अश्वघोष  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

snskrit men bauddh mahakavyon ki rachana ka sootrapat sarvapratham mahakavi ashvaghosh ne hi kiya tha. at: mahakavi ashvaghosh snskrit ke pratham bauddhakavi hain. chini anushrutiyon tatha sahityik parampara ke anusar mahakavi ashvaghosh samrat kanishk ke rajaguru evamh rajakavi the. itihas men kam se kam do kanishkon ka ullekh milata hai. dvitiy kanishk pratham kanishk ka pautr tha. do kanishkon ke karan ashvaghosh ke samay asndigdh roop se nirnit nahin tha.

  • vintaranits ke anusar kanishk 125 ee. men sinhasan par asin hua tha. tadanusar ashvaghosh ka sthitikal bhi dvitiy shati ee. mana ja sakata hai. parantu adhikansh vidvanon ki manyata hai ki kanishk shak snvat ka pravartak hai. yah snvatsar 78 ee. se prarambh hua tha. isi adhar par kith ashvaghosh ka samay 100 ee. ke lagabhag manate hain. kanishk ka rajyakal 78 ee. se 125 ee. tak man lene par mahakavi ashvaghosh ka sthitikal bhi pratham shatabdi mana ja sakata hai.
  • bauddh dharm ke granthon men bhi aise anek praman milate hain, jinake adhar par ashvaghosh, samrat kanishk ke samakalin siddh hote hain. chini parampara ke anusar samrat kanishk ke dvara kashmir ke kundalav men ayojit anek ant:sakshy bhi ashvaghosh ko kanishk ka samakalin siddh karate hain.
  • ashvaghosh krit 'buddhacharit' ka chini anuvad eesa ki panchavin shatabdi ka upalabdh hota hai. isase vidit hota hai ki bharat men paryapt roopen pracharit hone ke bad hi isaka chini anuvad hua hoga.
  • samrat ashok ka rajyakal ee.poo. 269 se 232 ee. poo. hai, yah tathy poornat: itihas-siddh hai. 'buddhacharit' ke ant men ashok ka ullekh hone ke karan yah nishchit hota hai ki ashvaghosh ashok ke paravarti the.
  • chini parampara ashvaghosh ko kanishk ka diksha-guru manane ke paksh men hai. ashvaghosh krit 'abhidharmapitak' ki vibhasha namni ek vyakhya bhi prapt hoti hai jo kanishk ke hi samay men rachi gayi thi.
  • ashvaghosh rachit 'shariputraprakaran' ke adhar par pro0 lyoodars ne isaka rachanakal huvishk ka shasanakal svikar kiya hai. huvishk ke rajyakal men ashvaghosh ki vidyamanata aitihasik drishti se apramanik hai. inaka rajyarohanakal kanishk ki mrityu ke bis varsh ke bad hai. huvishk ke prapt sikkon par kahin bhi buddh ka nam nahin milata, kintu kanishk ke sikkon par buddh ka nam ankit hai. kanishk bauddhadharmavalambi the aur huvishk brahman dharm ka anuyayi tha. at: ashvaghosh ka unake darabar men vidyaman hona siddh nahin hota.
  • kalidas tatha ashvaghosh ki rachanaon ka tulanatmak adhyayan karane ke pashchath yah nishkarsh nikalata hai ki ashvaghosh kalidas ke paravarti the. kalidas ki tithi pratham shatabdi ee. poo. svikar karane se yah manana padata hai ki donon rachanaon men jo samy parilakshit hota hai usase kalidas ka rin ashvaghosh par siddh hota hai. ashvaghosh ke oopar kalidas ka prabhoot prabhav pada tha, isaka pratyaksh praman yah hai ki kalidas ne kumarasnbhav aur raghuvnsh men jin shlonkon ko likha, unhin ka anukaran ashvaghosh ne buddhacharit men kiya hai. kalidas ne vivah ke bad pratyagat shiv-parvati ko dekhane ke lie utsuk kailas ki lalanaon ka tatha svayamvar ke anantar aj aur indumati ko dekhane ke lie utsuk vidarbh ki ramaniyon ka kramash: kumarasnbhav tatha raghuvnsh men jin shlokon dvara varnan kiya hai, unhin ke bhavon ke madhyam se ashvaghosh ne bhi rajakumar siddharth ko dekhane ke lie utsuk kapilavastu ki sundariyon ka varnan kiya hai. buddhacharit ka nimnashlok-
  • vatayanebhyastu vini:sritani parasparayasitakundalani.

strinan virejurmukhapanakajani saktani harmyeshviv panakajani॥[1] kumarasnbhav tatha raghuvnsh ke nimnashlok-

  • tasan mukhairasavagandhagarbhairvyaptantara sandrakutoohalanamh.

vilolanetrabhramarairgavaksha: sahasrapatrabharana ivasanh.[2] ki pratichchhaya hai. uparyukt shlokadvay ke tulanatmak adhyayan se yah siddh hota hai ki ashvaghosh kalidas ke rini the, kyonki jo mool kavi hota hai vah apane sundar bhav ko anekatr vyakt karata hai. us bhav ka prachar-prasar chahata hai isilie kalidas ne kumarasnbhav aur radhuvnsh men apane bhav ko duharaya hai. parantu ashvaghosh ne kalidas ka anukaran kiya hai. at: unhonne ek hi bar is bhav ko liya hai. phalat: ashvaghosh kalidas se paravarti hain.

vyaktitv tatha kartrivy

snskrit ke pratham bauddh mahakavi ashvaghosh ke jivanavritt se sambandhit atyalp vivaran hi prapt hai. 'saundaranand' namak mahakavy ki pushpika se gyat hota hai ki inaki mata ka nam suvarnakshi tha tatha ye saket ke nivasi the. ye mahakavi ke atirikt 'bhadant', 'achary' tatha 'mahavadi' adi upadhiyon se vibhooshit the.[3] unake kavyon ki antarng pariksha se gyat hota hai ki ve jati se brahman the tatha vaidik sahity, mahabharat-ramayan ke marmgy vidvanh the. unaka 'saketak' hona is tathy ka parichayak hai ki un par ramayan ka vyapak prabhav tha.

  • samrat kanishk ke rajakavi ashvaghosh bauddh dharm ke kattar anuyayi the. inaki rachanaon par bauddh dharm evamh gautam buddh ke upadeshon ka paryapt prabhav parilakshit hota hai. ashvaghosh ne dharm ka prasar karane ke uddeshy se hi kavita likhi thi. apani kavita ke vishay men ashvaghosh ki suspasht udghoshana hai ki mukti ki charcha karane vali yah kavita shanti ke lie hai, vilas ke lie nahin.[4] kavy-roop men yah isalie likhi gee hai taki anyamanask shrota ko apani or akrisht kar sake.
  • ashvaghosh bauddh-darshan-sahity ke prakand pandit the. inaki ganana un kalakaron ki shreni men ki jati hai jo kala ki yavanika ke pichhe chhipakar apani manyataon ko prakashit karate hain. inhonne kavita ke madhyam se bauddh dharm ke siddhanton ka vivechan kar janasadharan ke lie saralata tatha saralatapoorvak sulabh evamh akarshak banane ka saphal prayas kiya hai. inaki samast rachanaon men bauddhadharm ke siddhant pratibimbit hue hain. bhagavan buddh ke prati aparimit astha tatha any dharmon ke prati sahishnuta mahakavi ashvaghosh ke vyaktitv ki anyatam visheshata hai. ashvaghosh kavi hone ke sath hi sngit marmgy bhi the. unhonne apane vicharon ko prabhavashali banane ke lie kavy ke atirikt gitatmakata ko pramukh sadhan banaya.[5]
  • bahumukhi pratibha ke dhani tatha snskrit ke bahushrut vidvanh mahakavi ashvaghosh men shastr aur kavy-sarjan ki saman pratibha thi. unake vyaktitv men kavitv tatha acharyatv ka manikanchan snyog tha. unhonne sajrasoochi, mahayanashraddhotpadashastr tatha sootralnkar athava kalpanamanditika namak dharm aur darshan vishayon ke atirikt shariputraprakaran namak ek roopak tatha buddhacharit tatha saundaranand namak do mahakavyon ki bhi rachana ki. in rachanaon men buddhacharit mahakavi ashvaghosh ka kirtistambh hai. isamen kavi ne tathagat ke sattvik jivan ka saral aur saras varnan kiya hai. 'saundaranand' ashvaghoshapranit dvitiy mahakavy hai. isamen bhagavan buddh ke anuj nand ka charit varnit hai. in rachanaon ke madhyam se bauddh dharm ke siddhanton ka vivechan kar unhen janasadharan ke lie sulabh karana hi mahakavi ashvaghosh ka mukhy uddeshy tha. inaki samast rachanaon men bauddh dharm ke siddhant suspasht roop se pratibimbit hain. ashvaghosh pranit mahakavyon men buddhacharit apoorn tatha saundaranand poorn roop men mool snskrit men upalabdh hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. buddhacharit 3.19
  2. kumarasnbhav 7.62, raghuvnsh7.11
  3. ary suvarnakshiputrasy saketakasy bhikshorachary bhadantashvaghoshasy mahakavermahavadin: kritiriyamh. (ashvaghosh- saundaranand ki pushpika
  4. 'ityesha vyupashantaye n rataye moksharthagarbhakriti:'saundaranand 18.63
  5. Keith- History of Sanskrit Literature, Page 56

snbndhit lekh