अबुलकलाम आज़ाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

abulakalam azad
Abul-Kalam-Azad.gif
poora nam maulana abulakalam muhiuddin ahamad
any nam maulana sahab
janm 11 navambar, 1888
janm bhoomi makka, sudi arab
mrityu 22 faravari, 1958
mrityu sthan dilli
abhibhavak maulana khairooddin aur aliya
pati/patni zulaikha
nagarikata bharatiy
prasiddhi svatantrata senani, krantikari, patrakar, samajasudharak, shiksha visheshgy
parti kangres
pad bhootapoorv shiksha mntri
bhasha urdoo, farasi aur arabi
puraskar-upadhi bharat ratn
vishesh yogadan vaigyanik shiksha ko protsahan, kee vishvavidyalayon ki sthapana, uchch shiksha aur khoj ko protsahan, svadhinata sngram
rachanaen indiya vins phridam arthath bharat ki azadi ki jit, quran sharif ka arabi se urdoo men anuvad, tarjuman-e-quran, gubare-e-khatir, hijr-o-vasal, khatabat-l-azad, hamari azadi aur tajakara

maulana abulakalam muhiuddin ahamad (angrezi: Abul Kalam Azad janm- 11 navambar, 1888; mrityu- 22 faravari, 1958) ek muslim vidvanh the. unhonne bharatiy svatntrata sngram men bhag liya. vah varishth rajanitik neta the. unhonne hindoo-muslim ekata ka samarthan kiya aur sanpradayikata par adharit desh ke vibhajan ka virodh kiya. svatntr bharat men vah bharat sarakar ke pahale shiksha mntri the. unhen 'maulana azad' ke nam se jana jata hai. 'azad' unaka upanam hai.

janm

abul ke pita 'maulana khairooddin' ek vikhyat vidvanh the, jo bngal men rahate the. unaki man 'aliya' ek arab thi aur madin ke shekh mohammad zahir vatri ki bhatiji thi. arab desh ke pavitr makka men rahane vale ek bharatiy pita aur arabi mata ke ghar men unaka janm hua. pita maulana khairooddin ne unaka nam mohiuddin ahamad ya firoz bakht (khush-qismat) rakkha. age chalakar ve 'maulana abulakalam azad' ya 'maulana sahab' ke nam se prasiddh hue. bachapan se hi unamen kuchh khas baten nazar ane lagi thin, jo jivan bhar unake sath rahin. maulana azad ko ek 'rashtriy neta' ke roop men jana jata hain. vastav men rashtiy neta to vah the, lekin vah neta banana chahate hi nahin the.

ek mitr ko unhonne patr men likha tha, ".....main rajaniti ke pichhe kabhi nahin dauda tha. vastutah rajaniti ne hi mujhe pakad liya.....".

bachapan

any kisi chhote ladake ki tarah bachapan men azad ko gais vale rngin gubbaron, tairane aur khel-kood ka bahut shauq tha. unaki yadadasht itani tez thi ki vishvas nahin hota tha. sikhane, padhane-likhane aur bolane ki ichchha unamen din-b-din badhati jati thi. doosare bachchon ki tarah skool jana, apani hi umr bachchon ke sath rahana, maidanon men khulakar khelana, bachche amataur se jo karate hain, vaisi shararaten karana-yah sab unhen pasnd tha. lekin vah ye kar nahin sakate the. unake pita yah chahate the ki vah ek nishthavan dharmik vidvanh banen aur isilie ve sab chizen karane ki unhen ijazat nahin thi.

terah sal ki ayu men unaka vivah zulaikha begam se ho gaya . ve devabandi vicharadhara ke qrarib the aur unhonne quran ke any bhavaroopon par lekh bhi likhe .

abulakalam azad
Abul Kalam Azad

maulana azad ek vidvan, patrakar, lekhak, kavi, darshanik the aur in sabase badhakar apane samay ke dharm ke ek mahanh vidvanh the. mahatma gandhi ki tarah bharat ki bhinn-bhinn jatiyon ke bich, vishesh taur par hinduon aur musalamanon ke bich ekata ke lie kary karane vale kuchh mahanh logon men se vah bhi ek the. apane guru ki tarah unhonne bhi jivanabhar do dushmanon british sarakar aur hamare rashtr ki ekata ke virodhiyon ka samana kiya.

shiksha

10 varsh ki chhoti si ayu men hi vah quran ke path men poornat: nipun ho ge the. 17 varsh ki alp ayu men hi abul kalam islami duniya ke dharmavigyan men shikshit ho gaye the. kahira ke 'al azahar vishvavidyalay' men unhonne shiksha prapt ki jo unake gambhir aur gahan gyan ka adhar bani. parivar ke kolakata men basane par unhonne 'lisan-ul-sid' namak patrika prarambh ki. un par urdoo ke do mahanh alochakon 'maulana shibali naomani' aur 'altaph husain hali' ka bahut prabhav tha.

vidvan

azad ke pas bahut si kitaben thin aur bade-bade vidvanh shikshak unhen arabi, farasi, urdoo aur dharmik vishayon ke sath-sath ganit, yoonani chikitsa paddhati, sulekhan aur doosare vishayon ki shiksha dete the. angrezi sikhana to manon mana hi tha. kyonki vah to 'ghrinit phirngiyon' ki bhasha thi. bhagy se aise ek adami se bhent ho gee jo angrezi bhasha janate the. azad ne kuchh dinon men unase angrezi varnamala aur pahali kaksha ki kitab padhana sikh liya. kuchh hi samay bad unhonne shabdakosh ke sahare baibil aur angrezi akhabar padhana shuroo kar diya. momabatti ki halki roshani men vah rat men der tak padhate rahate the. savere jaldi uthakar bhi vah padhate the aur kabhi-kabhi to vah khana bhi bhool jate the. akasar apane paise vah kitabon par hi kharch kar dete the.
unhonne kaha- "log bachapan khel-kood men bitate hain, lekin main barah-terah sal ki umr men hi kitab lekar logon ki nazaron se bachane ke lie ek kone men apane apako chhipane ki koshish karata tha.
unake lekhan ke bare men ek bade vidvanh ne likha hai, "prasiddh british lekhak saaumaraset maaum ki tarah hi maulana azad ne likhana shuroo kiya vaise hi jaise machhali apane ap tairana sikh leti hai ya bachcha sans lena sikh leta hai." azad men ek naya gun yah tha ki bahut-si baton men vah apani umr se bahut age rahe.
  • barah varsh ke hone se pahale hi vah ek pustakalay vachanalay aur dibetig sosaiti chala rahe the.
  • jab vah keval pandrah varsh ke the tab vah apane se duguni umr ke vidyarthiyon ki ek klas ko padhate the.
  • terah se atharah sal ki umr ke bich unhonne bahut-si patrikaon ka snpadan kiya aur
  • solah sal ki umr men svayn ek uchch star ki patrika nikali.
in baton ko dekhate hue neharoo ne kaha tha ki maulana azad sanh 1923 men bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke sabase yuva pramukh the .

prasiddh ghatana

urdoo bolane vale logon ne ek bar 'ek bade vidvan' ko sanh 1904 men ek rashtriy kaaunphrens men bhashan dene ke lie amntrit kiya. us 'bade vidvan' ke lekhon ke ve bade prashnsak the, lekin jab maulana varsh ke dubale-patale, bina dadhi ke aur gore rng ke maulana azad rel ki pratham shreni ke dibbe se utare to lahaur steshan par jama hue unake hazaron prashnsakon ko apani ankhon par vishvas nahin hua. kuchh logon ko nirasha bhi huee aur jab us ladake ne koee dhaee ghnte tak bina likhit bhashan ke sidhe hi apana bhashan diya to kaaunphrens ke adhyaksh maulana hali, jo svayn sadasath varsh ke mashahoor shayar aur vidvanh the, unako pyar se apani banhon men bharakar bole, "pyare bete, ab main apani gyanendriyon par to bharosa kar raha hoon, lekin abhi bhi mera ashchary bana hua hai."
doosari ghatana

is tarah sanh 1910 ke qarib ek lajjashil yuvak, jo apani tasvir tak prakashit karane ke lie taiyar nahin hota tha, usaka sharir durbal tha, lekin nishchay dridh tha; usake dil men ag sulagati thi par man shant tha; usaki adaten utkrisht thin kintu nishchay atal tha; usaki buddhi tez thi par svabhav komal tha-desh ko azadi ki or le jane vale mahanh sipahiyon ke dal men shamil ho jane ke lie taiyar ho gaya tha. sach kaha jae to maulana kitabon ki duniya men rahane vale the. kadi sardi, ekant, sngit aur sabase badhiya chay-inaki pasnd the. vah savere jaldi uthate the aur samay ke paband the. kisi bhi kathinaee ko sah lene ke lie aur apane desh aur usake logon ki khatir kuchh bhi balidan kar dene ke lie taiyar rahate the.

rajaniti men ane ki bhoomika

azad ne rajaniti men us samay pravesh kiya jab british shasan ne 1905 men dharmik adhar par bngal ka vibhajan kar diya tha. muslim madhyam varg ne is vibhajan ko samarthan diya kintu azad is vibhajan ke virodh men the. azad ne svatatrata andolanon men sakriy bhag liya. vah gupt sabhaon aur krantikari sngathan men shamil ho ge. tatpashchath azad arabind ghosh aur 'shyamasundar chakravarti' ke snpark men ae, aur ve akhand bharat ke nirman men lag gaye.

unhonne apani prasidhd pustak 'indiya vins phridam' men likha hai ki- 'logon ko yah salah dena sabase bade dhokhon men se ek hoga ki bhaugolik, arthik aur sanskritik roop se bhinn kshetron ko dharmik snbndh jod sakate hain.'

vah joshile bhashan dete, uttejana bhare lekh likhate aur padhe-likhe musalamanon ke sath sampark badha rahe the. bngal ke krantikari shyamasundar chakravarti se unhonne krannti ke lie prashikshan prapt kiya tha aur usaki hi sahayata se sanh 1905 men mahanh krantikari aravind ghosh se unaki mulakat huee thi. musalamanon ke kuchh gupt mndalon ki bhi unhonne sthapana ki thi. maulana ko laga ki kuchh aise karan hai jinako lekar sanh 1857 ki azadi ki ladaee ke bad musalaman bahut si baton men apane doosare deshavasiyon se pichhe rah ge hain. bahut se musalaman aisa soch rahe the ki bharat men hamesha angrezon ka hi raj bana rahega aur isalie unako angrezon ke viruddh sngharsh karane ki koee avashyakata nahin hai. lekin apane lekhon dvara maulana ne unhen samajhaya ki videshi sarakar ki gulami se chhutakara pana sirf rashtriy dhyey hi nahin hai balki yah unaka dharmik kartavy bhi hai.

ek bar unhonne ghoshana ki- "musalamanon ke lie bichchhoo aur sanp se sulah kar lena, pahad, gupha aur bilon ke bhitar ghoomana aur vahan jngali janavaron ke sath chain se rahana asan hai, lekin unake lie angrezon ke sath sndhi ke lie hath badhana mumakin nahin hai."

apane is sndesh ko phailane ke lie sanh 1912 men unhonne apana prasiddh saptahik akhabar 'al-hilal' arambh kiya.

jab kangresi netaon ne 1947 ke vibhajan ko svikar kar liya tha kintu maulana isaka virodh karate rahe. hindoo-muslim ekata par unaka vishvas tha.

ve kahate hai - agar ek devadoot svarg se utarakar qutub minar ki oonchaee se yah ghoshana karata hai ki hindoo-muslim ekata ko nakar den to 24 ghnte ke bhitar svaraj tumhara ho jaega, to main is svaraj ko lene se inkar karoonga, lekin apane rukh se ek inch bhi nahin hatoonga, kyonki svaraj se inkar sirf bharat ko prabhavit karega lekin hamari ekata ki samapti se hamare samooche manav jagath ko hani hogi.

al-hilal ka prakashan

1912 men 'al hilal' namak ek urdoo akhabar ka prakashan prarambh kiya. is akhabar men unhonne apane pragatishil vichar, kushal tark aur islami janashrutiyan aur itihas ke prati apane drishtikon ko prakashit kiya. yah akhabar bharat aur videshon men itani jaldi prasiddh ho gaya ki aj yah bat ek chamatkar hi lagati hai. kuchh hi dinon men 'al-hilal' ki 26,000 pratiyan bikane lagin. log ikatthe hokar us akhabar ke har shabd ko aise padhate ya sunate jaise vah skool men padhaya jane vala koee path ho. kuchh hi dinon men us akhabar ne n sirf musalamanon men balki us samay ke urdoo padhane vale bahut se logon men jagriti ki ek lahar utpann kar di.

'bharat ki khoj' men neharoo ji ne likha hai ki - "maulana ne tarkik drishtikon se dharmagrnthon ki vyakhya ki hai."
akhir sarakar ne 'al-hilal' ki 2,000 rupaye aur 10,000 rupaye ki jamanaten zabt kar lin aur maulana azad ko sarakar ke khilaf likhane ke jurm men bngal se bahar bhej diya. bad men vah char sal se bhi zyada samay tak ranchi, bihar men qaid rahe. gandhi ji ko maulana ke sashakt lekhon ke bare men pata tha. maulana jab ranchi ke jel men the tab gandhi ji unase mulakat karana chahate the. lekin sarakar ne isaki svikriti nahin di. usake turant bad janavari sanh 1920 men riha hone ke bad unaki dilli men hakim ajamal khan ke ghar gandhi ji se bhent huee. us mulaqat ko yad karate hue maulana ne bad men likha-
"...aj tak...ham jaise ek hi chhat ke niche rahate ae hain.....hamare bich matabhed bhi hue....lekin hamari rahen kabhi alag nahin hueen. jaise-jaise din bitate, vaise-vaise un par mera vishvas aur bhi dridh hota gaya."
doosari or gandhi ji ne kaha, "mujhe khushi hai ki sanh 1920 se mujhe maulana ke sath kam karane ka mauqa mila hai. jaisi unaki islam men shrriddha hai vaisa hi dridh unaka desh prem hai. bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke sabase mahanh netaon men se vah ek hain. yah bat kisi ko bhi nahin bhoolani chahie......"
jel se chhootakar unhonne phir se lekhan kary arnbh kar diya.
neharoo ji ne likha hai ki - "vah ek nee bhasha men likhate hain, yah n sirf vicharon aur drishtikon men hi ek nee bhasha hai balki isaki shaili bhi bhinn thi."

'al hilal' ke bnd hone ke bad azad ne 'al balagh' namak saptahik patrika prarambh ki. 1916 men azad ke giraphtar hone ke bad yah patrika bhi bnd ho gee. azad char varshon tak jel men rahe. jel se bahar ane par unhen bharatiy rashtriy kangres men shamil kiya gaya.

urdoo bhasha ka vikas

farasi prishthabhoomi hone ke karan kabhi-kabhi azad ki shaili aur vicharon ko samajhana thoda mushkil tha. unhonne naye vicharon ke lie ne muhavaron ka prayog kiya aur nishchit roop se aj ki urdoo bhasha ko akar dene men unaka bahut bada hath raha hai. purane roodhivadi musalamanon ne isake lie unake paksh men pratikriya zahir nahin ki aur azad ki ray evn drishtikon ki alochana ki. maulana madhyakalin darshan, atharahavin sadi ke budhdivad aur adhunik drishtikon ka ek ajab mishran the. purani pidhi men se 'shilbi' aur aligadh vishvavidyalay ke 'sar saiyyad' jaise kuchh logon ne azad ke lekhan ko manyata di.

rachanaen

urdoo, pharasi aur arabi ki kitabon ke maulana the.

  • indiya vins phridam arthath bharat ki azadi ki jit,
  • unaki rajanitik atmakatha,
  • urdoo se angrezi men anuvad ke alava 1977 men sahity akadami dvara chh: snskaranon men prakashit quran ka arabi se urdoo men anuvad unake shanadar lekhak ko darshata hai.
  • isake bad tarjaman-e-quran ke kee snskaran nikale hain.
  • unaki any pustakon men gubare-e-khatir, hijr-o-vasal, khatabat-l-azad, hamari azadi aur tajakara shamil hain.
  • unhonne anjamane-tariki-e-hind ko bhi ek naya jivan diya.

anjamane-tariki-e-hind

vibhajan ke dngon ke samay jab 'anjamane-tariki-urdoo' ke samane samasya aee to isake sachiv maulavi abdul hak ne anjaman ki kitabon ke sath pakistan jane ka nirnay kiya. abdul haq ne kitabon ko bandh liya kintu maulana azad ne unhen nikal liya aur is tarah se unhonne ek rashtriy khazane ko pakistan jane se bachaya. unhonne shiksha mntralay ki or se anjaman ko 48,000 roope prati mah ke anudan ki mnjoori dekar use phir se chalane men madad bhi ki. isi tarah unhonne jamiya miliya islamiya, aur aligadh muslim vishvavidyalay ke vittiy snkat ke samay men unake anudan men vriddhi karake madad ki. unhonne snrakshit smarakon ki marammat aur unhen banae rakhane ke bharatiy puratattv sarvekshan ke prayason ki or vishesh dhyan diya. apane snpoorn jivan men, unhonne hindoo-musalamanon aur bharat ki sammilit snskriti ke bich sauhard banane ka prayas kiya. ve dharmanirapeksh vicharadhara, sarvavyapak charitr aur antarrashtriy drishtikon vale adhunik bharat ke nirman ke lie date rahe.

rashtriyata ko badhava

yuvavastha men azad dharm aur darshan par urdoo men kavitaen likhate the. patrakarita ke karan unhen khyati mili. unhonne angrezi shasan ke viruddh likha aur sath hi bharatiy rashtriyata ko badhava diya. andolan ke neta ke roop men ve rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ke snpark men ae aur gandhi ji ke ahinsak andolan 'savinay avgya andolan' ke samarthak ho ge. unhonne 1919 ke raaulet ekt ke virodh men asahayog andolan ko sngathit karane men sakriy bhoomika nibhaee. azad gandhi ji ke svadeshi vastuon ke prayog aur svaraj jaise adarshon ke prabal samarthak the. 1920 men unhonne tilak aur gandhi ji se mulakat ki. gandhi ji ne devabnd vidyalay aur phirngi mahal se khilafat andolan shuroo kiya, jahan gandhi aur azad donon hi nirntar ate-jate rahate the. lekin muslim lig ne jab gandhi ji ke satyagrah ki ninda ki to azad ne hamesha ke lie muslim lig ko chhod diya. unaki lokapriyata itani adhik thi ki 35 varsh ki ayu men 1923 menvah bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke ab tak ke sabase yuva adhyaksh ban gaye. 1942 men, bharat chhodo andolan ke dauran unhen kangres ke mukhy pravakta ke taur par chuna gaya. 1946 men shimala men, mntrimndal abhiyan batachit men bhi unhen yah upalabdhi mili.

prabhavashali vakta

jab maulana bolate the to shrota mntramugdh hokar unhen sunate the. unake shabdon men jadoo ka-sa prabhav hota tha. unaki bhasha anushasit aur sabhy thi aur unaki bhashan shaili prabhavashali hoti tha. aktoobar, 1947 men jab hazaron ki snkhya men dilli ke musalaman pakistan ja rahe the to ve jama masjid ki prachir se ek prachin dev purush ki bhanti maulana bole,-

"jama masjid ki oonchi minaren tumase poochh rahi hai ki ja rahe ho, tumane itihas ke pannon ko kahan kho diya. kal tak tum yamuna ke tat par vajoo kiya karate the aur aj tum yahan rahane se dar rahe ho. yad rakho ki tumhare khoon men dilli basi hai. tum samay ke is jhatake se dar rahe ho. ve tumhare poorvaj hi the jinhonne gahare samudr men chhalang lagaee, mazaboot chattanon ko kat dala, kathinaiyon men bhi muskurae, asaman ki gadagadahat ka uttar tumhari hnsi ke veg se diya, havaon ki disha badal di aur toofanon ka rookh mod diya. yah bhagy ki vidambana hai ki jo log kal tak rajaon ki niyati ke sath khele unhen aj apane hi bhagy se joojhana pad raha hai aur isalie ve is mamale men apane parameshvar ko bhi bhool gaye hain jaise ki usaka koee astitv hi n ho. vapas ao yah tumhara ghar hai, tumhara desh.

unake is bhashan ka itana adhik prabhav hua ki jo log pakistan jane ke lie apana saman bandh kar taiyar the ve svatntrata aur deshabhakti ki ek nee bhavana ke sath ghar laut ae aur isake bad yahan se nahin ge. antarrashtriy bhashanon ke itihas men, jama masjid par die gaye maulana azad ke is bhashan ki tulana keval abraham linkan ke gaitsabarg men die bhashan se, gandhi ji ki hatya par neharoo ke birala haoos men diye gaye bhashan aur martin loothar ke bhashan- 'mera ek sapana hai,' se tulana ki ja sakati hai.

abulakalam azad stamp
Abul Kalam Azad Stamp

maulana ka angrezi bhasha ka gyan uchch koti ka tha . maulana bade nirbhik vakta the . inaki yogyata ko dekh kar ek bar madras ki kangres kameti ne akhil bharatavarshiy kangres ka pratinidhi chun kar bheja tha . agara ki 'aryamitr sabha' ke varshikotsav par maulana ke vyakhyanon ko sun kar raja mahendr pratap bade mugdh huye. raja sahab ne apake pair chhue aur apani kothi par le gaye . us samay ke bad se raja sahab aksar maulana ke upadesh suna karate the.

raja sahab maulana ko apana guru manate the - "itana saf nirbhik bolane vala mainne aj tak nahin dekha . sanh 1913 ee. men mainne ap ka pahala vyakhyan shahazahanpur men suna tha . ary samaj ke varshikotsav par ap padhare the ."

dharasan satyagrah

1931 men dharasan satyagrah ke pramukh ayojak the. dharmanirapekshata, samajavad aur hindoo-muslim ekata ko unhonne badhava diya . 1945 men 'bharat chhodo andolan' men unhonne kangres adhyaksh pad par kary kiya. any netaon ke sath maulana azad ko tin sal ki jel ki saza huee. svntatr bharat ki antarim sarakar men azad shamil the. bharat vibhajan ki hinsa ke samay ve sanpradayik sauhardr badhane ka kary kar rahe the.

ekata ke lie kary

shuroo se hi maulana yah janate the ki agar bharat ke log apas men milajul kar rahenge tabhi ve ek mazaboot rashtr bana sakenge. mahatma gandhi ki tarah unake lie bhi logon ki ekata se badhakar kuchh aur pyara nahin tha. jis tarah unake guru ne usi dhyey ke lie apane jivan ka balidan kar diya tha, usi tarah maulana bhi rashtr ki ekata ke lie sab kuchh nyochhavar kar dene ke lie taiyar the.

bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke sanh 1923 ke apane pratham adhyakshiy bhashan men urdoo ke apane vishesh andaj men maulana ne kaha tha-

"aj agar asaman se farishta bhi utar ae aur dilli ke qutub minar ki choti par se elan kare ki hindustan agar hindoo-muslim ekata ka khyal chhod de to vah chaubis ghnton men azad ho sakata hai, to hindoo-muslim ekata ke bajay desh ki azadi ko main chhod doonga-kyonki agar azadi ane men der lag bhi jae to isase sirf bharat ka hi nuqasan hoga, lekin hindoo-musalamanon ke bich ekata agar n rahe to isase duniya ki sari insaniyat ka nuqasan hoga."

badaqismati yah thi ki desh men kuchh log aise the jo is tarah ki ekata nahin chahate the. svabhavik hi hai ki gandhi ji ki tarah maulana ke bhi aise hi log zindagi bhar kattar dushman bane rahe. un logon ne maulana ki hnsi udaee, unhen galiyan din, unhen tarah-tarah ke nam aur tane diye, unaka mazak udaya. lekin maulana ne in logon ke sath kabhi samajhauta nahin kiya. maulana azad ne 1935 men muslim lig, jinna aur kangres ke sath batachit ki vakalat ki jisase rajanitik adhar ko sudridh kiya ja sake. jab jinna ne virodh kiya to maulana azad ne unaki alochana kar unhen samajhane men koee kotahi nahin barati. sanh 1938 men azad ne gandhi ji ke samarthakon aur tatkalin kangres adhyaksh subhashachndr bos ke bich paida hue matabhedon men pul ka kam kiya.

1940 men lahaur men hue adhiveshan men pakistan ne jab muslim lig ki mang rakhi, maulana azad us samay kangres ke ramagadh adhiveshan men kangres ke adhyaksh chune ge the. unhonne jinna ke do rashtr siddhant ki khoob khabar li. maulana azad ne yah manane se inkar kar diya ki muslim aur hindoo do alag rashtr hain. islam dharm ke is vidvanh ne islam ke adhar par banane vale desh ko asvikar kar diya. unhonne sabhi musalamanon se hindustan men hi rahane ki bat kahi.

maulana azad ne apane adhyakshiy bhashan men kaha-

'hindustan ki dharati par islam ko ae gyarah sadiyan bit gee hain. aur agar hindoo dharm yahan ke logon ka hazaron barason se dharm raha hai to islam ko bhi hazar sal ho ge hain. jis tarah se ek hindoo garv ke sath yah kahata hai ki vah ek bharatiy hai aur hindoo dharm ko manata hai, to usi tarah aur utane hi garv ke sath ham bhi kah sakate hain ki ham bhi bharatiy hain aur islam ko manate hain. isi tarah eesaee bhi yah bat kah sakate hain.'

maulana azad ke adhyaksh rahane ke dauran 1942 men ‘bharat chhodo’ andolan shuroo hua. unhonne desh bhar ki yatra ki aur jagah-jagah logon ko rashtr hone ka arth samajhaya aur azadi ki mashal ko ghar-ghar tak le ge.

san 1924 men mahatma gandhi ne hindoo-muslim ekata ke lie amaran anashan shuroo kiya. us vaqt maulana ne din-rat ghoom-ghoom kar sabhi sampradayon ke logo ko samajhaya aur gandhi ji se prarthana ki ki vah apana anashan tod den. usi tarah gandhi ji ne apani hatya ke kuchh hi din pahale jab akhiri bar janavari 1948 men anashan kiya to rashtrapita ke jivan ko bachane ke lie maulana usi tarah pagalon ki tarah ghoome. yah bilkul sach hai ki apane desh aur deshavasiyon ke prati unake dil men jo prem aur kartavy ki bhavana thi usi ne vidvanh azad ko unake vistrit sngrahalay se bahar lakar karodon deshavasiyon ke bich khada kar diya.

maulana sachamuch hi ek behatarin insan the. jis din unhonne apane sathiyon ke sath bade hi mahattvapoorn vishayon par charcha ki ho, desh ke bhavishy ko nishchit karane vale kisi pratinidhimndal ka netritv kiya ho ya dinabhar kangres ki kisi baithak ke pramukh ke nate karyavahi ko sambhala ho, usi din sham ko yahan tak ki adhi rat men vah apane ap svadisht chay banakar, gambhir shaikshik kary karate hue ya kuchh behatar sahity ki rachana karate hue ya phir dharm sambandhi koee adhoora lekh poora karate hue dikhaee padate the. maulana ka apane mastishk par poora-poora niyntran tha aur vah apane samay ka istemal bahut hi badhiya tarike se karana janate the.

bharat chhodo andolan

mahatma gandhi ke sath abulakalam azad

8 agast sanh 1942 ko rat men akhil bharatiy kangres kameti (al indiya kangres kameti) ki aitihasik baithak men maulana ki adhyakshata men angrez sarakar ko 'bharat chhodo' ke nare dvara bharat chhodane ke lie kaha gaya. doosare din bade savere desh ke mahanh neta ek vishesh tren ke dibbon men pae ge. tren poona steshan par ruki aur usamen se gandhi ji aur sarojini nayadoo kuchh pulis afasaron ke sath bahar aye. dopahar ko maulana ko unake sathiyon ke sath ahamadanagar ke aitihasik qile men le jaya gaya. vahan se unhonne apane ek dost ko likha- "sirf nau mahin pahale hi.....naini sentral jel ke daravaze mere lie khole ge the (meri rihaee ke lie) aur kal 9 agast sanh 1942 ke din ahamadanagar ke purane qile ke ne daravaze mere pichhe bnd kar die ge."

doosare din unhonne likha- "yah chhathavan anubhav hai...pichhali panch bar men mainne jelon men kul milakar sat sal aur ath mahine ki avadhi bataee hai..... jo meri aj tak ki tirappan sal ki umr ka satavan hissa hai."

is bar ke karavas ke ant tak (julaee 1945) unhonne das sal aur panch mahine jel men gujare the. ahamadanagar ke qile ki jel ek chhoti aur shant jagah thi. sabha, charcha jaloos aur bhashan bilkul bhi nahin the. maulana ki pyari kitaben bhi vahan bahut kam thin. ek din dopahar ko, maulana jel ke jis kamare men the vahan bahut sari chidiyan zoron se chahakati hueen ek kone se doosare kone tak udane lagin. safed khadi ka kurta pajama pahane mulla ki tarah chhoti-si dadhi vale maulana ek bans uthakar un chidiyon ko bhagane lage. kuchh hi der men vah bilkul thak gaye aur hanphate hue ek purane sophe par ja gire. kuchh pal bitane ke bad unhonne apani ooni topi, sheravani aur tebal par padi hueen kitabon aur kagazon par se dhool jhadi aur phir palng ke niche jhadoo lekar dhool, ghas-phoos aur chidiyon ki bit buharane lage. jhadoo lagate hue vah urdoo ke sher bhi gunagunate rahe. phir man hi man bole, chalo ham dost ban jaen.

ek din dopahar ke sannate men vah likhane men bilkul khoye hue then, tabhi ek chidiya akar hichakichate hue pahale ek sophe par baithi, phir phudak kar unaki kursi par ja baithi aur akhir men maulana ke kndhe par baith gee. maulana ne baee ankh ke kone se us chidiya ko pyar se dekha aur phir dhire se apani mutthi khol di jisamen bajare ke kuchh dane the. chidiya kood kar unaki hatheli ke kinare par baith gee aur dane chugane lagi. akhir maulana ne chidiya ke sath dosti kar hi li thi.

kuchh mahinon ke bad jel ke angrez suparintendat ne, jo fauji afasar tha aur is samay vardi men tha, daravaze par dhire se dastak di.
"tashariph laiye."
"yah aj ka akhabar hai, "afasar budabudaya. "sahab apake lie isamen khas khabar hai."
"shukriya, "maulana ne usaki or dekhe bina hi namrata se magar bhari avaz men kaha. "meharabani karake akhabar chhod jaiye."
afasar chala gaya aur bhari qadamon se chalate hue maulana ne akhabar utha liya. akhabar men kuchh padha aur dhamm se sophe par baith ge. ab vah gahare soch men doobe hue aur kuchh udas lag rahe the.

kuchh der bad, maulana javahar lal neharoo ke sath badi gambhirata se bat karate hue dikhaee die. javaharalal ne kuchh kaha aur gahari soch men khade hue maulana ne sirf apana sir hila diya. "ab kuchh bhi ho," maulana ne akhir dridh svar men kaha, " apani patni se milane ki khatir main desh ke dushmanon se rihaee ke lie bhikh nahin mangoonga. javahar lal nazaren jhukakar aur udas chehara lie vapas chale ge. maulana bhari qadamon se kamare men tahalane lage. kuchh dinon bad, javaharalal ne hi maulana ko yah khabar di ki unaki patni julaikha ki mrityu ho gee hai. jab javaharalal ne is bat par zor diya ki kuchh haphton ke lie hi sahi, maulana ko bahar jana chahie, to maulana ne namrata se lekin dridh svar men javab diya, "bhaee mere, jo sarakar hamen sahi mayane men azadi dene se inakar kar rahi hai, usase kuchh haphton ke lie azadi mangane ka koee fayada nahin hai." kuchh der tak vah ruke aur bilkul hi apane khyalon men khoye hue bole, "ab agar khuda chahe to ham jannat men milenge."

bad men unhonne likha ki vah us ghatana se bilkul hi toot chuke the, phir bhi unhonne apane par niyntran rakha. kuchh samay bad vah apani svasth aur svabhavik sthiti men a gaye. vah jel men hi the ki unaki pyari badi bahan bhi chal basin. tab unhonne likha- " jel men zyadatar samay mainne bhari manasik tanav ke bich guzara. isase meri tabiyat par bahut bura asar pada. meri giraphtari ke vaqt mera vajan 170 paund tha. jab mujhe bngal ke bankura jel men bhej gaya tab mera vajan kam hokar 130 paund rah gaya tha. main badi mushkil se hi kuchh kha pata tha."

chunautiyan

apani rihaee ke bar men maulana ne likha,
"havada steshan par logon ka samandar umada hua tha. ham abhi chalane hi lage the ki tabhi mainne dekha ki meri kar ke age meri rihaee ki khushi men baind bajane laga. mujhe yah achchha nahin laga aur mainne kaha ki yah koee khushi ka mauqa nahin hai....mere hazaron dost aur sathi abhi jelon men hain."
jab tin sal pahale vah kalakatte se chale the us vaqt ki yaden saphar ke dauran unake man men taja ho gee.
unhonne likha..."meri patni phatak tak mujhe chhodane ke lie aee thi. ab main tin sal ke bad laut raha hoon par vah apani qabr men hain aur mera ghar soona pada hai.....meri kar men phoolon ke haron ke dher hain. unamen se ek har uthakar mainne usaki qabr par rakh diya aur "phatiha" (prarthana) padhane laga."
ek bar rajaniti men a jane ke bad maulana ne sari zimmedariyon aur chunautiyon ko svikar kar liya. tin bar vah kangres ke adhyaksh bane. sanh 1923 men vah kangres ke sabase yuva adhyaksh the. isake alava sanh 1940 se sanh 1946 tak pramukh ke nate apane akhiri satr ke dauran unhonne chhah sal se bhi lambe arse tak kangres ka netritv kiya. azadi ke pahale ke dinon men kangres ke adhyaksh ke lie yah sabase lambi avadhi thi. yahi nahin, kangres ke samooche itihas men yah sabase zyada kathinaiyon ka samay bhi tha.
maulana ne likha- "mainne socha ki....main agar phir se inakar kar doon to main apane kartavy ka palan nahin karoonga......jab gandhi ji ne mujhase vinati ki ki main kangres ka adhyaksh banoon to main phauran hi raji ho gaya."

doosara vishvayuddh arambh ho gaya tha aur sabaka aisa khyal tha ki desh azadi ki dahalij par khada hai. hamare desh ka us samay ka itihas bada hi dilachasp hai.

sanh 1942 men 'krips mishan' bharat ki azadi aur yuddh men bharat ke sahayog ke bare men charcha karane ke lie bharat aya. mishan asaphal raha. "bharat chhodo" andolan 8 agast sanh 1942 ke din chheda gaya. hazaron nar-nariyan aur sabhi bade-bade neta jel ge aur bahut kasht jhele. march sanh 1946 ko british kaibinet mishan bharat aya. us mishan ke ek prastav ke adhar par kangres ne chunav lada aur kendr men aur adhikatar rajyon ki vidhan sabhaon men use vijay mili.

antarim sarakar banaee gee. kangres ke adhyaksh hi nahin, balki ek b़de rashtriy neta hone ke karan maulana ne bade josh ke sath kam kiya aur doosare netaon ke sath milakar ek bade hi mushkil samay men desh ka netritv kiya. vasvat men, kangres ke log chahate the ki vah agale satr ke lie bhi kangres ke adhyaksh rahen. lekin unhonne us pad ke lie javahar lal neharoo ka nam sujhaya.
neharoo ji ke shabdon men- "kangres ke itihas men aur bharat ke itihas men bhi bahut kam log yah janate hain ki kangres ke prastav aur nitiyon ko banane men kangres ke pramukh ke roop men ya karyakari samiti ke sadasy ke roop men unhonne kitana mahattvapoorn kary kiya hai."

kangres ke netaon men maulana ko unaki any mahanh visheshata ke lie bhi yad kiya jata tha. jab kabhi bhi kangresiyon ke bich matabhed ho jate the. tab maulana hi unhen phir se ek karate the kyonki sab log unaka adar karate the.

bahut salon se maulana yah chah rahe the ki vah apane jivan ke akhiri sal shanti men bitaen taki vidya ke kshetr men apana sabase pyara kam kar saken. ahamadanagar jel se bahar ane par neharoo ji ne bhi maulana se unake pramukh hone ke nate yah prarthana ki ki turant kangres ki koee miting n bulaee jae. kyonki vah bhi kuchh aram chahate the aur ek kitab likhane ka kam bhi poora karana chahate the. lekin maulana ne likha-
"us vaqt mujhe yah maloom nahin tha ki hamako riha kiya jaega....aur (tab to) shayad hamare jivan ke akhiri pal tak hamako aram ka saval hi nahin uthega."
kuchh hi dinon ke bad javaharalal neharoo aur maulana ko aitihasik 'shimala kaaunphrens men bhag lene ke lie daudana pada. maulana ke daktar ne prarthana ki ki kaaunphrens do haphte tak sthagit kar di jaye. lekin maulana isake lie raji nahin hue. maulana ki halat dekhakar vaisaray laaurd veval ne inhen vaisarigal istet men hi ek makan men thaharaya aur unaki dekhabhal ke lie apane niji staph ke kuchh logon ko tainat kiya. kartavy poora karane ki nishtha ke bare men maulana ne ek dost ko likha,
"yadi koee adami fauj men bharti hone se inkar kar de to yah koee gunah nahin hai. lekin sipahi banane ke bad yuddh ke maidan se bhag nikalana--isake lie to sivay maut ke aur koee saza ho hi nahin sakati hai."
isamen koee shak nahin hai ki maulana hamare svadhinata sngram ke sabase bahadur sipahiyon men se ek the.

sadasy

abulakalam azad pahali aur doosari lokasabha ke sadasy rahe.

  1. shiksha mntri, 15 agast 1947-13 mee 1952;
  2. shiksha aur prakritik snsadhan aur vaigyanik anusndhan mntri, 13 mee 1952-22 faravari 1958

svatntrata prapti

gandhiji, neharooji aur maulana azad
15 agast sanh 1947 ke din bharat ko azadi mili. gandhiji, neharooji, saradar patel, maulana azad aur doosare netaon ne us azadi ka bhari man se svagat kiya kyonki akhnd bharat ka unaka sapana sakar nahin hua tha. desh ka bntavara ho gaya. lekin chain ki sans lie bina ve sab phauran hi adhunik bharat ke nirman ke kam men jut gaye. karodon ke pyare neta aur hamare pratham pradhanamntri javaharalala neharoo ne kaha-
"madhyaratri ke thik barah baje......bharat ke jivan ka, usaki azadi ke yug ka arambh hoga......is pavitr kshan men ham sab yah pratigya karate hain ki bharat aur usaki janata ki seva men ham apane ko samarpit kar denge......aur isalie apane sapanon ko vasvatik roop dene ke lie hamen aur mehanat karani hai aur kam karana hai."

kharab svasthy aur kalam aur kitabon ki duniya men lautane ki ichchha ke bavajood maulana ne nee zimmedariyan bhi sambhal lin. bharat sarakar ke shiksha, sabhyata aur kala mntralay ke pratham mntri ki haisiyat se vah shiksha ka is tarah prachar karana chahate the jisase bharat ke logon men ek nee manovritti paida ho sake. unhonne sirf shalaen, kaaulej aur mahavidyalayon ki hi nahin, balki sahity akadami, sngit natak akadami aur lalit kala akadami jaisi mahanh snsthaon ki bhi sthapana ki taki bharat ki mahanh snskriti ko naya jivan mil sake. akhiri din tak vah javaharalal neharoo ke sabase nikatatam mitr aur sathi bane rahe. vah unake sabase vishvaniy salahakar aur samarthak bhi the.

svatntr bharat ke shiksha mntri

vah svatntr bharat ke pahale shiksha mntri the aur unhonne gyarah varsho tak rashtr ki niti ka margadarshan kiya. bharat ke pahale shiksha mntri banane par unhonne ni:shulk shiksha, bharatiy shiksha paddhati, uchch shiksha snsthanon ki sthapana men atyadhik ke sath kary kiya. maulana azad ko hi 'bharatiy praudyogiki snsthan' arthath 'aee.aee.ti. aur 'vishvavidyalay anudan ayog' ki sthapana ka shrey hai.

ve snpoorn bharat men 10+2+3 ki saman shiksha snrachana ke pakshadhar rahe. yadi maulana abul kalam aj zinda hote to ve ni:shulk shiksha ke adhikar vidheyak ko snsad ki svikriti ke lie di jane vali mntrimndaliy mnjoori ko dekhakar behad prasann hote. shiksha ka adhikar vidheyak ke antargat ni:shulk aur anivary shiksha ek maulik adhikar hai.

  • unhonne shiksha aur snskriti ko vikasit karane ke lie utkrisht snsthanon ki sthapana ki.
  • unhonne sngit natak akadami (1953),
  • sahity akadami (1954) aur
  • lalit kala akadami (1954) ki sthapana ki.
  • 1950 se pahale unake dvara 'bharatiy sanskritik snbndh parishad' ki sthapana ki gee.
  • kendriy salahakar shiksha bord ke adhyaksh hone par sarakar se kendr aur rajyon donon ke atirikt vishvavidyalayon men sarvabhaumik prathamik shiksha, 14 varsh tak ki ayu ke sabhi bachchon ke lie ni:shulk aur anivary shiksha, kanyaon ki shiksha, vyavasayik prashikshan, krishi shiksha aur takaniki shiksha jaise sudharon ki vakalat ki.
  • 1956 men unhonne anudanon ke vitaran aur bharatiy vishvavidyalayon men manakon ke anurakshan ke lie snsad ke ek adhiniyam ke dvara 'vishvavidyalay anudan ayog' (yoojisi) ki sthapana ki.
  • takaniki shiksha ke mamale men, 1951 men akhil bharatiy takaniki shiksha parishad, khadagapur ki sthapana ki gee aur isake bad shrinkhalabadhd roop men mumbee, chennee, kanapur aur dilli men aee.aee.ti. ki sthapana ki gee.
  • skool aauph planing aur vastukala vidyalay ki sthapana dilli men 1955 men huee.

mrityu

22 faravari sanh 1958 ko hamare rashtriy neta ka nidhan ho gaya. bhinn-bhinn-dharmik neta, lekhak, patrakar, kavi, vyakhyata, rajaniti aur prashasan men kam karane vale bharat ke is mahanh sapoot ko apane-apane dhng se yad karate rahenge. in sabase badhakar maulana azad dharmik vritti ke vyakti hote hue bhi sahi arthon men bharat ki dharmanirapeksh sabhyata ke pratinidhi the.

bharat ratn

varsh 1992 men maranoparant maulana ko bharat ratn se sammanit kiya gaya. ek insan ke roop men maulana mahanh the, unhonne hamesha sadagi ka jivan pasnd kiya. unamen kathinaiyon se joojhane ke lie apar sahas aur ek snt jaisi manavata thi. unaki mrityu ke samay unake pas koee snpatti nahin thi aur n hi koee baink khata tha. unaki niji alamari men kuchh sooti achakan, ek darjan khadi ke kurte payajamen, do jodi saidal, ek purana draising gaoon aur ek upayog kiya hua brush mila kintu vahan anek durlabh pustaken thi jo ab rashtr ki sampatti hain.

maulana azad jaise vyaktitv kabhi-kabhi hi janm lete hain. apane snpoorn jivan men ve bharat aur isaki sammilit sanskritik ekata ke lie prayasarat rahe. vah apane varishth sathi 'khan abdulagaffar khan' aur apane kanishth 'ashafakulla' ke sath rahe.
iqabal ke shabdon men, "hazaron sal naragis apani benoori par roti hai, badi mushkil se hota hai chaman men didavar paida."

rashtriy shiksha divas

maulana abul kalam azad ke janmadivas 11 navambar ko 'rashtriy shiksha divas' ghoshit kiya gaya hai. unaki aguvaee men hi 1950 ke shuruati dashak men 'sngit natak akadami', 'sahity akadami' aur 'lalit kala akadami' ka gathan hua tha. isase pahale vah 1950 men hi 'bharatiy sanskritik snbndh parishad' bana chuke the. haidarabad men unhin ke nam par 'maulana azad neshanal urdoo yunivarsiti' sthapit kar rashtr ki or se ek svatantrata senani, krantikari, patrakar, samajasudharak, shiksha visheshgy aur abhootapoorv shiksha mntri ko shrriddhanjali di gayi hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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