अरबी भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

arabi bhasha dakshin–madhy (shami) semitik bhasha hai, jo uttari afrika, adhikansh arab prayadvip aur madhy–poorv ke any hisson samet ek vyapak kshetr men boli jati hai. sindh ke vijetaon ki bhasha bhi arabi thi. quran jo ki islam ka pavitr dharmagranth hai usaki bhasha bhi arabi hai aur yah snsar ke sabhi musalamanon ki dharmik bhasha hai. sahityik arabi ya shastriy arabi, asal men quran men paee jane vali bhasha hai. jisamen samakalin upayog ke lie kuchh zaroori parivartan kie ge hain. yah samooche arab jagath men ek jaisi hai. bolachal ki arabi men kee boliyan shamil hain, jisamen se kuchh to ek–doosare ke lie abodhagamy hain.

itihas

madhyakal men dharmik adhyayanon ke lie arabi ka vyapak upayog hua, yahan tak ki 18vin shatabdi men bhi bharat ke mahanatam dharmashastriyon men se ek shah vali allah ne apane sabase mahattvapoorn prabndh arabi men likhe. pahale is bhasha ka upayog itihas lekhan aur madhy–poorv ke lie bharat ki vaigyanik pustakon ke anuvad hetu hota tha.

arabi bhasha ka uchcharan

arabi bhasha ka uchcharan angrezi tatha yoorop ki any bhashaon se kafi bhinn hai. isamen kee vishesh knth se nikali dhvaniyan (grasani tatha yuvula janit) aur knthy vynjan (jinaka uchcharan ek sath grasani ke snkuchan aur jibh ke pichhale hisse ko uthakar hota hai) hain.

svar

arabi men tin hrasv aur tin dirgh svar hote hain; jisake bad svar aur ek dirgh svar ata hai tatha kabhi–kabhar hi isake bad ek se adhik vynjan ate hain; is bhasha men do se adhik vynjanon vale shabd samoohon nahin hote. arabi bhasha men shami shabd snrachana ka poorn vikas parilakshit hota hai. arabi bhasha ke shabd ke do hisse hote hain:-

  1. mool- isamen amataur par tin vynjan hote hain aur yah shabd ko kuchh adharabhoot shabdik arth pradan karata hai; aur
  2. pratikriti- isamen svar hote hain tatha yah shabd ko vyakaran ki drishti se arth pradan karata hai. is prakar, mool k t b ki pratikriti i-a ke judane se kitab (pustak) banata hai, jabaki isi mool men a-i pratikriti jodane se katib (likhane vala ya lipik) banata hai. is bhasha men upasarg poorvasarg aur nishchit upapad ka kary karate hain.

kal

arabi bhasha men kriyaen niyamit dhatu roop men hoti hain. isamen do kal hain:-

  1. poornakal- jo ki pratyay lagakar banaya jata hai aur jisaka upayog bhootakal ko darshane men hota hai tatha
  2. apoornakal- jo ki upasarg jodakar banaya jata hai, kabhi–kabhi isamen snkhya tatha ling ko darshane vale pratyay bhi hote hain tatha isaka upayog vartaman ya bhavishy kal ke lie hota hai.

in do kalon ke alava agyasoochak roop, kartrivachak kridnt, karmavachak kridnt aur kriyarthak sngya bhi hai. kriyaon ko tin purushon, tin vachanon (ekavachan, dvivachan aur bahuvachan) tatha do lingon men banta gaya hai. shastriy arabi men dvivachan roop tatha pratham purush men ling bhed nahin hain tatha adhunik boliyon men sabhi dvivachan roopon ka lop ho chuka hai. shastriy bhasha men karmavachy ke roop bhi hain.

sngya ke shabd roop

shastriy arabi sngyaon ki shabd roop men tin karak hai:-

  • karta karak,
  • sambandh karak aur
  • karm karak

adhunik boliyon men sngyaon ko ab roopit nahin kiya jata. sarvanam pratyay aur pratyay aur svatntr shabd, donon roopon men upayog men lae jate hain.

lipi

arabi bhasha ko arabi lipi men likha jata hai. ye daen se baen likhi jati hai. isaki kee dhvaniyan urdoo ki dhvaniyon se alag hain. har ek svar ya vynjan ke liye (jo arabi bhasha men prayukt hota hai) ek aur sirf ek hi akshar hai. hrasv svaron ki matraen dena vaikalpik hai.

अकेला शुरुआती मध्य अन्तिम लिप्यान्तरण

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