अमरीकी भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

amariki bhashaen - inake antargat amarika mahadvip ke sabhi (uttari, dakshini aur madhy) bhagon ke mool nivasiyon dvara boli janevali bhashaen ati hain. eesavi 15vin sadi ke ant men yoorop se ek jahaj bharatavarsh ki khoj karata hua, bhram se chakkar khakar amarika pahunch gaya aur tabhi se yahan ke mool nivasiyon ka nam 'indiyan' pad gaya. anuman hai ki kolnbas ke samay amarika ke samast mool nivasiyon ki snkhya char panch karod rahi hogi, jo ab ghatate ghatate dedh karod rah gee hai. in logon men likhane ka koee rivaj nahin tha. vishesh ghatanaon ki yad, rng binragi rassiyon men ganthen bandhakar rakhi jati thi. pattharon, ghonghon tatha chamade adi par bhi bhanti-bhanti ke chitr aur nishan bhi hai to use mool nivasi batate nahin. tathapi nahuatl aur may bhashaon men ab lipi milati hai. may bhasha ki pustakon men sath hi sath speni bhasha men anuvad bhi milata hai.

tulanatmak vyakaran ke aur bahudha any vyorevar grnthon ke abhav me in bhashaon ke vishay men vishesh vivaran nahin diya ja sakata. inamen klik aur mahapran dhvaniyan milati hain. aisa anuman kiya jata hai ki in mool nivasiyon ki jatiyan idhar-udhar ati jati aur ek doosare par adhipaty jamati rahi hain, isilie bhasha snbndhi samany lakshanon ke sath visheshataon aur apavadon ka bada bhari mishran milata hai. kabhi kabhi koee koee boli itani adhik prabhavashali rahi ki usane vijit jatiyon ki boliyon ko bilakul nasht hi kar diya. kolnbas ke agaman ke pahale dakshini amarika men inka nam ke samrajy ki rajabhasha kuichua thi. speni vijetaon ne isi ka prayog mool nivasiyon ke bich eesaee dharm ke prachar ke nimit kiya. isi prakar vistrit kshetr men hone ke karan, guarni tupi ka bhi prayog eesaee padariyon ne dharmaprachar ke lie kiya. karib aur arovak bhashaen bhi parasparik jay-parajay se prabhavit hain. arovak jati par karib jati ne vijay prapt kar li aur usake puroosh varg ko ya to bin binakar mar dala ya door bhaga diya . striyon ko rakh liya. ye barabar arovak hi bolati rahin. bad ki pidhiyan bhi isi prakar donon bhashaen aj tak bolati chali a rahin hain. aur purush varg ki karib bhasha par stri varg ki arovak bhasha ka prabhav padata dikhaee deta hai.

yadyapi in bhashaon ke bare men abhi vishesh anusndhan nahin ho paya hai, tab bhi mote taur par inako kee parivaron men banta ja sakata hai. anuman hai ki in parivaron ki snkhya sau sava sau ke lagabhag hai. pray: in sabhi bhashaon men ek samany lakshan prashlisht yogatmak ke roop men paya jata hai. inamen bahudha poora-poora vaky hi ek lnbe shabd dvara vyakt kiya jata hai. yah snskriti ki tarah vibhinn padon ko jodakar samas ke roop men nahi hota, balki pratyek pad ka ek-ek pradhan akshar ya dhvani lekar sabako ek sath mila diya jata hai. cheroki bhasha ke pad nadholinin (hamare lie dongi lao) men isi prakar tin shabd naten (lao), amoratol (nav, dongi), aur nin (hamako) mile hue hain. kabhi-kabhi is prakar ke ek darjan shabdon tak ke dhvani ya varnasnkalan ek pad ke roop men sngathit milate hain aur un sabhi shabdon ka padarth ek sath vakyarth ke roop men shrota ko maloom ho jata hai. svatntr shabdon ka prayog in bhashaon men bahut kam hai.[1]

ye sabhi jatiyan jngali nahin hain. in jatiyon men se kuchh ne samrajy sthapit kie. meksiko ke samrajy ka ant 16vin sadi men yooropavalon ne vahan pahunchakar kiya. vahan ki may aur nahuatl bhashaen susnskrit hain aur unamen sahity bhi milata hai. in bhashaon ka vargikaran pray: bhaugolik adhar par kiya jata hai jo shastriy bhale n ho, suvidhajanak avashy hai:
deshanam bhashanam
grinalaind eskimo
uttari amarika kanada athabaksi (samooh)
snyukt rajy algonaki (adi)
nahuatl (prachin)
meksiko ajhऱtek (vartaman)
yukatan samay
uttari pradesh karib, arovak
madhy pradesh guarni tupi
dakshini amerika pashchimi pradesh araukan, kuichua
(peroo aur chili)
dakshini pradesh chako, tiyaradelaphoogo
dakshini pradesh peroo aur chili ki bhasha chako, tiyaradelaphoogi hain. inamen se tiyaradelaphoogo bhasha aur usake bolanevale log snsar men sabase adhik snskritahin mane jate hain. eskimo ke bare men kuchh vidvanon ka mat hai ki yah ural-altaee parivar ki hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 194-95 |
  2. sn.grn.-babooram saksena : samany bhashavigyan; meie : le lang du mand (peris).

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