अभिनवगुप्त  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

abhinavagupt bahumukhi pratibhashali kashmiri snskrit-vidvanh tatha kashmir shaivadarshan ke achary the. kavyashastriy 'dhvanyalok' par inaki tika 'dhvanyalok -lochan' tatha 'natyashastr' ki tika 'abhinavabharati' prasiddh hain. 'pratyabhigyavimarshini' 'tntralok' ityadi inaki prasiddh darshanik kritiyan hain. bharatiy samikshashastr evn saundaryamimansa par abhinavagupt ki amit chhap hai. sath hi tatv chintan parampara men bhi unaka rikth[1] avismaraniy hai.

vnsh parichay

aisa mana jata hai ki kannauj ke prabrajit shaiv manishi avigupt, abhinavagupt ke pratham poorvaj hain. usake anantar lagabhag dedh sau varsh tak ka kalakhnd us vnsh parampara ke vishay men maun sa hai. isake pitamah varahagupt ka janm eesa ki dasavin shatabdi ke pratham charan men mana jata hai. unake pita narasinh gupt urph chukhulak atyant medhavi vidvan, sarvashastravid tatha param shiv bhakt the. unaki mata vimalakala paramasadhvi evn dharmik mahila thin. durbhagy se unaki chhaya inake oopar se bachapan men hi uth gee. mata-pita ke atirikt unake parivar men ek pitrivy the vamanagupt tatha ek anuj manorath aur panch pitrivy rintanay-kshem, utpal, abhinav, chakrak tatha padmagupt. isake atirikt unaki ek mahanh guru parampara thi, jisamen (unake pita) narasinh gupt (vyakaran), laksham gupt (kram tatha trikadarshan), bhatt taut (natyashastr) tatha bhattenduraj (sahity shastr) pramukh the. vah jahan bhi gaye unaki pratibha aur vidyanurag ko dekhakar pratyek guru ne bade prem se unhen shiksha di. ve unaki kushagr buddhi, dharanashakti evn pratipadan shaili se itane prabhavit hue ki unhonne unako sarvachary ghoshit kar diya aur age chalakar apane shaivatattv-chintan tatha sadhana ke adhar par vah mahamaheshvarachary ho ge. unaki gyanapipasa itani tivr thi ki vah usako shant karane ke lie desh ke kone-kone men ghoomate rahe. is sandarbh men jalandhar ke achary shambhunath ka nam liya ja sakata hai, jinase unhonne kulashastr ka adhyayan kiya. yah bhi kaha jata hai ki vastut: inhin ke snsarg se abhinav ko shanti mili aur antatogatva atmasakshatkar hua. kashmir ke parivaron men ek kinvadanti prachalit hai ki apane jivan ka lakshy poora karane ke bad vah ek din apane barah sau shishyon sahit bhairav gufa men pravisht ho ge tatha phir kabhi bahar nahin nikale.

aitihasik sndarbh

abhinav ka jo virat vyaktitv hamare samane upasthit hota hai, usamen unaki adhyatmik chetana, gambhir chintan evn unmukt sadhana antarnihit hai. vah vastut: ek sadhak tatha adhyatm purush the. at: unake vyaktitv ka vishleshan karate samay us samay ka sara aitihasik paridrishy mastishk men ghoomane lagata hai. antaravedi (kannauj) ke shaiv chintak atrigupt ke vaidushy se prabhavit kashmir naresh lalitadity kannauj par vijay prapt karane ke bad unhen apane sath kashmir le jata hai aur vahin basa deta hai. vah poori ki poori ghati unake pandity evn manisha se goonj uthati hai. shnkar ke kashmir darshan se nagarjun ka prayas dhvast tatha vicharadhara nirast ho jati hai. vasugupt dvara mahadev shila par utkirn shivasootron ke adhar par agam vidya ka niyaman tatha siddh somanand dvara unako darshanik dharatal par pratishthit kar diya jata hai. achary utpal ki vyakhyaon ka snbal pakar us ghati ki prachin adhyatm vidya apane nootan evn parishkrit roop men pun: jivit ho uthati hai. aisi sthiti men apane bauddhik vaibhav evn sahity kala-vilas ke lie prakhyat sharada pith men abhinavagupt ka janm ek mahattvapoorn ghatana thi. sach to yah hai ki kashmir ghati ke lie vah kal khand ek adhyatmik punarutthan evn bauddhik kriyashilata ka yug tha. vahan ka buddhijivi sakriy ho utha tha tatha avanchhaniy tatvon se joojhane ke lie sarvanshat: tatpar ho gaya. spasht shabdon men kahen to bahutatvavadi prachin dharmik vicharadhara men nagarjun ke prayason ke parinamasvaroop jude bauddh dharm ke vaiyarthy ko vahan ka vicharak samajh chuka tha aur usake nirakaran ke sath ek udar dharm tatha samanvayavadi darshan ka uday ho gaya tha. at: parivarik paristhitiyon ki pratikoolata ke bavajood abhinav ko apane parivesh men ek aisi bauddhik chetana, adhyatmik snskar evn vaidushyapoorn nirdeshan mila ki age chalakar unake chintan tatha krititv se sahity ka kona-kona uddipt ho utha. at: yah kahana anupayukt athava asngat n hoga ki mahamaheshvar achary abhinavagupt ke vyaktitv ke nirman men tatkalin jagriti, vaicharik kranti tatha vaidushyapoorn parampara ka paryapt yogadan hai.

gatishil krititv

bachapan men hi matrisneh se vnchit ho jane ke karan abhinav antarmukhi ho ge. unhonne ajivan brahmachary ka vrat le liya aur usaka poora nirvah kiya. isaka ek labh yah hua ki unamen ek apoorv snkalp jaga. vyutpann vah the hi, shakti ka unmesh hua aur ek mahanh krititv phoot nikala. anek shastron men nishnat hone ke karan unaki lekhani ne vibhinn ayam liye aur ek samriddh rachana parampara ka sootrapat hua, jisase parivarti adhyeta evn gaveshak paryapt roop se labhanvit hua. abhinavagupt ke jivan evn sahity ke pratham pramanik praneta tatha vyakhyakar shaiv manishi aur kalashastravid svargiy da. kantichandr pandey ne inaki sahityik sadhana ke tin ayam manen hain- tantrik kal, alnkarik kal evn darshanik kala.

tantrik kal

inake kramastotr tatha bhairavastotr aur sandarbhon evn any nirdeshon par adharit inaki kritiyon ke aitihasik kram se yah spasht ho jata hai ki inhonne sarvapratham apani lekhani us samay tak prapt tntron ki shivadvayavadi vyakhya ke kshetr men chalaee. abhinav ki pratham prapt rachana kamastrotr ke adhar par yah kaha ja sakata hai ki inhonne apani sarjanayatra sarvapratham isi kshetr se arambh ki thi. is shakha ko lekar ukt stotr ke atirikt inaki ek any rachana prapt hai- kramakeli. isake pashchath inaka dhyan trik ki or akarshit hua. is kshetr ki inaki pramukh den hai- poorvapnchika tatha any pnchikaen. poorvashastr se abhipray hai- malini vijay tntr, tatha pnchika ka arth hai- vistrit vyakhya. at: yah kriti nishchit roop se malini vijay par vistrit tika rahi hogi. durbhagy se yah kriti ab upalabdh nahin hai. kaulashastr ko lekar inaki ab tak do rachanaen prapt huee hain- 'bhairavastav' tatha 'paratrishika vivaran' isi ayam ke antim charan men abhinav ne tntralok jaisi mahattvapoorn tatha vishad vyakhyamoolak kriti di. ise kashmir evn shaiv darshan ka vishvakosh kaha jaye to atyukti n hogi, kyonki isamen is darshan ke sabhi samanantar prasthanon ki charcha huee hai. isake sath hi sath inhonne tin sar granthon- tntrasar, tntrochchay tatha tntravat dhanika ki bhi isi kal men rachana ki.

alnkarik kal

antarmukhi abhinav ki drishti keval adhyatmik hi nahin thi. ekantasadhak chintak kashmir ki suramy prakritik chhata tatha is ghati ki lavanyamayi taruniyon ke akarshan ki upeksha bhi nahin kar saka. at: tntralok ke antim khnd ke antim bhag men ham ek rookhe darshanik ke nahin apitu saundary parakhi kavi ke darshan karate hain. vyakhya ke prasng men hi inake dvara varuni ke varnan, svad tatha madak anubhooti ka vishad vivechan, nagar sundirayon ke akarshak varn, sundar mukhachchhavi tatha chnchal bhngima ke paryavekshan ka ullekh kashmir ki suramy chhata men vishesh abhiruchi, vitasta nadi ka manohari varnan, tatha unake sthalon par madan ki adamy shaktiyon ka ullekh adi baten is bat ka spasht snket karati hain ki abhinav ka adhyatm-purush ab ek saundary premi kavi ho gaya tha. unaka saundaryabodh jag utha tha. unake rachanakar ne ek naya mod le liya tha. inaki sarjan yatra ka doosara ayam shuroo ho gaya tha. yah unake jivan ka madhyahn tha. is kal ki inaki char rachanaen prapt hain, jinamen kavyakautuk vivaran, dhvanyalokalochan, tatha abhinav bharatiy pramukh hain. kintu in kritiyon men bhi inaka darshanik sa ho gaya ho, aisa nahin pratit hota. vishesh roop se abhinav bharati men inaki vyakhya pranali atyant tarkik tatha darshanik pratikon se otaprot hai. ek vishesh bat jo dekhane ko milati hai, vah yah hai ki inaka rachanakar uttarottar praudh evn gambhir hota jata hai.

darshanik kal

aisa mana gaya hai abhinav bharatiy ki vyakhya karate samay inake lekhan men darshanik vicharon ka prabaly raha. yahan tak ki inaki ras ki vyakhya vishuddh roop se darshanik hai. itana hi nahin, abhinav bharati ke rachanakal men hi inhonne 'shrimadbhagavadagitarth sngrah' ki rachana bhi prarambh kar di thi, jo jaisa ki nam se hi spasht hai, 'bhagavadagita' ke oopar inaki tika hai. is prakar inake krititv ka antim ayam darshanik hai. isi kal men inhonne darshan jagath ko apani do amar vyakhyaen di, jinake adhar par inako pratyamigyadarshan ka pramukh achary mana jata hai. ye hain eeshvarapratyabhigyavimarshini tatha eeshvarapratyabhigya vivritivimarshini. doosari ko 'brihati-vimarshini' athava 'ashtadashasahasri' bhi kahate hain. ye donon achary utpal ki eeshvarapratyabhigya ki tikaen hain. ye donon rachanaen inaki praudhatam kritiyan hain tatha inake bad abhinav ki kisi any rachana ka ullekh abhi tak prapt nahin hua hai. is prakar abhinv gupt ki rachanadharmita men ek apratim gatishilata hai, ek adamy utsah hai, aur hai ek nishchit disha. yahi karan hai ki inaka rachanakar niranatar praudh hota gaya hai aur inaki pratyek kriti apane men mahattvapoorn hai. darshanik kritiyon men inaki manavatavadi drishti aur alnkarik kritiyon men inaka saundaryabodh tatha lokaruchi ka spasht parichay milata hai.

sadhak abhinavagupt

agamasarani se prapt adhyatm vidya grahan kar abhinav sadhak ban ge. atm-tattv-chintan tatha yaugik anushasan ke sath unaka sahityik sarjan bhi chalata raha. sadhana ki anch men tap kar unaka vaidushy pragadh evn prakhar hota gaya. apane paramarth chintan ko abhinav apane tak hi simit nahin rakhana chahate the. at: somanand tatha utpal dvara darshanik bhoomi par pratishthit shivadvayavad ko bharatiy janamanas tak pahunchane ka bhar abhinav gupt ne apane oopar liya. unaki vistrit vyakhyaon men jahan ham ek shaiv sant aur yogi ke darshan karate hain, vahin ek param prabuddh vyakhyata ke bhi jo apani tarkik shaili ke dvara is darshan ko lokasnvedy tatha sarvagrahi bana deta hai.

darshanik siddhant

yadyapi abhinav gupt yah dava nahin karate ki unhonne kisi maulik darshanik siddhant ki udbhavana athava pravartan kiya hai, tathapi guru parampara se prapt kram, kul evn trik athava pratyabhigya shastr ko unaki vistrit vyakhyaen ek ne kshitij par lakar khada kar deti hain. isi prakar yadyapi yah ukt tinon shakhaon aur sahityashastr par bhi apani lekhani chalate hain tathapi use unaki sahityik sadhana ka snkraman kal mana jana chahie. at: yah kahana sarvatha upayukt hoga ki trik unaka sarvapriy darshan tha aur is kshetr ko unaki vishesh den hai. parampara se abhasavad ke roop men poorn pratishtha dene ka shrey abhinav gupt ko hi hai. at: ise hi unaka mool siddhant manana chahie.

vishv ke rahasy ko samajhane ka prayas hi vastut: darshan hai. isi ko doosare shabdon men vishv-rachana-bodh kaha ja sakata hai. yah kya hai, vishv yah astitv men kaise aya tatha usake pichhe kaun si niyamak shakti kary karati hai, adi samasyaon ke samadhan ke prayas ne anek darshanik avadharanaon ko janm diya hai. pratyabhigya darshan ke anusar yah vishv chhattis tattvon se milakar bana hai. maheshvar arthath param satta, jise chiti bhi kaha jata hai, apani svatntr ichchha se apane manas patal (bhitti) par inhin tattvon ko kabhi samavet roop men prakat kar deta hai, aur kabhi apane men samet leta hai. isi ko doosare shabdon men unmilan tatha nimilan kahate hain aur maheshvar athava shiv ke us poore kary kalap ko pnchakrity (srishti, sthiti, snhati, vilay tatha anugrah) ki sngya di jati hai. choonki shiv yah sab kuchh apani ichchha se karata hai, isalie yah usaki svatntray shakti kahalati hai. isi ko maheshvary shakti athava vimarsh bhi kahate hain. vimarsh ka abhipray hai- arth-kriyakarita, spasht shabdon men sakriyata. arthath advait vedant ke brahm ki bhanti is darshan ki paramasatta, shiv, keval prakashamay hi nahin apitu prakashavimarshamay hai. yah gyan aur kriya donon ka adhishthan tatha donon ka srot hai. yah vishv usake lie koee nee rachana nahin, balki poorvat vidyaman vastu ka bahishkaran unmilan athava prakatikaran hai. nishkarsh yah hai ki yah darshan n to kisi vastu ko mithya manata hai aur n hi kshanik. isaki drishti men pratyek vastu ki apani satta hain, balki satta hi vastu ki niyamak hai. arthath yadi vastu hai to usaki satta avashy hogi aur yadi usaki satta nahin hai to vah vastu hi nahin hai. inake anusar to vastu, vastu ka karta aur vastubodh ka madhyam tinon hi yatharth hain. yahi shaiv svatntrayavad hai aur isi ki sthapana achary abhinav gupt ne apane goodh chintan dvara ki aur is prakar shnkar ke mithyatvavad tatha bauddhon ke kshanikavad donon ko hi nirast kar diya.

isi prakar atmatattv-bodh ke sadhan ke lie jo marg is darshan ne sujhaya hai, vah keval gyan nahin apitu pratyabhigyan hai. gyan to kisi agyat vastu ka hota hai. isake viparit, pratyabhigyan ka abhipray hai kisi poorv vastu ki pahachan. shnkar vedant aur trikashastr ki atmatattv-vimarsh sambandhi dharana men yahi maulik antar hai. ek to atmatattv ke gyan ka pratipadan karata hai aur doosara atmgyan ka, arthath agyan athava mohavash jivan (pashu) apane vastavik svaroop (shiv) ko bhool baithata hai, kintu jaise hi moh ka parda hatata hai, jiv apane vastavik svaroop ko pahachan leta hai. yahi doosare shabdon men atmaparamarsh kahalata hai. is prakar somanand tatha utpal dvara sootr roop men prapt in avadharanaon ko abhinav ne apani tark pradhan shaili ke dvara pratishthit kiya hai.

abhinavagupt ka avadan

yon to abhinav gupt shaivagarmi evn tntron se anusyat kram, trik evn kul tinon prasthanon tatha kavyashastr evn kalashastr ke pramukh vyakhyata hain, kintu pratyabhigyadarshan evn kalashastr ko inaki den bejod hai. utpal ki eeshvarapratyabhigya par do vistrit vyakhyaen tatha tntralok jaisa brihadh granth dekar abhinav gupt ne manavata ki jo seva ki hai vah chirasmaraniy rahegi. isi prakar dhvanayalokalochan aur tyabhinabharati ki rachana karake inhonne bharatiy buddhijivi varg ke lie chintan marg prashast kar diya. utpal ne pratyabhigyashastr ka upanibandhan lok kalyan ki bhavana se kiya tha, kintu abhinav ne apani vistrit tatha spasht vyakhyaon ke dvara use samanyajan tak pahunchane ka prayas kiya. apani vivritivimarshini ki rachana ke pichhe unaka lakshy utpaladev ke vicharon ko ujagar karana matr raha hai. is prakar apane poore ke poore kriya kal men men unhonne utpal ke siddhanton ka hi anusaran kiya hai tatha kahin apane siddhant jodane ka prayas nahin kiya hai. kintu itana ham nisnkoch kah sakate hain ki pratyabhigyashastr tatha natyashastr ke vishay men ham jo kuchh bhi janate hain, us sab ka shrey unaki vistrit vyakhyaon ko hi jata hai. somanand, utpal tatha bharat ke granthon ki shaili itani sootratmak evn pandityapoorn thi ki abhinav ki vyakhyaon ke bina inhen samajhana ek dushkar kary hota. at: apane poorv acharyon ke prati shraddhalu tatha unake vicharon ke prati pratibaddh hone ke bavajood abhinav ne bharatiy darshan, samikshashastr evn kalashastr ko jo yuktimoolak tatha lokanubhutiparak vyakhya shaili di, vah apane men hi ek samarth avadan hai. sath hi svatntryavad ke siddhant ko janamanas tak pahunchakar unhonne manav jati ko ek abhootapoorv jivan mooly se parichit karaya, jisaka mahatv chirasthayi evn shasvat hai. bharat ka asthavadi samaj tatha buddhijivi varg saman roop se is sadhak darshanik ka chirakal tak rini rahega.


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rikth - uttaradhikari men prapt dhan sampati

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