अवतारवाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

avataravad ka hindoo dharm men bada mahattv hai. puranon adi men avataravad ka vistrit tatha vyapakata ke sath varnan kiya gaya hai. 'avatar' ka arth hota hai- "eeshvar ka prithvi par janm lena". snsar ke bhinn-bhinn deshon tatha dharmon men avataravad dharmik niyam ke saman adar aur shraddha ki drishti se dekha jata hai. poorvi aur pashchimi dharmon men yah samanyat: many tathy ke roop men svikar bhi kiya gaya hai. bauddh dharm ke mahayan pnth men avatar ki kalpana dridh mool hai. parasi dharm men anek siddhant hinduon aur visheshat: vaidik aryon ke saman hain, parntu yahan avatar ki kalpana upalabdh nahin hai.

arth

'avataravad' ko hindoo dharm men bahut hi mahattvapoorn mana gaya hai. atynt prachin kal se vartaman kal tak yah us dharm ke adharabhoot maulik siddhanton men anyatam hai. 'avatar' ka arth hai- "bhagavan ka apani svatntray shakti ke dvara bhautik jagath men moortaroop se avirbhav hona, prakat hona." avatar tatv ka dyotak prachinatam shabd 'pradurbhav' hai. shrimadbhagavat men 'vyakti' shabd isi arth men prayukt hua hai.[1] vaishnav dharm men avatar ka tathy vishesh roop se mahatvashali mana jata hai, kyonki vishnu ke par, vyooh, vibhav, antaryami tatha archa namak pncharoopadharan ka siddhant pancharatr ka maulik tatv hai. isilie vaishnav anuyayi bhagavan ke in nana roopon ki upasana apani ruchi tatha priti ke anusar adhikatar karate hain. shaivamat men bhagavan shnkar ki nana lilaon ka varnan milata hai, parntu bhagavan shnkar tatha parvati ke mool roop ki upasana hi is mat men sarvatr prachalit hai.

pauranik ullekh

hindoo dharmik grnthon puranon adi men avataravad ka vistrit tatha vyapak varnan milata hai. is karan is tatv ki udbhavana puranon ki den manana kisi bhi tarah nyay nahin hai. vedon men hamen avataravad ka maulik tatha prachinatam adhar upalabdh hota hai. vedon ke anusar prajapati ne jivon ki raksha ke lie tatha srishti ke kalyan ke lie nana roopon ko dharan kiya. 'shatapath brahman'[2] men matsyaroop dharan ka snket milata hai, koorm ka shatapath[3] tatha jaiminiy brahman[4] men, varah ka taittiriy snhita[5] tatha shatapath[6] men nrisinh ka taittiriy aranyak men tatha vaman ka taittiriy snhita[7] men shabdat: tatha rigved men vishnuon men arthat: snket milata hai. rigved men trivikram vishnu ko tin dagon dvara samagr vishv ke napane ka bahush: shrey diya gaya hai.[8] age chalakar prajapati ke sthan par jab vishnu men is prakar avataron ke roop, lila tatha ghatanavaichitray ka varnan ved ke oopar hi bahush: ashrit hai.

  • bhagavat ke anusar satvanidhi hari ke avataron ki ganana nahin ki ja sakati. jis prakar n sookhane vale talab se hajaron chhoti-chhoti nadiyan nikalati hain, usi prakar aksharayy satvashray hari se bhi nana avatar utpann hote hain-

avatara hasnkhyeya hare: satvanidhedvija:.
yathaavidasin: kulya: saras: syu: sahasrash:.

  1. vyooh (snkarshan, pradyumn tatha aniruddh)
  2. vibhav
  3. antaryami
  4. aryavatar

bhagavan vishnu ke avataron ki snkhya 24 mani jati hai.[9], parntu 'dashavatar' ki kalpana nitant lokapriy hai.

any dharmon men avataravad

  • parasi dharm men anek siddhant hinduon aur visheshat: vaidik aryon ke saman hain, parntu yahan avatar ki kalpana upalabdh nahin hai. parasi dharmanuyayiyon ka kathan hai ki is dharm ke praudh pracharak ya pratishthapak jarathushtr ke kahin bhi avatar nahin mane ge hain. tathapi ye log raja ko pavitr tatha daivi shakti se snpann manate the. 'hrenarah' namak adbhoot tej ki satta many thi, jisaka nivas pichhe ardashir raja men tatha sasnavnshi rajaon men tha, aisi kalpana parasi grnthon men upalabdh hai. sami logon men bhi avataravad ki kalpana nyoonadhik roop men vidyaman hai. in logon men raja bhautik shakti ka jis prakar choodant nivas tha, usi prakar vah daivi shakti ka poorn pratik mana jata tha. isalie raja ko devata ka avatar manana yahan svabhavat: siddh siddhant mana jata tha. prachin bebiloniya men is manyata ka poorn vikas dikhaee deta hai. kish ka raja 'urumush' apane jivan kal men hi eeshvar ka avatar mana jata tha. naramasin namak raja apane men devata ka rakt pravahit manata tha, isalie usane apane mastak par sing se yukt chitr ankit karava rakha tha. vah 'akkad ka devata' nam se vishesh prakhyat tha.
  • bauddh dharm ke mahayan pnth men avatar ki kalpana dridh mool hai. 'bodhisatv' karmaphal ki poornata hone par buddh ke roop men avatarit hote hain tatha nirvan ki prapti ke anntar buddh bhi bhavishy men avatar dharan karate hain. yah mahayaniyon ki manyata hai. bodhisatv 'tushit' namak svarg men nivas karate hue apane karmaphal ki paripakvata ki pratiksha karate hain aur uchit avasar ane par vah manav jagath men avatirn hote hain. theravadiyon men yah manyata nahin hai. bauddh avataratatv ka poorn nidarshan tibbat men dalaee lama ki kalpana men upalabdh hota hai. tibbat men dalaee lama avalokiteshvar buddh ke avatar mane jate hain. tibbati parnpara ke anusar gredain drup[10] namak lama ne is kalpana ka pratham pradurbhav kiya tha, jisake anusar dalaee lama dharmik guru tatha raja ke roop men pratishthit kie ge. aitihasik drishti se lojng-gya-matso[11] namak lama ne hi is parnpara ko janm diya. tibbati logon ka dridh vishvas hai ki dalaee lama ke marane par unaki atma kisi balak men pravesh karati hai, jo us math ke as-pas hi janm leta hai. isamen avatar ki kalpana many nahin thi. chini logon ka pahala raja shngati sadachar aur sadgun ka adarsh mana jata tha, parntu usake oopar devatv ka arop kahin bhi nahin milata.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 10.29.14
  2. 2.8.1.1
  3. 7.5.1.5.
  4. 3.272
  5. 7.5.1.1
  6. 14.1.2.11
  7. 2.1.3.1
  8. eko vimame tribhirith padebhi:-rigved 1.154.3
  9. shrimadbhagavat 2.6
  10. 1473 ee.
  11. 1615-1682

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