आकाश  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

akash kisi bhi khagoliy pind (jaise prithvi) ke vahy antariksh ka vah bhag hai jo us pind ke satah se dikhaee deta hai. anek karanon se ise paribhashit karana kathin hai. din ke prakash men prithvi ka akash gahare-nile rng ke satah jaisa pratit hota hai jo hava ke kanon dvara prakash ke prakirnan ke parinamasvaroop ghatit hota hai. jabaki ratri men hamen dharati ka akash taron se bhara hua kale rng ka satah jaisa jan padata hai. asaman ka rng usaka nahin hota hai. soory se ane vala prakash jab akash men upasthit dhool ityadi se milata hai to vah phail jata hai. nila rng, tarng dairdhy ke karan any rngon ki apeksha men adhik phailata hai isaliye akash prithvi ki satah se nila dikhaee deta hai.

akash ke any nam

  1. nabh
  2. asaman
  3. ambar
  4. vyom
  5. nilambar
  6. gagan

akash tattv

  • vaisheshik sootrakar kanad ne prithvi, jal, tej aur vayu ki paribhasha mukhyat: unamen samavay sambandh se vidyaman pramukh gunon ke adhar par sakaratmak vidhi se ki, kintu akash ki paribhasha ka avasar ane par kanad ne arambh men nakaratmak vidhi se yah kaha ki akash vah hai[1] jisamen roop, ras, gandh aur sparsh namak gun nahin rahate. kintu bad men unhonne yah bataya ki parisheshanuman se yah siddh hota hai ki akash vah hai, jo shabd ka ashray hai.
  • prashastapad ke kathanon ka ashay bhi yah hai ki akash vah hai, jisaka vyapak shabd hai. akash ek paribhashik sngya hai arthath akash ko 'akash' bina kisi nimitt ke vaise hi kaha gaya hai, jaise ki vyaktivachak sngya ke roop men kisi balak ko devadatt kah diya jata hai. at: 'akashatv' jaisi koee jati (samany) usamen nahin hai. jis prakar se prithvi ghat ka karyarambhak dravy hai, us prakar se akash kisi avantar dravy ka arambhak nahin hota. jaisi prithvitv ki parajati (vyapak samany) dravyatv hai aur aparajati (vyapy samany) ghatatv hai, vaisi parajati hone par bhi koee aparajati akash ki nahin hai. yadyapi gun aur karm ki apeksha se bhi aparajati ki pratiti ka vidhan hai, kintu akash men shabd adi jo chh: gun bataye ge hain, ve samany gun hain. at: unamen aparajati ka ghatakatv nahin mana ja sakata. shabd vishesh gun hote hue bhi anek dravyon ka gun nahin hai. at: vah jati ka ghatak nahin hota. is prakar anek vrittita n hone ke karan akash men 'akashatv' namak samany ki avadharana nahin ki ja sakati.
  • kintu uparyukt mantavy ka khyapan karane ke anantar bhi prashastapad yah kahate hain ki akash men shabd, snkhya, pariman, prithaktv, snyag aur vibhag ye chh: gun vidyaman hain aur pariganit gunon men shabd ko sarvapratham rakhate hain, jisase vaisheshik ke uttaravarti acharyon ne bhi kanad aur prashastapad ke ashayon ke anuroop shabd ko parisheshanuman ke adhar par akash ka pramukh gun man liya aur is prakar annnbhatt ne antat: akash ki yah paribhasha ki 'shabdagunakamh akashamh' arthath jis dravy men shabd namak gun rahata hai vah akash hai. akash ek hai, nity hai aur vibhu hai.[2] akash ki n to utpatti hoti hai aur n nash, vah akhand dravy hai, usake avayav nahin hote. akash ka pratyaksh gyan nahin hota. usaka gyan parisheshanuman se hota hai. 'ih pakshi' adi udaharanon ke adhar par mimansakon ne akash ko pratyakshagamy mana hai, kintu vaisheshikon ke anusar 'ih pakshi' adi kathan akash ka nahin, apitu alokamandal ka snket karate hain. at: akash, shabd dvara anumey dravy hai.
  • vaisheshikon ke anusar shabd ka gun hai, gun ka ashray koee n koee dravy hota hai. prithvi adi any ath dravy shabd ke ashray nahin hain. at: akash ke atirikt koee dravyantar ashray ke roop men upalabdh n hone ke karan akash ko parisheshanuman se shabdagun ka ashray mana gaya hai. akash ka koee samavayi, asamavayi aur nimitt karan nahin hai. shabd usaka gyapak hetu hai, karak nahin.
  • bhatt mimansak shabd ko gun nahin apitu dravy manate hain. kintu vaisheshikon ke anusar shabd ka dravyatv siddh nahin hota. sootrakar kanad ne yah spasht roop se kaha hai ki dravy vah hota hai, jisake keval ek hi nahin, apitu anek samavayikaran hon. shabd ka keval ek samavayikaran hai, vah akash hai. at: shabd ekadravyashrayi gun hai.[3] vah dravy nahin hai, apitu dravy se bhinn hai aur gun ki koti men ata hai. is prakar vaisheshik nayanusar akash prithakh roop se ek vibhu aur nity dravy hai.

akash bhautiki ke anusar prithvi ko ghere hue jo golakar gunbaj dikhaee padata hai usi ko akash athava gagan kahate hain. prithvi par jidhar bhi ham apane charon or drishti daudate hain vahin yah gunbaj dharatal se milata hua jan padata hai. is chaturdikh‌ vistrit brihath‌ sammilanavritt ko kshitij kahate hain. samudr ke bich jahaj par baithe hue hamen jahaj is vishal gunbaj ke kendr par sthit jan padata hai, kintu jyon-jyon jahaj age badhata hai tyon-tyon yah gunbaj kshitij ke sath ke sath age sarakata jata hai. yahi anubhav hamen thal par bhi hota hai. prithvi ki parikrama chahe ham jalamarg se karen athava sthalamarg se, yah akash hamen sarvatr isi roop men dikhaee padata hai. isase siddh hota hai ki yah khagol hamari prithvi ke oopar chaturdikh‌ achchhadit hai. prashn uthata hai ki kya akash koee vastavik padarth hai. oopar dekhane se hamen ek parde ka abhas hota hai, kintu vastav men akash koee parda nahin hai. soory, chndr, grah tatha nakshatr, prithvi ke paribhraman tatha ghoornan ke karan athava apani niji gati ke karan vibhinn apekshik gatiyon se isi parde par chalate dikhaee padate hain. ratri men jahaj ke oopar athava marusthal ke bich yah gunbaj taron or grahon se achchhadit dikhaee padata hai. ham ek sath is gunbaj ka adha hi dekh paten hai; doosara golardh prithvi ke thik doosari or pahunchane par dikhaee padata hai. akash nirmal rahane par krishn paksh ki ratri men ek chaudi mekhala par tare adhik snkhya men dikhaee padate hain. yah mekhala kshitij ke ek kinare se nikalakar hamare oopar se hoti huee kshitij ke thik doosari or jakar milati jan padati hai. isase gyat hota hai ki yah mekhala ek poorn, vishal chakr ke saman prithvi ko ghere hue hai. ise akashagnga kahate hain[4]

yadyapi chndrama ki doori keval 2 lakh 39 hajar mil hai, jise tay karane men akash ko kul sava seknd lagata hai aur niharikaon ki dooriyan itani adhik hain ki unase chalakar prithvi tak pahunchane men prakash ko sainkadon athava hajaron varsh lagate hain, to bhi sab akashiy pind hamen akash ke hi parde par dikhaee padate hain aur aisa jan padata hai ki sab prithvi se ek hi doori par hain.

in taron aur nakshatron se bhare hue akash ko dekhakar hamen akash ki shoonyata par vishvas nahin hota, kintu poore akash ke pady bhag men keval ek bhag ko taron ne le rakha hain; isilie akash ko nabh (shoony) bhi kaha gaya hai. shesh sthan men nakshatr dhooli aur kan vidyaman hain, parntu ye bhi bahut bikhari huee avastha men hain. ek ghan sentimitar men haidrojan ka keval 1 paramanu aur ek ghan mil men snbhavat: 100 any kan vidyaman hain, jab ki prithvi par sadharan tap aur dab par sadharan gaison men 1019 anu prati ghan sentimitar men pae jate hain

akash din men (badal adi n hone par) dekhane par nila dikhaee deta hai aur aisa lagata hai ki yah nilapan athah hai, jaise svayn isaki gaharaee ghanibhoot ho gee ho. isaka rng adhikansh baigani prakash se nirmit hota hai aur isamen kaphi matra nile rng ki hoti hai aur thodi matra hare rng ki tatha atyalp matra pile aur lal ki; in sabhi rngon ke prakash ka yog akashiy nila rng pradan karata hai.

akash ki nilima prakash ki rashmiyon ke prakirnan (bikharane) dvara utpann hoti hai. ratri men prakash nahin rahata to vahi gaganamndal kala arthath‌ prakasharahit ho jata hai. hamari prithvi ko ghere hue vayu mndal hai jo hamen dikhaee to nahin padata, kintu is vayusagar men ham log usi tarah rahate hain aur isaka upayog karate hain jaise machhaliyan jalasagar men rahati hain. vayu ka ghanatv prithvi ke tal par sabase adhik hota hai aur oopar ki or kramash: ghatata jata hai. lagabhag 10-5 sentimitar dab par vayu 1,000 mil se bhi oopar tak paee jati hai. is vayu mndal men naitrojan, aksijan, karban-daee-aksaid tatha any gainse hoti hain. inake atirikt jalavashp aur dhooli ke kan bhi vidyaman hain. prakash ki rashmiyan inhin geson ke anuon dvara tatha dhooli aur jal ke kanon dvara prakirnit hoti hain. prakirnit prakash ki tivrata pr (s) tarngadairghy t (l) ke chaturth ghat ki vilomi hoti hai, arthath‌

prakash ke tarngadairghy ke dasaven bhag se bhi chhote kanon ke dvara prakirnan raile ke nimnalikhit sootr ke anusar hota hai-

jahan S ikaee ayatan dvara honevale prakirnan ko vayakt karata hain; N prati ikaee ayatan kanon ki snkhya hai, tatha n vartanank hai. isase yah spasht hai ki nili rashmiyan, jinaka tarngadairghy lal rashmiyon ke tarngadairghy ka adha hota hai lagabhag 10 guna adhik vikshipt hoti hain. yadi kan in rashmiyon ke tarngadairghy se bahut bade hote hain to kiranon ka paravartan niyamit roop men nahin hota aur prakash shvet dikhaee padata hai. dhooli ke halke kan andhi men bahut oopar chale jate hain. inake dvara pili rashmiyan prakirnit hoti hain aur akash pila dikhaee padata hai. vayumndal nirmal rahane par prakirnan keval vayu tatha jal ke anuon dvara hota hai. isase bahut adhik matra men chhoti tarngavali nili rashmiyan prakirnit hoti hai aur unhin ke rng ke anusar oopari shoony sthan nila dikhaee padata hai. garmi ke dinon men jab vayu men dhooli ke karan adhik hote hain to in bade kanon se prakash ka rng utana nila nahin rah jata, kuchh bhoora ho jata hai . jab andhi adi ke karan dhooli ki matra aur adhik ho jati hai to bade bade kanon dvara kiranon ke aniyamit paravartan se akash shvet dikhaee padata hai. pahadon ki choti se akash poornat: nila maloom padata hai. vimanon men athava raket plen men, jo bahut oonchaee se jate hain, akash kala dikhaee padata hain; kyonki oonchaee par vayu ke tatvon ke an bahut hi kam rah jate hain aur kiranon ka prakirnan bahut kshin ho jata hai, jisase oopari shoony bhag prakasharahit athava kala dikhaee padata hai.

prat: aur saynkal, jab soory ki kiranen dharatal ke lagabhag samantar ati hain, unhen vayumndal ke bhitar tirachhi disha men adhik chalana padata hai. ankh par bade tarngadairghy ki lal rashmiyan sidhi padati hai. soory jitana hi kshitij ke pas niche rahata hai, lalima utani hi adhik dekhi jati hai.[5]

din men kshitij ke nikat ka akash chamakila aur shvet hota hai aur lagabhag soory se prakashit saphed parde ke sadrish dikhaee deta hai. yadi ankh se x doori par ayatan ka ek alp pariman sdx bhag ka prakirnat karata hai aur ankh tak ate ate prakash ki yah matra e-sx ke anupat men kam ho jati ho to ek asimit moti tah se prapt honevala prakash isi prakar ke sabhi ayatan parimanon se prapt prakashamatraon ke yog ke tuly hoga:

arthat yah phal s se mukt hai aur isamen rng nahin hai.

navin anusndhanon se yah bhi maloom hua hai ki oopar varnan kie ge prakirnanaprabhav akash ke rngon ka poornat: samadhan nahin karate hain. vayu mndal men atyadhik oonchaee par alp matra men ojon gais bhi hai jisake karan akash ke rngon par atirikt prabhav padata hai. ojon ka rng ekadam nila hota hai jo avashoshan ke karan utpann hota hai. yadi akash ka nila rng keval prakirnan dvara hi hota to soory ke kshitij ke samip pahunchane par akash ke rng men bhoorepan ka aur kuchh kuchh pilepan ka bhi put dikhaee dena chahie lekin yah nila dikhaee deta hai. aisa ojon ki upasthiti ke karan hi hota hai.[6]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. t akashe n vidyante, vai.soo. 2.1.5
  2. shabdagunakamakashamh, t. sn.
  3. ekadravyatvann dravyamh, vai.soo., 2.2.23
  4. akashagnga; any akashiy pindon ke lie dr. jyotish
  5. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 339 |
  6. nirnkar sinh

snbndhit lekh

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