अफ्रीकी भाषाएँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aphriki bhashaen aphrika mahadvip men bushamain (bulmanivasi), vantoo, soodan tatha sami--hami--parivar ki bhashaen boli jati hain. aphrika ke samast uttari bhag men sami bhashaon ka adhipaty pray: do hajar varshon se raha hai. idhar do tin shatabdiyon se dakshin ke kone par aur samast pashchimi kinare par yooropiy jatiyon ne kabja karake mool nivasiyon ko mahadvip me bhitari bhagon ki or hata diya. kintu ab aphriki nivasiyon men jagriti ho chali hai aur phalasvaroop unaki niji bhashaen apana adhikar prapt kar rahi hain.

bushamain parivar

is jati ke log dakshini aphika me mool nivasi samajhe jate hain. inaki bahut si boliyan hain gramagiton aur gramakathaon ko chhodakar in boliyon men koee any sahity nahin hai. roop ki drishti se ye bhashaen ant men pratyay jodanevali yogatmak ashlisht avastha men hain. inake kuchh lakshan soodan parivar ki bhashaon se milate hain. aur kuchh bantoo parivar ki juloo ki dhvaniyon par is parivar ki bhashaon ka prabhav pada ho. bushamain men chhah 'klik' dhvaniyan bhi hain. ling purushatv aur stritv par nirbhar n hokar pranivarg aur apranivarg par avalnbit hai aur is bat se dravid bhashaon ke chetan aur achetan ling se samata rakhata hain. bahuvachan banane ke kee dhng hain jinamen abhyas mukhy hai. hotentat bhashaen bhi bushamain ke antargat samajhi jati hain. hotentat shabd pray: ekakshar hote hain. tin vachan (ek, dvi, bahu) hote hain. uttam purush ke dvivachan aur bahuvachan ke sarvanam ke do roop (vachyasamaveshak aur vyatirikt) pae jate hain soor ka bhi astitv hai.

bantoo parivar

ye bhashaen pray: samast dakshini aphrika men, bhoomadhyarekha ke niche ke bhagon me boli jati hain. inake dakshin pashchim men hotentat aur bushamain hain aur uttar men soodan parivar ki vibhinn bhashaen. is parivar men karib ek sau pachas bhashaen hain jo tin ( poorvi, madhyavarti, pashchimi) samoohon men banti jati hain. in bhashaon men koee sahity nahin hain. pradhan bhashaen kaphir, jooloo, sesuto, kango aur svahili hain.

bantoo bhashaen

bantoo bhashaen yogatmak ashlisht akriti ki hai aur paraspar susnbaddh hen inaka pradhan lakshan apasarg jodakar pad banane ka hain aur paraspar susnbaddh hain. inaka pradhan lakshan upasarg jodakar pad banane ka he. ant men pratyay jaaindakar bhi pad banae jate hai, par upasarg ki apeksha kam. udaharan ke lie snpradan karak ka arth 'ku' upasarg se nikalata hain, yatha kuti (hamako), kuni (unako), kuje (usako). bahuvachan--abntu (bahut se adami), amuntu (ek adami). bantoo bhashaon ka doosara pradhan lakshan dhvanisamnjasy hai. ye bhashaen soonane me madhur hoti hain. sabhi shabd svarant hote hain aur snyukt vynjanon ka abhav sa hai.

soodan parivar

soodan parivar ye bhashaen bhoomadhyarekha ke uttar men pashchim se poorv tak phaili huee hain. inake uttar me hami parivar ki bhashaen hen. kul 435 bhashaon me se keval panch chh: hi lipibaddh paee jati hain. iname baeen, mom, kanoori-hausa tatha pyool mukhy hain. noobi men chauthi se satavin sadi eesavi ke kopti lipi me lishe lekh milate hain.

in bhashaon ki akriti mukhy roop se ayogatmak ekakshar dhatuon ke astitv aur upasarg tatha pratyayon ke nitant abhav ke karan chini bhashaon ki tarah yahan bhi arth ka bhed sooro par adharit hain. shabdon me ling nahin hota . avashyakata padane par nar aur mada me bodhak shabdon dvara ling dikhaya jata hain. bahuvachan ka bhav saph-saph in bhashaon me nahi jhalakata. vaky adhikanshat: chhote chhote, ek sngya aur ek kriya ke hote hain. soodani bhashaon men ek tarah ke muhavare hote hain jinhen dhvanichit, shabdachitr ya varnanatmak kriyavishesh kah sakate hain: jaise, eev bhasha me 'jo' dhatu ka arth chalana hota hai aur isase kee darjan muhavare banate hain jinaka arth sidhe chalana, jaldi chalana, chhote chhote kadam rakhakar chalana, lnbe adami ki chal chalana, choohe adi chhote janavaron ki tarah chalana, ityadi arth prakat hote hai.

soodan parivar me char samooh hain_
senegal bhashaen,
eev bhashaen,
madhy aphrika samooh aur
nil nadi ke oopari hisse ki boliyan.

soodan aur bantoo donon parivaron me kuchh saman lakshan pae jate hain. donon me sngyaon ko vibhinn ganon men vibhakt karate hain. is vibhag ke abhav men sngya aur kriya ka bhed keval vaky men shabd ke sthan se hi prakat hota hai. sur bhi donon me pray: milate hain.

sami-hami-parivar

hami bhag ki bhashaen samast uttari aphrika men phaili huee hain aur inako bolanevali kuchh jatiyan dakshin aur madhyavarti aphrika men ghusati chali gee hain. sami bhag ki bhashaen mukhy roop se eshiya me boli jati hain par unaki pradhan bhasha arabi ne sare attari aphrika men bhi ghar kar liya hai. pashchim me morakko se lekar poorav men svej tak tatha samast misr men yahi shasan tatha sahity ki mukhy bhasha hai. aljiriya aur morakko ki rajabhasha arabi hai hi. habshi rajabhasha sami hai.
sami-hami parivar ke hami bhag ke panch mukhy lakshan hain :
(1) pad banane ke lie sngyaon men upasarg aur kriyaon men pratyay lagae jate hain,
(2) kriya ke kal ka bodh utana nahin hota jitana kriya ke poorn jae jane ya apoorn rahane ka,
(3) lingabhed purushatv aur stritv par abalnbit n hokar adhar par hai. bade aur shaktishali jiv aur padarth (talavar, badi moti ghas, badi chattan, hathi chahe nar ho ya mada, adi ke bodhak shabd) striling men hote hain,
(4) hami ki keval ek bhasha (nami) me dvivachan milata hai, anyon me nahin . bahuvachan banane ke kee dhng hain. anaj, baloo, ghas adi chhoti chijaain ko samoohasvaroop bahuvachan men hi rakha jata hai aur yadi ekatv ka vichar karana hota hai to pratyay judata hai jaise lish‌ (bahut se ansoo), lis (ek ansoo), bilh‌ (patinge), bil (ek pating),
(5) hami bhashaon ka ek vichitr lakshan bahuvachan men lingabhed kar dena hai. is niyam ko dhruvabhimukh kahate hain. jaise somali bhasha men libi hiddoo (sher pu.). libihahyahodi (bahut se sher, stri.), hoyodi (mata, stri.), hoyo inki (mataen, pu.). bahut se sher striling men aur bahut si mataen pulling men hain.

hami bhashaon me vibhaktisoochak pratyay nahin pae jate. ye bhashaen paraspar kaphi bhinn hain par sarvanam-th‌ pratyayant striling adi ekatasoochak lakshan hain. hami ki mukhy prachin bhashaen misri aur kopti thin. misri bhasha ke lekh chhah hajar varsh poorv tak ke milate hain. isake do roop the--ek dharmagrnthon ka aur doosara janasadharan ka. janasadharan ki misri ki hi ek bhasha kopti hai jisake eesavi doosari sadi se athavin sadi tak ke grnth milatak hain. yah 16vin sadi tak ki bolachal ki bhasha thi. vartaman bhashaon men habsh desh ki khamir, poorvi aphrika ke kushi samooh ki, somalilaind ki somali aur libiyaki libi (ya babar) prasiddh hain. vartaman kal ki mistri bhasha gathan men bahut saral aur sidhi hain. usaki dhatuen (mool shabd) kuchh ekakshar hai aur kuchh anekakshar.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sn.grn-meie (Millet) : le lang d mand (peris); babooram saksena : samany bhashavigyan (prayog).
  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 161-62 |

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