असहयोग आंदोलन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

asahayog andolan
mahatma gandhi, chitrakar-profesar laing haimar
vivaran 'asahayog andolan' ka snchalan svaraj ki mang ko lekar kiya gaya tha.
shuruat 1 agast, 1920
uddeshy angrezi sarakar ke sath sahayog n karake karyavahi men badha upasthit karana tha.
prabhav pashchimi bharat, bngal tatha uttari bharat men asahayog andolan ko abhootapoorv saphalata mili. vidyarthiyon ke adhyayan ke lie anek shikshan snsthaen jaise kashi vidyapith, bihar vidyapith, gujarat vidyapith, banaras vidyapith, tilak maharashtr vidyapith evn aligadh muslim vishvavidyalay adi sthapit ki geen.
snbndhit lekh gandhi ji ke ahvan par asahayog andolan ke kharch ki poorti ke lie 1920 ee. men tilak svarajy fand ki sthapana ki gee, jisamen logon dvara ek karod se adhik rupaye jama kiye ge.

asahayog andolan ka snchalan svaraj ki mang ko lekar kiya gaya. isaka uddeshy sarakar ke sath sahayog n karake karyavahi men badha upasthit karana tha. asahayog andolan gandhi ji ne 1 agast, 1920 ko arambh kiya.

adhiveshan ka ayojan

sitambar, 1920 men asahayog andolan ke karyakram par vichar karane ke lie kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) men 'kangres mahasamiti ke adhiveshan' ka ayojan kiya gaya. is adhiveshan ki adhyakshata lala lajapat ray ne ki. isi adhiveshan men kangres ne pahali bar bharat men videshi shasan ke viruddh sidhi karyavahi karane, vidhan parishadon ka bahishkar karane tatha asahayog v savinay avgya andolan ko prarambh karane ka nirnay liya. kalakatta adhiveshan men gandhi ji ne prastav pesh karate hue kaha ki, "angrezi sarakar shaitan hai, jisake sath sahayog sambhav nahin. angrez sarakar ko apani bhoolon par koee du:kh nahin hai, at: ham kaise svikar kar sakate hain ki navin vyavasthapikaen hamare svarajy ka marg prashast karengi. svarajy ki prapti ke lie hamare dvara pragatishil ahinsatmak asahayog ki niti apanaee jani chahie."

prastav ka virodh

gandhi ji ke is prastav ka virodh karate hue aini besent ne kaha ki, "yah prastav bharatiy svatntrata ko sabase bada dhakka hai." gandhi ji ke is virodh tatha samaj aur sabhy jivan ke viruddh sngharsh ki ghoshana ka surendranath banarji, madanamohan malaviy, deshabandhu chittarnjan das, vipinachandr pal, muhammad ali jinna, shnkar nayar, sar narayan chandravarakar ne prarambh men virodh kiya. phir bhi ali bandhuon evn motilal neharoo ke samarthan se yah prastav kangres ne svikar kar liya. yahi vah kshan tha, jahan se gandhi yug ki shuruat huee.

gavarnament aauf indiya ekt

sarakar ne pahale ki tarah andolan ko dabane ke lie daman aur samajhaute ke donon raste akhtiyar kiye aur 1935 ka 'gavarnament aauf indiya ekt' pas kiya. is ekt ke dvara british bharat tatha deshi riyasaton ke lie sammilit roop se ek snghiy shasan ka prastav kiya, kendr men ek prakar ke dvaidh shasan ki sthapana ki gayi tatha pranton ko svashasan pradan kar diya gaya. ekt ka pranton se sambandhit bhag lagoo kar diya gaya tatha aprail 1937 ee. men prantiy svashasan ka shriganesh kar diya gaya. parantu ekt ke sngh sarakar se sambandhit bhag ke lagoo hone se pahale hi sitambar 1939 ee. men 'dvitiy vishvayuddh' shuroo ho gaya jo 1945 ee. tak jari raha. yah vishvavyapi yuddh tha aur briten ko apane sare sadhan usamen jhonk dene pade. bharat ne briten ka sath diya aur bharat ke pas jan aur dhan ki jo vishal shakti thi, usase labh uthakar tatha amarika ki sahayata se briten yuddh jit gaya. gandhi ji ke amit prabhav tatha ahinsa men unaki dridh nishtha ke karan bharat ne yadyapi british sambandh ko banaye rakha, phir bhi yah spasht ho gaya ki bharat ab british samrajy ki adhinata men nahin rahana chahata.

nagapur adhiveshan

kangres ke nagapur adhiveshan men asahayog ke prastav ki pushti kar di gee tatha do mahattvapoorn nirnay liye ge. pahale nirnay ke antargat kangres ne ab british samrajy ke bhitar svashasan ka lakshy tyagakar british samrajy ke bhitar aur avashyakata ho to bahar 'svarajy ka lakshy' ghoshit kiya. doosare nirnay ke dvara kangres ne rachanatmak karyakramon ki ek soochi taiyar ki, jo is prakar thi-

  • sabhi vayaskon ko kangres ka sadasy banana.
  • tin sau sadasyon ki 'akhil bharatiy kangres samiti' ka gathan.
  • bhashayi adhar par prantiy kangres samitiyon ka punargathan.
  • svadeshi vastuon arthath mukhyat: hath ki kataee-bunaee ko protsahan.
  • yathasambhav hindi ka prayog adi.

asahayog sambandhi prastav ki mukhy baten is prakar thin-

  • sarakari upadhi evn avaitanik sarakari padon ko chhod diya jae.
  • sarakar dvara ayojit sarakari tatha ardhasarakari utsavon ka bahishkar kiya jae. sthaniy snsthaon ki sarakari sadasyata se istifa diya jae.
  • sarakari skoolon evn kaaulejon ka bahishkar tatha vakilon ke dvara nyayalay ka bahishkar kiya jae.
  • apasi vivad pnchayati adalaton ke dvara nipataya jae.
  • asainik shramik v karmachari varg mesopotamiya men jakar naukari karane se inkar kare.
  • videshi samanon ka poornat: bahishkar kiya jae.

bahishkar ka nirnay

gandhi ji ke vidhan parishadon ke bahishkar ke prastav par chittarnjan das sahamat nahin the. unhonne kaha ki, main parishadon ko svarajy prapti ka sadhan samajhata hoon. lala lajapat ray skoolon men bahishkar ke virodhi the, lekin motilal neharoo ke prayas se sampann samajhaute men tay hua ki skoolon evn adalaton ka bahishkar dhire-dhire kiya jae.

Blockquote-open.gif andolan ko hinsak hone se bachane ke lie main har ek apaman, har ek yatanapoorn bahishkar, yahan tak ki maut bhi sahane ko taiyar hoon. Blockquote-close.gif

svarajy ka lakshy

disambar, 1920 men nagapur men ayojit kangres adhiveshan men asahayog prastav se sambandhit lala lajapat ray evn chittarnjan das ne apana virodh vapas le liya. gandhi ji ne nagapur men kangres ke purane lakshy angrezi samrajy ke antargat 'svashasan' ke sthan par angrezi ke antargat 'svarajy' ka naya lakshy ghoshit kiya. sath hi gandhi ji ne yah bhi kaha ki yadi avashyak hua to svarajy ke lakshy ko angrezi samrajy se bahar bhi prapt kiya ja sakata hai. motilal neharoo evn mohammad ali jinna ne 'svarajy' ke uddeshy ka virodh is adhar par kiya ki usamen yah spasht nahin kiya gaya tha ki samrajy se koee sambandh banaye rakha jayega ya nahin. aini besent, mohammad ali jinna evn pal jaise neta gandhi ji ke prastav se asntusht hokar kangres chhodakar chale ge. nagapur adhiveshan ka aitihasik drishtikon se mahattv isalie hai, kyonki yahan par vaidhanik sadhanon ke antargat svarajy prapti ke lakshy ko tyagakar sarakar ke sakriy virodh karane ki bat ko svikar kiya gaya.

rachanatmak kary

asahayog andolan ki saphalata ke lie gandhi ji dvara apanaye ge rachanatmak karyon men sharab ka bahishkar, hindoo-muslim ekata evn ahinsa par bal, chhuachhoot se parahej, svadeshi vastuon ka prayog, hath se kate ya bune khadi ke kapadon ka prayog, kangres ke jhande ke niche samast rashtr ko ekatr karana, kade qanoonon ki savinay avgya karana, kar n dena adi shamil tha. gandhi ji ne ashvasan diya ki asahayog ke tarike ko apanate hue yadi in karyakramon par poori tarah se amal hua to ek varsh ke bhitar hi azadi mil jayegi.

andolan ki pragati

andolan shuroo karane se pahale gandhi ji ne kaisar-e-hind[1] puraskar ko lauta diya, any saikadon logon ne bhi gandhi ji ke padachihnon par chalate hue apani padaviyon evn upadhiyon ko tyag diya. ray bahadur ki upadhi se sammanit jamanalal bajaj ne bhi yah upadhi vapas kar di. asahayog andolan gandhi ji ne 1 agast, 1920 ko arambh kiya. pashchimi bharat, bngal tatha uttari bharat men asahayog andolan ko abhootapoorv saphalata mili. vidyarthiyon ke adhyayan ke lie anek shikshan snsthaen jaise kashi vidyapith, bihar vidyapith, gujarat vidyapith, banaras vidyapith, tilak maharashtr vidyapith evn aligadh muslim vishvavidyalay adi sthapit ki geen.

shiksha snsthaon ka bahishkar

asahayog andolan ke dauran shiksha snsthaon ka sarvadhik bahishkar bngal men hua. subhashachandr bos 'neshanal kaaulej kalakatta' ke pradhanachary bane. pnjab men lala lajapat ray ke netritv men bahishkar kiya gaya. shiksha ka bahishkar madras men bilkul asaphal raha. vakalat ka bahishkar karane vale vakilon men pramukh the-bngal ke deshabandhu chittarnjan das, uttar pradesh ke motilal neharoo evn javaharalal neharoo, gujarat ke vitthalabhaee patel evn vallabh bhaee patel, bihar ke rajendr prasad, madras ke chakravarti rajagopalachari evn dilli ke asaf ali adi. muslim netaon men asahayog men sarvadhik yogadan dene vale neta the-daauktar ansari, maulana abul kalam azad, shauqat ali, muhammad ali adi. gandhi ji ke ahvan par asahayog andolan ke kharch ki poorti ke lie 1920 ee. men tilak svarajy fand ki sthapana ki gee, jisamen logon dvara ek karod se adhik rupaye jama kiye ge.

andolan ka charamotkarsh

1919 ee. ke sudhar adhiniyam ke udaghatan ke lie 'dyook aauf kanaaut' ke bharat ane par virodh evn bahishkar kiya gaya. 1921 ee. men asahayog andolan apane charamotkarsh par tha. bahishkar andolan ke dauran ek karyavahi jo bahut lokapriy huee, halanki vah mool karyakram men nahin thi, vah thi-tadi ki dukanon par dharana. sarakar ne asahayog andolan ko kuchalane ke lie har sambhav prayas kiya. 4 march, 1921 ee. ko nanakana ke ek gurudvare, jahan par shantipoorn dhng se sabha ka snchalan kiya ja raha tha, par sainikon ke dvara goli chalane ke karan 70 logon ki janen gee. 1921 ee. men laaurd riding ke bharat ke vayasaray banane par daman chakr kuchh aur hi kadaee se chalaya gaya. muhammad ali jinna, motilal neharoo, chittarnjan das, lala lajapat ray, maulana abul kalam azad, rajagopalachari, rajendr prasad, saradar patel jaise neta giraftar kar liye ge. muhammad ali pahale neta the, jinhen sarvapratham 'asahayog andolan' men giraftar kiya gaya.

Blockquote-open.gif kalakatta adhiveshan men gandhi ji ne prastav pesh karate hue kaha ki angrezi sarakar shaitan hai, jisake sath sahayog sambhav nahin. angrez sarakar ko apani bhoolon par koee du:kh nahin hai, at: ham kaise svikar kar sakate hain ki navin vyavasthapikaen hamare svarajy ka marg prashast karengin. svarajy ki prapti ke lie hamare dvara pragatishil ahinsatmak asahayog ki niti apanaee jani chahie. Blockquote-close.gif

prins aauf vels ka bahishkar

aprail, 1921 men prins aauf vels ke bharat agaman par unaka sarvatr kala jhanda dikhakar svagat kiya gaya. gandhi ji ne ali bandhuon ki rihaee n kiye jane ke karan prins aauf vels ke bharat agaman ka bahishkar kiya. 17 navambar, 1921 ko jab prins aauf vels ka bambee, vartaman mumbee agaman hua, to unaka svagat rashtravyapi hadatal se hua. isi bich disambar, 1921 men ahamadabad men kangres ka adhiveshan hua. yahan par asahayog andolan ko tez karane evn savinay avgya andolan chalane ki yojana bani.

andolan samapti ka nirnay

isi bich 5 faravari, 1922 ko devariya zile ke chauri chaura namak sthan par pulis ne jabaran ek juloos ko rokana chaha, isake phalasvaroop janata ne krodh men akar thane men ag laga di, jisamen ek thanedar evn 21 sipahiyon ki mrityu ho gee. is ghatana se gandhi ji stabdh rah ge. 12 faravari, 1922 ko baradoli men huee kangres ki baithak men asahayog andolan ko samapt karane ke nirnay ke bare men gandhi ji ne 'yng indiya' men likha tha ki, "andolan ko hinsak hone se bachane ke lie main har ek apaman, har ek yatanapoorn bahishkar, yahan tak ki maut bhi sahane ko taiyar hoon." ab gandhi ji ne rachanatmak karyon par zor diya.

netaon ke vichar

asahayog andolan ke sthagan par motilal neharoo ne kaha ki, "yadi kanyakumari ke ek ganv ne ahinsa ka palan nahin kiya, to isaki saza himalay ke ek ganv ko kyon milani chahie." apani pratikriya men subhashachandr bos ne kaha, "thik is samay, jabaki janata ka utsah charamotkarsh par tha, vapas lautane ka adesh dena rashtriy durbhagy se kam nahin". andolan ke sthagit karane ka prabhav gandhi ji ki lokapriyata par pada. 13 march, 1922 ko gandhi ji ko giraftar kiya gaya tatha nyayadhish broom fild ne gandhi ji ko asntosh bhadakane ke aparadh men 6 varsh ki qaid ki saza sunaee. svasthy sambandhi karanon se unhen 5 faravari, 1924 ko riha kar diya gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. yah puraskar gandhi ji ko pratham vishv yuddh ke dauran sarakar ke sahayog ke badale mila tha.

snbndhit lekh


suvyavasthit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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