अशोक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ashok vishay soochi
ashok    jivan parichay    shasan kshetr    kalakram    dhamm    shilalekh    parivar    vistrit lekh
ashok
ashok
poora nam raja[1] priyadarshi devataon ka priy ashok maury
any nam 'devanampriy' evn 'priyadarshi'[2]
janm 304 eesa poorv (snbhavit)
janm bhoomi pataliputr (patana)
mrityu tithi 232 eesa poorv
mrityu sthan pataliputr, patana
pita/mata bindusar, subhadrangi (uttari parampara), rani dharma (dakshini parampara)
pati/patni (1) devi (vedis-mahadevi shakyakumari), (2) karuvaki (dvitiy devi tivalamata), (3) asndhimitra- agramahishi, (4) padmavati, (5) tishyarakshita[3]
sntan devi se- putr mahendr, putri snghamitra aur putri charumati, karuvaki se- putr tivar, padmavati se- putr kunal (dharmavivardhan) aur bhi kee putron ka ullekh hai.
upadhi raja[1], 'devanampriy' evn 'priyadarshi'
rajy sima sampoorn bharat
shasan kal eesapoorv 274[3] - 232
sha. avadhi 42 varsh lagabhag
rajyabhishek 272[4] aur 270[3] eesa poorv ke madhy
dharmik manyata hindoo dharm, bauddh dharm
prasiddhi ashok mahan, samrajy vistarak, bauddh dharm pracharak
yuddh samrat banane ke bad ek hi yuddh lada 'kaling-yuddh' (262-260 ee.poo. ke bich)
nirman bhavan, stoop, math aur stnbh
sudhar-parivartan shilalekhon dvara janata men hitakari adeshon ka prachar
rajadhani pataliputr (patana)
poorvadhikari bindusar (pita)
vnsh maury
snbndhit lekh ashok ke shilalekh, maury kal adi

ashok (angrezi:Ashok) athava 'asok' (kal eesa poorv 269 - 232) prachin bharat men maury rajavnsh ka raja tha. ashok ka devanampriy evn priyadarshi adi namon se bhi ullekh kiya jata hai. usake samay maury rajy uttar men hindukush ki shreniyon se lekar dakshin men godavari nadi ke dakshin tatha maisoor, karnatak tak tatha poorv men bngal se pashchim men afaganistan tak pahunch gaya tha. yah us samay tak ka sabase bada bharatiy samrajy tha. samrat ashok ko apane vistrit samrajy ke behatar kushal prashasan tatha bauddh dharm ke prachar ke lie jana jata hai. jivan ke uttarardh men ashok gautam buddh ka bhakt ho gaya aur unhin[5] ki smriti men usane ek stambh khada kar diya jo aj bhi nepal men unake janmasthal - lumbini men 'mayadevi mandir' ke pas ashok sh‍tamh‍bh ke roop men dekha ja sakata hai. usane bauddh dharm ka prachar bharat ke alava shrilnka, afaganistan, pashchim eshiya, misr tatha yoonan men bhi karavaya. ashok ke abhilekhon men praja ke prati kalyanakari drishtikon ki abhivyakti ki gee hai.

jivan parichay

janm

ashok prachin bharat ke maury samrat bindusar ka putr tha. jisaka janm lagabhag 304 ee. poorv men mana jata hai. lnka ki parampara men [6] bindusar ki solah pataraniyon aur 101 putron ka ullekh hai. putron men keval tin ke namollekh hain, ve hain - susim [7] jo sabase bada tha, ashok aur tishy. tishy ashok ka sahodar bhaee aur sabase chhota tha.[8]bhaiyon ke sath grih-yuddh ke bad 272 ee. poorv ashok ko rajagaddi mili aur 232 ee. poorv tak usane shasan kiya. inhen bhi dekhen: ashok ka parivar, bindusar evn chndragupt maury

devanampriy priyadarshi ke arth

'devanampriy priyadarshi' is vakyansh men bi.e. smith ke matanusar 'devanampriy' adarasoochak pad hai aur isi arth men hamane bhi isako liya hai kintu devanampriy shabd (dev-priy nahin) panini ke ek sootr[9] ke anusar anadar ka soochak hai. katyayan[10] ise apavad men rakha hai. patnjali[11] aur yahan tak ki kashika (650 ee.) bhi ise apavad hi manate hain. par in sabake uttarakalin vaiyakaran bhattojidikshit ise apavad men nahin rakhate. ve isaka anadaravachi arth 'moorkh' hi karate hain. unake mat se 'devanampriy brahmgyan se rahit us purush ko kahate hain jo ygy aur pooja se bhagavan ko prasann karane ka yatn karata hai. jaise- gay doodh dekar malik ko.[12] is prakar ek upadhi jo nndon, mauryon aur shungon ke yug men adaravachi thi. us mahanh raja ke prati brahmanon ke duragrah ke karan anadar soochak ban gee.

dharm parivartan

Blockquote-open.gif samrat ka adesh hai ki praja ke sath putravath vyavahar ho, janata ko pyar kiya jae, akaran logon ko karavas ka dnd tatha yatana n di jae. janata ke sath nyay kiya jana chahie. simant jatiyon ko ashvasan diya gaya ki unhen samrat se koee bhay nahin karana chahie. unhen raja ke sath vyavahar karane se sukh hi milega, kasht nahin. raja yathashakti unhen kshama karega, ve dhamm ka palan karen. yahan par unhen sukh milega aur mrityu ke bad svarg. Blockquote-close.gif

- ashok

isamen koee sndeh nahin ki apane poorvajon ki tarah ashok bhi brahman dharm ka anuyayi tha. mahavnsh ke anusar vah pratidin 60,000 brahmanon ko bhojan diya karata tha aur anek devi - devataon ki pooja kiya karata tha. kalhan ki rajatarngini ke anusar ashok ke isht dev shiv the. pashubali men use koee hichak nahin thi. kintu apane poorvajon ki tarah vah jigyasu bhi tha. maury rajy sabha men sabhi dharmon ke vidvanh bhag lete the. jaise - brahman, darshanik, nigrnth, ajivak, bauddh tatha yoonani darshanik. dipavnsh ke anusar ashok apani dharmik jigyasa shant karane ke lie vibhinn siddhanton ke vyakhyataon ko rajyasabha men bulata tha. unhen upahar dekar sammanit karata tha aur sath hi svayn bhi vichararth anek saval prastavit karata tha. vah yah janana chahata tha ki dharm ke kin grnthon men saty hai. use apane savalon ke jo uttar mile unase vah sntusht nahin tha.

bauddh dharm ka anuyayi

bauddh dharm ka prachar karate ashok

isamen koee sndeh nahin ki ashok bauddh dharm ka anuyayi tha. sabhi bauddh grnth ashok ko bauddh dharm ka anuyayi batate hain. ashok ke bauddh hone ke sabal praman usake abhilekh hain. rajyabhishek se sambaddh laghu shilalekh men ashok ne apane ko 'buddhashaky' kaha hai. sath hi yah bhi kaha hai ki vah dhaee varsh tak ek sadharan upasak raha. bhabru laghu shilalekh men ashok triratn—buddh, dhamm aur sngh men vishvas karane ke lie kahata hai aur bhikshu tatha bhikshuniyon se kuchh bauddh grnthon ka adhyayan tatha shravan karane ke lie kahata hai. laghu shilalekh se yah bhi pata chalata hai ki rajyabhishek ke dasaven varsh men ashok ne bodh gaya ki yatra ki, barahaven varsh vah nigali sagar gaya aur konagaman buddh ke stoop ke akar ko duguna kiya. mahavnsh tatha dipavnsh ke anusar usane tritiy bauddh sngiti (sabha) bulaee aur moggaliputt tiss ki sahayata se sngh men anushasan aur ekata lane ka saphal prayas kiya. yah doosari bat hai ki ekata theravad bauddh sampraday tak hi simit thi. ashok ke samay theravad sampraday bhi anek upasampradayon men vibhakt ho gaya tha.

videshon se sambandh

dhamm prachar evn dhamm vijay ke sndarbh men ashok ke shilalekhon men kuchh aise vivaran bhi milate hain, jinamen usake evn videshon ke parasparik sambandhon ka abhas milata hai. ye sambandh kootaniti evn bhaugolik sannidhy ke hiton par adharit the. ashok ne jo sampark sthapit kie ve adhikanshatah dakshin evn pashchim kshetron men the aur dhamm mishanon ke madhyam se sthapit kie the. in mishanon ki tulana adhunik sadabhavana mishanon se ki ja sakati hai. ashok ke ye mishan sthayi taur par videshon men ek ashcharyajanak tathy hain ki stnbh abhilekh nn. 7, jo ashok ke kal ki akhiri ghoshana mani jati hai, tamraparn, shrilnka ke atirikt aur kisi videshi shakti ka ullekh nahin karati. shayad videshon men ashok ko utani saphalata nahin mili jitani samrajy ke bhitar. phir bhi itana kaha ja sakata hai ki videshon se sampark ke jo dvar sikandar ke akraman ke pashchath khule the, ve ab aur adhik chaude ho ge.

nidhan

is bat ka vivaran nahin milata hai ki ashok ke karmath jivan ka ant kab, kaise aur kahan hua. tibbati parampara ke anusar usaka dehavasan takshashila men hua. usake ek shilalekh ke anusar ashok ka antim kary bhikshusngh me phoot dalane ki ninda karana tha. sambhavat: yah ghatana bauddhon ki tisari sngati ke bad ki hai. sinhali itihas grnthon ke anusar tisari sngiti ashok ke rajyakal men pataliputr men huee thi.[13]

uttaradhikari

40 varsh tak rajy karane ke bad lagabhag ee. poo. 232 men ashok ki mrityu huee. usake bad lagabhag 50 varsh tak ashok ke anek uttaradhikariyon ne shasan kiya. kintu in maury shasakon ke sambandh men hamara gyan aparyapt tatha anishchit hai. puran, bauddh tatha jain anushrutiyon men in uttaradhikariyon ke namon ki jo soochiyan di gee hain ve ek-doosare se mel nahin khati hain.

  • puranon ke anusar ashok ke bad 'kunal' gaddi par baitha. divyavadan men use 'dharmavivardhan' kaha gaya hai. 'dharmaviverdhan' sambhavatah usaka viruddh tha, kintu ashok ke aur bhi putr the.
  • puranon tatha nagarjuni pahadiyon ki gufaon ke shilalekh ke anusar dasharath kunal ka putr tha. nagarjuni gufaon ko dasharath ne ajivikon ko dan men diya tha. in pramanon ke adhar par yah mat prastut kiya gaya ki magadh samrajy do bhagon men vibhakt ho gaya. dasharath ka adhikar samrajy ke poorvi bhag men tatha snprati ka pashchimi bhag men tha.
  • vishnu puran tatha gargi snhita ke anusar snprati tatha dasharath ke bad ullekhaniy maury shasak salisuk tha. use snprati ka putr brihaspati bhi mana ja sakata hai.
  • puranon men hi nahin varanh harshacharit men bhi magadh ke antim samrat ka nam brihadrath diya gaya hai. inake anusar maury vnsh ke antim samrat brihadrath ki, usake senapati pushyamitr ne hatya kar di aur svayn sinhasan par aroodh ho gaya.
ashok vishay soochi
ashok    jivan parichay    shasan kshetr    kalakram    dhamm    shilalekh    parivar    vistrit lekh

maury kal
Arrow-left.png poorvadhikari
bindusar
ashok uttaradhikari
dasharath maury
Arrow-right.png



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 yah dhyan dene yogy bat hai ki yadyapi ashok sarvochch shasak tha par vah apane ko sirph 'raja' shabd se nirdisht karata hai. 'maharaja' aur 'rajadhiraj' jaisi bhari-bharakam ya adambar-poorn upadhiyan, jo alag-alag ya milakar prayukt ki jati hain, ashok ke samay men prachalit nahin huee thin. 'ashok' | lekhak: di.ar. bhndarakar | prakashak: es. chand end kampani | prishth snkhya:6
  2. 'ashok' | lekhak: di.ar. bhndarakar | prakashak: es. chand end kampani | prishth snkhya:5
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 'ashok' | lekhak: radhakumud mukharji | prakashak: motilal banarasidas | prishth snkhya: 8-9
  4. dvijendr narayan jha, krishn mohan shrimali “mauryakal”, prachin bharat ka itihas, dvitiy snskaran (hindi), dilli: hindi madhyam karyanvay nideshalay, 178.
  5. mahatma buddh
  6. jisaka akhyan 'dipavnsh' aur 'mahavnsh' men hua hai
  7. uttari paramparaon ka susim
  8. mukharji, radhakumud ashok (hindi). nee dilli: motilal banarasidas, 2.
  9. panini 6,3,21
  10. ee.poo. 350 sar ar. ji. bhndakar
  11. ee. poo. 150
  12. tattvabodhini aur balamanorama
  13. bhattachary, sachidannd bharatiy itihas kosh (hindi). lakhanoo: uttarapradesh hindi snsthan, 28.
  • 'ashok' | lekhak: radhakumud mukharji | prakashak: motilal banarasidas
  • 'ashok' | lekhak: di.ar. bhndarakar | prakashak: es. chand end kampani
  • 'prachin bharat ka itihas' | lekhak: dvijendr narayan jha, krishn mohan shrimali | prakashak: dilli vishvavidyalay
  • 'maury samrajy ka itihas' | lekhak: satyaketu vidyalnkar | prakashak: shri sarasvati sadan
  • 'bharat ka itihas' | lekhika: romila thapar | prakashak: rajakamal prakashan

snbndhit lekh