, phrans, itali, purtagal, spen, tatha beljiyam mukhy rashtr the. dvitiy vishv mahayuddh ke bad se eshiya ke logon ki bhanti aphriki janata bhi apaniveshavad k viruddh jagrit huee hai aur vahan svatntrata ke nare bulnd kie ge. ab dakshini arphika men prachalit samrajyadiyon ki rng-bhed-niti ke viruddh janata sakriyandolan kar rahin hai.

sanh‌ 1956 me lard heli ke is bayan se ki yah aphrika ka hi ek matr bhagy hai ki isake itane deshon par ek nek yooropiy shakti ka adhipatay athava niyntran bana hua hain, vahan krantikari parivartan hue hain. sanh‌ 1961 tak 23 rajy, jo pahale phrench athava british shasan ke adhin the, svatntr ho ge . aphriki ekata sngathan ki sthapana 30 aphrika deshon ke shasanadhyakshon ne 25 mee, 1963 ee. ko adis abaga men ayojit sammelan men ek rajalekh par hastakshar karake ki.[1]

ukt sngathan ke pramukh uddeshy hain aphriki ekata tatha sngathan men nirntar vriddhi karana: rajanitik, arthik, sanskritik, svasthy, vaigyanik tatha suraksha snbndhi nitiyon men talamel sthapit karana: aphrika se upanivesh vad samapt karana aur aphriki ekata sngathan ke sadasy rashtron ki svadhinata ki raksha hetu ek sammilit raksha vyavastha ka gathan karana.

sngathan k pramukh ang
(1) rajyadhyakshon athava shasanadhyakshon ki parishad;
(2) videshamntriyon ki parishadh;:
(3) mahasachivalay tatha
(4) madhyasthata, virodhashaman aur pnchaphaisale ke lie ek ayog hain. aphriki bhashaon ke atirikt is sngathan ne phrench tatha angeji bhashaon ko bhi adhikrit bhasha ke roop men manyata di hai.

aphrika ka sing

aphrika ke pashchimi tat par gayana ki khadi ke roop men ek bahut bada ghumav hai jisake antargat benin ki khadi sthit hai. angola rajy men lobito ki khadi aur dakshini tat par algojae aur delagoa ki khadiyan hain. dakshin-poorv men mojanbik ka muhana medagaskar dvip ko aphrika se alag karata hai. poorvi tat par ek chauda nonkadar ghumav hai. is ghumav ke uttar-poorv men shumalilaind prayadvip hai jise 'aphrika ka sing' bhi kahate hain.[2]

aphrika ki bhashaen

aphriki mahadvip men kuchh 1500 bhashaen boli jati hain jinhen char parivaron men banta gaya hai -

  1. aphriki-eshiyaee
  2. naijiriyaee-kongoli
  3. nil-sahariyaee
  4. khoisan[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 156-61 |
  2. aphrika (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 20 julaee, 2011.
  3. aphrika ki bhashaen (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 20 julaee, 2011.

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