अरब सागर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

arab sagar
arab sagar, keral
vivaran arab sagar hind mahasagar ka pashchimottar bhag hai aur yoorop v bharat ke bich mukhy samudri marg ke ek hisse ko nirmit karata hai.
desh bharat, pakistan aur eeran
adhikatam gaharaee 4,652 mitar
adhikatam chaudaee 2,400 kilomitar
kshetraphal lagabhag 38,62,000 varg kilomitar
googal manachitr googal manachitr
any janakari madhyakal ke arabon ke lie arab sagar bharat ka sagar athava 'mahan sagar' ka ek bhag tha, jisamen se chhoti khadiyan, jaise faris ka samudr (faras ki khadi) ya kolazam ka samudr (lal sagar), alag pahachan rakhati thin.

arab sagar (angrezi:Arabian Sea) hind mahasagar ka pashchimottar bhag, lagabhag 38,62,000 varg kilomitar kshetraphal men phaila hua hai aur yoorop v bharat ke bich mukhy samudri marg ke ek hisse ko nirmit karata hai. yah pashchim men afrika antarip aur arab prayadvip se, uttar men eeran aur pakistan, poorv men bharat aur dakshin ki or hind mahasagar ke shesh bhag se ghira hua hai. oman ki khadi uttar men sagar ko faras ki khadi se haauramuz jaladamaroomadhy ke madhyam se jodati hai. pashchim men adan ki khadi use bab el–mndeb jaladamaroomadhy ke madhyam se lal sagar se jodati hai. isaki ausat gaharaee 2,734 mitar hai. roman kal men isaka nam mer erithreiyam (erithreiyan sagar) tha.

bharat, eeran aur pakistan ke alava oman saltanat, yaman aur somaliya sagar ke asapas sthit rajanitik ikaiyan hain. sagar ke dvipon men sokotra (yaman ka ek bhag) afriki haaurn ke nikat, oman ke tat ke nikat kuriya muriya dvip aur lakshadvip.[1] lakshadvip bharat ke dakshin–pashchim (malabar) tat se 160 aur 400 kimi ke bich sthit moonge ke praval dvipon ka samooh hai. sindhu nadi is sagar men padane vali pramukh nadi hai.

bhautik lakshan

arab sagar ke adhikansh bhag ki gaharaee 2,987 mitar se adhik hai aur isake madhy men koee dvip nahin hai. pakistan v bharat ke tat ke nikat ko chhodakar, gahara pani poorvottar men kinaron ki bhoomi ke pas tak hai. dakshin–poorv men, jo hind mahasagar men dakshin ki or badhata hai aur jahan par vah pani ki satah se oopar uthakar maladiv ke pravaladvip ko nirmit karata hai. sagar ke pashchimi bhag ki or lagabhag 113 kimi lamba v lagabhag 3,626 varg kimi kshetraphal vala sokotra ka pathari dvip afriki haaurn ka ekadvipiy vistar hai aur gvardaphuee antarip se 257 kimi poorv men hai.

antahsagariy akriti evn bhoo–vigyan

arab sagar vigat 1,500 lakh varshon (mesozoik aur sinozoik yugon) men hi nirmit hua hai. jab bharatiy upamahadvip uttar ki or badha aur eshiya se takaraya tha. sokotra se dakshin ki or jalamagn karlsabarg katak hai, jo ki hind mahasagar men bhookampiy gatividhi ke kshetr se milata hai. jo arab sagar ko do mukhy besinon, poorv ki or arab besin aur pashchim ki or somali besin men bantata hai. sagar ki adhikatam gaharaee 5,803 mitar vhitale gart men hai. karlsabarg katak ek madhyavarti ghati dvara lambaee men vibhajit hai, jo samudr ki satah ke niche 3,596 mitar ki gaharaee tak pahunchati hai. adan ki khadi ke tatiy kagar rift bhrnshon se bane hain, jo ki dakshin–pashchim ki or abhisarit hokar poorvi athava gret rift vaili ke simant kagaron ke roop men afrika tak jate hain aur poorvi afriki rift pranali ka ek hissa hai, arab besin oman ki khadi ke besin se, ek snkare, bhookamp sakriy jalamagn marre katak dvara vibhajit hai, jo ki poorvottar se dakshin–pashchim men vistrit hokar karlsabarg se milata hai. marre katak ke pashchim men maliyan ka dabit kshetr hai. jahan par samudr tal nikatavarti mahadvipiy patal ke niche dhns jata hai.

arab sagar ka manachitr

sindhu nadi ke dvara ek gahari jalamagn khaee kati gee hai, jisane 861 kimi chaude v 1,496 kimi lambe gahare sagar ka saghan apashisht shnku bhi nikshepit kiya hai. yah shnku aur isake pas hi arab besin men gahare pani ka ek samatal maidan arab sagar ke adhikansh poorvottar samatal par phaile hain. somali tat ke poorv men somali besin gahare pani ka doosara samatal maidan banata hai.


mahadvipiy kagar arab prayadvip tat par snkara hai aur somali tat ke kinare aur bhi snkara hai. arab tat ke asapas koee vastavik praval–bhittiyan nahin paee jati hain. al–had (arab prayadvip ki poorvi agrabhoomi) antarip ke pas ke nikshepon men, jahan garmiyon men gahara pani oopar a jat hai, uchch jaivik padarth vale haidrojan salfaid yukt hari mitti hai. yah kshetr, jisamen machhaliyon ke kee avashesh hain, machhaliyon ki qabragah kahalata hai. mahadvipiy kagar ke adhikansh bhag par 2,743 mitar ki gaharaee tak bhoo–vyutpann nikshep phaile hain. isake niche, nikshep globijeraina (foraminiferida varg ke protojoa ka ek vnsh) ke choone se bane avaranon se nirmit hain, jabaki 3,962 mitar ke niche ke besin lal mitti se dhnke hain. sv–sthanak (usi jagah par nirmit) fairomainganiz pind somali aur arab besinon men pae ge hain tatha karlsabarg katak ke asapas paaulimaitelik salfaid pae ge hain. nikshep ki motaee uttar men 2,499 mitar se arab besin ke dakshin men lagabhag 489 mitar tak ghatati hai.

jalavayu evn jal vigyan

arab sagar ka drishy

arab sagar ki jalavayu maaunasooni hai. madhy arab sagar men janavari v faravari men samudr ki satah ke nikat hava ka nyoonatam tapaman lagabhag 24º se 25º se. rahata hai, jabaki joon aur navambar men 28º se. se adhik tapaman rahata hai. dakshin–pashchim maaunasooni havaen chalane ke dauran varsha ritu (aprail se navambar) men sagar se oopari 46 mitar men lavanata prati hazar 36 bhag se kam darj ki gee hai. jabaki sookhe ke mausam ke dauran (navambar se march), jab poorvottar maaunasooni havaen chalati hain, prati hazar 36 bhag se adhik ki lavanata somali tat ke alava 5º uttari akshansh ke samooche arab sagar ki uttari satah par darj ki gee hai. choonki vashpan varsha v nadiyon ke nivesh ke yog se adhik hota hai, sagar prativarsh pani ki matra men hani darshata hai.

jatil somali dhara, jo sokotra ke tat ke nikat lagabhag sat samudri mil ki gati pakad leti hai aur ek dakshinavart sncharan tntr ka bhag ban jati hai, jo garmiyon men poorvottar men arab tat ke sath aur phir dakshin ki or bharat ke tat ke sath 10º uttar tak nirantar bahati hai. us jagah par dakshin–pashchimi maaunasoon dhara men vilayit ho jati hai, jo 5º aur 10º uttar ke bich poorv ki or bahati hai. somali aur arab taton par garmiyon men gahare pani ka oopar uthana saf–saf drishtigochar hota hai. somali dhara dhima padakar poorvottar maaunasoon (sardiyon ke) ke samay viparit disha men bahati hai. uttari hind mahasagar ke oopari 914 mitar men pahachane ge panch jal pindon men se tin ka uday kramashah lal sagar, faras ki khadi aur arab sagar se paya gaya hai. in jal pindon ke pravah ke marg dakshin v poorv ki or hain.

arthik pahaloo

isake kuchh arthik pahaloo bhi hai.

snsadhan

akarbanik pushtikarakon, jaise sandrit faausfet ke uchch star, jo ki prachur matra men machhaliyon ka utpadan karat hain, pashchimi arab sagar men aur arab prayadvip ke dakshin–poorvi tat ke nikat dekhe ge hain. prakash–bhedan kshetr (prakash ka kshetr, jo samudr ke oopari 137 mitar men paya jata hai) men maujood yah poshanakari prabhav nishchit roop se kuchh had tak tat par pani ke oopar uthane ke karan hai, jo samudr tal par jame poshanakarakon ko sncharit kar deta hai. arab sagar men rahane vali telapavarti machhaliyon[2] men tyoona, sardin, bilafish[3], vahoo[4], shark, lainset fish[5] aur moon fish[6] shamil hai.

arab sagar ki ek avarti ghatana machhaliyon ka bade paimane par mar jana hai. is ghatana ka karan ushnakatibndhiy pani ki ek andarooni satah hai, jisamen aauksijan kam kafi kam hai, kintu faausfet ki prachurata hai. kuchh paristhitiyon men yah parat oopar uthati hai, jisake parinamasvaroop aauksijan ki kami se machhaliyon ki mrityu ho jati hai. arab sagar men chhote, lekin gahan paimane par, visheshakar afrika aur arab sagar prayadvip ke poorvi tat ke nikat machhali ka, vistrit shikar kiya jata hai. in prakriyaon men ped ke tane se khodi gee ulndi dongiyon, dhov(pal nauka) aur any chhoti navon ka prayog kiya jata hai. vyavasayik uddeshyon ke lie badi navon se bhi machhaliyan pakadi jati hain. bharat, pakistan, shrilnka, eeran, oman, yaman, frans, snyukt arab amirat, dakshin koriya aur maladiv machhali pakadane vale pramukh desh hain.

parivahan

arab sagar

lal sagar (svez nahar samet) aur faras ki khadi ke samaksh anukool sthiti ke karan arab sagar men vishv ke kuchh vyastatam samudri marg hain aur inhin do vistaron se pramukh marg nikalate hain. faras ki khadi ka nau parivahan mukhyatah tainkaron se hota hai, jinamen se kuchh atyadhik kshamata vale hote hain aur poorvi eshiya, yoorop aur uttar v dakshin ameriki ke gntavyon tak pahunchane ke lie arab sagar men chalate hain. 'svez nahar–lal sagar marg' ka istemal mukhyatah samany malavahak poton ke dvara dakshin, dakshin–poorv aur poorvi eshiya pahunchane ke lie kiya jata hai. sagar tat ke deshon ke kam ane vale kee bndaragah hain. inamen sarvadhik bade bndaragahon men, pakistan men muhammad bin qasim aur karachi tatha bharat men mumbee (samany mal) aur marmoogav (loh ayask) ate hain.

adhyayan evn anusandhan

madhyakal kal ke arabon ke lie arab sagar bharat ka sagar athava 'mahan sagar' ka ek bhag tha, jisamen se chhoti khadiyan, jaise faris ka samudr (faras ki khadi) ya kolazam ka samudr (lal sagar), alag pahachan rakhati thin. lagabhag athavin ya nauvin shatabdi se arab aur farasi samudri yatriyon ne grishm rituon ki maaunasooni havaon ke dvara prerit satah ki dharaon ka upayog karana sikha. dakshini arabi, poorv afriki aur lal sagar ke bndaragahon aur sath hi bharat, maleshiya aur chin ke bndaragahon ke bich yatra karane ke lie vrihad nausnchalan nirdesh oman aur dakshini arab ke hadramaut ilaqe ke navikon ke dvara nauvin aur pandrahavin shatabdi ke bich lekhabaddh kie ge. inamen se kuchh, jo farasi rahamang (margon ki pustaken) men shamil hain. taton, sampark margon aur dvipon ke vivaran ke sath hi havaon, dharaon, dhvaniyon aur taron ki madad se nausnchalan ki mahattvapoorn janakari dete hain. inamen varnit samriddh madhyakalin bndaragahon men bharat men div aur soorat, faras men haauramuz aur arab prayadvip men maskat aur adan, arab prayadvip dakshin–poorvi tat par al–had aur madrakah antarip, donon, aur somaliya men afriki haaurn ka antarip gvardaphuee antarip varnit bhoo–chihnon men hain. 20vin shatabdi men arab sagar ka adhyayan kee sagariy abhiyanon ke madhyam men kiya gaya hai, jinamen sarvadhik mahattvapoorn 1933-34 ko 'mabahis' ya 'jaaun marre' abhiyan raha hai, jisane jal sarvekshan, rasayan vigyan, dharaon, jal pindon, tal ke uchchavach aur nikshepon ke bare men janakariyan din. bahut si janakari antarrashtriy hind mahasagar abhiyan (1960-65) ke dauran prapt ki geen, jisamen british, amerika, soviyat aur jarman jahazon ne bhag liya aur dharaon, jaiviy utpadakata, bhookamp vigyan aur bhaumiki ka adhyayan kiya.  

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharat ka ek sngh shasit pradesh, jo lakkadiv, minikay aur aminadivi dvipon se bana hai.
  2. jo tat se door samudr men satah ke nikat rahati hain.
  3. ek prajati, jisaki ek lambi, tikhi chonch ya thoothan hoti hai
  4. tezi se tairane vali ek badi shikari machhali
  5. ek badi prajati, jisake ari jaise dant hote hain
  6. dhnsi chhati aur patale sharir vali ek rupahali machhali

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