आगरा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

agara
tajamahal, agara
vivaran 'agara' uttar pradesh ka prasiddh aitihasik nagar tatha paryatan sthal hai. mugalakalin aitihasik imaraton ke lie yah shahar bahut prasiddh hai.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila agara
sthapana sultan sikndarashah lodi (1504 ee.)
bhaugolik sthiti 27.18° uttar 78.02° poorv men yamuna nadi ke tat par sthit
prasiddhi aitihasik paryatan sthal
relave steshan agara kaint, raja ki mandi, agara fort, agara siti
bas adda aeeesabiti (transaport nagar), eedagah, bijalighar
kya dekhen tajamahal, fatehapur sikari, lal qila, sikndara, etamaduddaula ka maqabara, mehatab bag adi.
es.ti.di. kod 0562
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
prashasanik bhasha hindi, angrezi
vahan pnjiyan sn. yoopi-80
any janakari shahajahan ke dilli chale jane ke pashchath agara phir kabhi mugalon ki rajadhani n ban saka, yadyapi yah mugal kal ka ek pramukh nagar to ant tak bana hi raha.

agara uttar pradesh prant ka prasiddh shahar, zila v tahasil hai. yah 27.18° uttar 78.02° poorv men yamuna nadi ke tat par sthit hai. bharatiy itihas men yah nagar apana vishisht sthan rakhata tha. aitihasik imaraton ke lie bhi agara bahut prasiddh hai. samudr-tal se isaki ausat oonchaee qarib 171 mitar (561 fit) hai. yah uttar men mathura, dakshin men dhaulapur, poorv men firozabad, shikohabad, dakshin poorv men fatehabad aur pashchim men bharatapur se ghira hua hai. agara uttar pradesh ka tisara sabase bada shahar hai. tajamahal agara ki vishesh pahachan hai, jo yamuna nadi ke kinare sthit hai. uttar pradesh sahit agara sampoorn bharat ke pramukh paryatan sthalon men se ek hai.

sthapana

mugal kal ke is prasiddh nagar ki ninv dilli ke sultan sikndarashah lodi ne 1504 ee. men dali thi. usane apane shasan kal men hone vale vidrohon ko bhali bhanti dabane ke lie vartaman agara ke sthan par ek sainik chhavani banaee thi, jisake dvara use itava, bayana, kol, gvaliyar aur dhaulapur ke vidrohiyon ko dabane men sahayata mili. 'makhajan-e-afagan' ke lekhak ke anusar sultan sikndarashah ne kuchh chatur ayukton ko dilli, itava aur chandavar ke as-pas ke ilake men kisi upayukt sthan par sainik chhavani banane ka kam saunpa tha aur unhonne kafi chhanabin ke pashchath is sthan (agara) ko chuna tha. ab tak agara ya 'agravan' keval ek chhota-sa ganv tha, jise 'brajamndal' ke chaurasi vanon men agrani mana jata tha. shighr hi isake sthan par ek bhavy nagar khada ho gaya. kuchh din bad sinkadarashah bhi yahan akar rahane laga. 'tarikhadaoodi' ke lekhak ke anusar sikndarashah pray: agara men hi raha karata tha.

madhy kal men agara gujarat tat ke bndaragahon aur pashchimi gnga ke maidanon ke bich ke vyapar marg par ek mahattvapoorn shahar hua karata tha. mugal samrajy ke patan ke sath 18vin sadi ke uttarardh men yah shahar kramashah jaton, marathon, mugalon aur gvaliyar ke shasak ke adhin raha aur antatah 1803 men british shasan ke antargat a gaya. 1833 se 1868 tak yah agara prant (bad men pashchimottar prant) ki rajadhani raha.

agraban ya agravan

agara ek aitihasik nagar hai, jisaka praman yah apane charon or samete hue hai. itihas men agara ka pratham ullekh mahabharat ke samay se mana jata hai, jab ise 'agraban' ya 'agravan' ke nam se snbodhit kiya jata tha. kaha jata hai ki pahale yah nagar 'ary grih' ke nam se bhi jana jata tha. taulami[1] pahala gyat vyakti tha, jisane ise 'agara' nam se snbodhit kiya.

lal qila, agara

akabar aur agara

bulnd daravaza, fatehapur sikari, agara

1505 ee. men ravivar, julaee 7 ko agara men ek vikat bhooknp aya, jisane ek varsh pahale hi base hue nagar ke anek sundar bhavanon ko dharashayi kar diya. 'makhajan' ke lekhak ke anusar bhoonkap itana bhayanak tha ki usake dhakke se imaraton ka to kahana hi kya, pahad tak gir ge the aur pralay ka sa drishy dikhaee dene laga tha. isake pashchath agara ki unnati mugal badashah akabar ke samay men prarnbh huee. 1565 ee. men usane yahan lal patthar ka qila banavana shuroo kiya, jo ath varshon men taiyar hua. ab tak isake sthan par eeton ka bana hua ek chhota-sa qila tha, jo khndahar ho chala tha. akabar ke qile ko banane vala tin hazari manasabadar kasim khan tha aur isake nirman ka vyay 35 lakh rupaya tha. qile ki ninv bhoomigat pani tak gahari hai. isake pattharon ko masale ke sath-sath lohe ke chhallon se bhi jod kar sudridh banaya gaya hai. akabar ne apane shasan ke prarnbh men hi fatehapur sikari ko apani rajadhani banaya tha, kintu 1586 ee. men akabar pun: apani rajadhani agara le aya tha. jahangir ke rajyakal men aur shahajahan ke shasan ke prarnbhik varshon men agara men hi rajadhani rahi. is jamane men yahan qile ki andar ki sundar imaraten-moti masjid aur etamaduddaula ka maqabara (jisaka nirman noorajahan ne karavaya tha) bana. shahajahan ne agara ko chhodakar dilli men apani rajadhani banaee. isi samay agara men vishvavishrut tajamahal ka nirman hua.

parivahan

agara ek pramukh sadak ev rel jnkshan hai. yah as-pas ke any zilon v rajyon se sadk, rel aur havaee marg dvara pramukh roop se juda hua hai.

kapade sookhate hue, agara

vyavasay aur udyog

chamade ki vastuon, tarashe ge pattharon aur kanch ke kam ka vanijyik evn audyogik kendr hai.

shiksha

agara vishvavidyalay (1927) aur isase snbaddh kee mahavidyalay shahar men sthit hai. shasakiy manorog aspatal aur radhasvami satsng ki ek basti dayalabag agara ke upanagaron men sthit hain.

krishi

is kshetr ko yamuna nadi aur agara nahar se jalapoorti hoti hai. yahan par ugaee jane vali fasalon men gehoon, chaval, aloo aur soorajamukhi shamil hain.

agara men vastukala

sikndara, agara
  • agara men mugalakalin sthapaty evn vastukala ke poorv aur uttarakalin donon roopon ke udaharan milate hain.
  • akabar ke samay tak jo imaraten mugalon ne banavaeen ve vishal, bhavy aur vistirn hain, jaise fatehapur sikari ke bhavan ya dilli men humayoon ka maqabara.
  • noorajahan ke banavae hue etmaduddaula ke maqabare men pahali bar patthar par barik naqqashi aur pachchikari ka kam kiya gaya.
  • us kala ka janm hua jo vikasit hote hue tajamahal ke abhootapoorv vastushilp men prasphutit huee.
  • tajamahal men bhavy tatha sookshm donon kala pakshon ka adbhut mel hai jo use snsar ki sarvashreshth imaraton men pramukh sthan dilata hai.
  • shahajahan ke dilli chale jane ke pashchath agara phir kabhi mugalon ki rajadhani n ban saka yadyapi yah nagar mugal kal ka ek pramukh nagar to ant tak bana hi raha.
  • vartaman men jahan sikndara hai, vahan sikndar ki sena ka padav tha. usi ke nam par is jagah ka nam 'sikndara' pada. sikndar se akraman se pahale agara ek chhota sa nagar tha.
  • agara shahar men 37 kilomitar dakshin-pashchim men fatehapur sikari ka nirjan mugalakalin shahar sthit hai.

agara ki vastushaili

agara 'tajamahal (17vin sadi) ka shahar' ke roop men adhik vikhyat hai. yahan ke any smarakon men 16vin sadi ka akabar dvara nirmit qila hai, jisamen 17vin sadi ki safed sngamaramar ki moti masjid aur jahangiri mahal hai. agara men apani vastushaili ke lie vikhyat maqabara aur vishal jama masjid bhi hai. isake pashchimottar men sikndara men akabar ka maqabara hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. Ptolmi 2nd century A.D.

vithika

tajamahal ka vihngam drishy

snbndhit lekh