आत्मा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

atmanh shabd ki vyutpatti se is (atma) ki kalpana par paryapt prakash padata hai. yask ne isaki vyutpatti karate hue kaha hai- atma ‘ath’ dhatu se vyutpann hota hai, jisaka arth hai satat chalana athava yah 'aph' dhatu se nikala hai, jisaka arth vyapt hona hai. achary shnkar atma shabd ki vyakhya karate hue ling puran [1] se nimnakint shlok udadhrit karate hain-

yachchapnoti yadadatte yachchati vishayanih.
yachchasy santato bhavastasmadatmeti kirtyate..

(jo vyapt karata hai, grahan karata hai, sampoorn vishayon ka bhog karata hai aur jisaki sadaiv satta bani rahati hai, usako atma kaha jata hai.)

prayog

atma shabd ka prayog vishvatma aur vyaktigat atma donon arthon men hota hai. prophesar mahavir saran jain ka mat hai ki atma evn paramatma ka bhed bhashik hai. yah bhed tatvik nahin hai. upanishadon men adhibhautik, adhidaivik aur adhyatmik sabhi drishtiyon se atmatattv par vichar hua hai. aitareyopanishad men vishvatma ke arth men atma ko vishv ka adhar aur usaka mool karan mana gaya hai. is sthiti men advaitavad ke anusar brahma se usaka abhed svikar kiya gaya hai. ‘tattvamasi’ vaky ka yahi tatpary hai. ‘ahn brahmasmi’ bhi yahi prakat karata hai. atma shabd ka adhik prayog vyaktigat atma ke lie hi hota hai. vibhinn darshanik sampradayon men isaki vibhinn kalpanaen hain. vaisheshik darshan ke anusar yah anu hain. nyay ke anusar yah karm ka vahak hai. upanishadon men ise ‘anoraniyanh mahato mahiyanh’ kaha gaya hai. advait vedant men yah sachchidanand aur brahm se abhinn hai.

praman

achary shnkar ne atma ke astitv ke samarthan men prabal praman upasthit kiya hai. unaka sabase bada praman hai, atma ki svayn siddhi arthath atma apana svat: praman hai. usako siddh karane ke lie kisi bahari praman ki avashyakata nahin hai. vah pratyagatma hai arthath usi se vishv ke samast padarthon ka pratyay hota hai; praman bhi usi ke gyan ke vishay hain. at: usako janane men bahari praman asamarth hain. parantu yadi kisi praman ki avashkata ho to, isake lie aisa koee nahin kahata ki ‘main nahin hoon’. aisa kahane vala apane astitv ka hi nirakaran kar baithega. vastav men jo kahata hai ki ‘main nahin hoon’ vahi atma hai (yoasy nirakarta tadasy tadroopamh). balakon tatha avivahiton ka asantusht mrit atma masan namak pret hota hai.

upadhiyan

atma vastak men brahma se abhinn aur sachchidanand hai. parantu maya athava avidya ke karan vah upadhiyon men lipt rahata hai. ye upadhiyan hain-

  1. mukhy pran (achetan shvas-prashvas)
  2. man (indriyon ki snvedana ko grahan karane ka kendr ya madhyam)
  3. indriyan (karmendriy tatha gyanendriy)
  4. sthool sharir aur
  5. indriyon ka vishay sthool jagat.

panch avaran

atma (sopadhik) panch avaranon se veshtit rahata hai, jinhen kosh kahate hain. upanishadon men inaka vistrit varnan hai. ye nimnankit hain-

  1. annamay kosh (sthool sharir)
  2. pranamay kosh (shvas-prashvas jo sharir men gati utpann karata hai)
  3. manomay kosh (snkalp-vikalp karane vala)
  4. vigyanamay kosh (vivek karane vala) aur
  5. anandamay kosh (du:khon se mukti aur prasad utpann karane vala).

atma ki avasthaen

atmachetana men atma ki gati sthool koshon se sookshm koshon ki or hoti hai. kintu vah sookshmatam anandamay kosh men nahin, balki svayn anandamay hai. isi prakar chetana ki drishti se atma ki char avasthaen hoti hain-

  1. jagrat- (jagane ki sthiti, jisamen sab indriyan apane vishayon men raman karati rahati hain).
  2. svapn- (vah sthiti jisamen indriyan to so jati hain, kintu man kam karata rahata hai aur apane snsar ki svayn srishti kar leta hai).
  3. sushupti- (vah sthiti, jisamen man bhi so jata hai, svapn nahin ata, kintu jagane par yah smriti bani rahati hai ki, nind achchhi tarah aee) aur
  4. turiya- (vah sthiti, jisamen sopadhik athava koshaveshtit jivan ki sampoorn smritiyan samapt ho jati hain.)

tin sthitiyan

atma ki tin mukhy sthitiyan hain-baddh, mumukshu aur mukt. baddhavastha men vah snsar se lipt rahata hai. mumukshu ki avastha men vah snsar se virakt aur moksh ki or unmukh rahata hai. muktavastha men vah avidya aur agyan se chhootakar apane svaroop ki upalabdhi kar leta hai. kintu muktavastha ki bhi do sthitiyan hain-

  1. jivanmukti aur
  2. videhamukti

jab tak manushy ka sharir hai, vah prarabdh karmon ka phal bhogata hai, jab tak bhog samapt nahin hote, sharir chalata rahata hai. is sthiti men manushy apane sansarik kartavyon ka anasakti ke sath palan karata rahata hai. gyanamoolak hone se ve atma ke lie bandhan nahin utpann karate.

sagunopasak bhakt darshanikon ki maya, bandh aur moksh sambandhi kalpanaen nirgunopasak gyanamargiyon se bhinn hain. bhagavan se jivatma ka viyog bandh hai. bhakti dvara jab bhagavan ka prasad prapt hota hai aur jab bhakt bhagavan se sayujy ho jata hai, tab bandh samapt ho jata hai. ve sayujy, samipy athava saloky chahate hain, apana poornavilay nahin, kyonki vilay hone par bhagavan ke sayujy ka anand kaun uthayega? unake mat men bhagavannishth hona hi atmanishth hona hai.

shabdik arth

hindi jivon men vidyaman chaitany, purush jiv, brahm, man, buddhi, ahnkar, svabhav, prakriti, ek avinashi atindriy aur abhautik shakti jo kaya ya sharir men rahane par use jivit rakhati aur usase sab kam karavati hai aur usake sharir men n rahane par sharir achesht nikrishy tatha mrit ho jata hai, kisi vastu adi ka goodh, mool tatha sar bhag, soory, agni, pavan, vayu, hava, vastu ya vyakti ka dharm ya svabhav.
-vyakaran    pulling, dhatu
-udaharan  
(shabd prayog)  
nainn chhindanti shastrani nainn dahati pavakah n chainn kledayantyapo n shoshayati marutah.[2]

achchhedyoayamadahyoayamakledyoashoshy ev ch nityah sarvagatah sthanurachaloayn sanatanah॥[3]

-vishesh    udaharan men die shlok ka hindi arth: is atma ko shastr nahin kat sakate, isako ag nahin jala sakati, isako jal nahin gala sakata aur vayu nahin sukha sakati.

kyonki yah atma achchhedy hai, yah atma adahy, akledy aur ni:sndeh ashoshy hai tatha yah atma nity, sarvavyapi, achal, sthir rahane vala aur sanatan hai.

-vilom  
-paryayavachi    angadhari, angi, anish, dehi, pindi, srishti, anganubhooti, anng, dil ki avaz.
snskrit atmanh (ath+maninh)
any grnth
snbndhit shabd
snbndhit lekh
any bhashaon me
bhasha asamiya udiya urdoo kannad kashmiri konkani gujarati
shabd atma, jivatma jibatma rooh jiv atma, ruh atma, jiv
bhasha dogari tamil telugu nepali pnjabi bangla bodo
shabd attuma, jivanh atm atama atma (tta)
bhasha manipuri marathi malayalam maithili snthali sindhi angrezi
shabd atma jivatma atmavun Soul, Spirit

any shabdon ke arth ke lie dekhen shabd sndarbh kosh


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

pandey, daau. rajabali hindoo dharmakosh (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan, lakhanoo, prishth sn 73.

  1. 1.70.96
  2. gita adhyay-2 shlok-23
  3. gita adhyay-2 shlok-24

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

shabd sndarbh kosh
kashtakar antararashtriy antarrashtriy kalpasiddhi gatha upakhyan akhyan shatabdi suee nyagrodh mahapran vynjan antahsth vynjan oshthy vynjan danty vynjan moordhany vynjan talavy vynjan kanthy vynjan avyay vats kumar kimpurush saty vah snvarttak (hal) sthavar jara mohanastr aishik shastr rat sanatan anant adbhut varah dand vimukh kukur vrishadhvaj (bahuvikalpi) yayavar satr kulapati charu shoorp yoothanath dvarapal kalabattoo dhatta kadavak klib bhring patohoo attagattar attagam achal pravritti abohan ant-ayamh barabar kshetr hirany haraniparynt halli hallikar halik haiman shasy shrani svaviryopajivin sunu soona sthan sthan many sthal sthal vritti strot chaturth pnchabhagikam gunapatr khettasamik kripyagrih kumaragadiyanak kulyavap karmantik sima ekapurushikam utpadyamanavishti avat asihar ali aghat adhavay adanak skndhavar sity siddh seva setubndh senabhakt sarvamany sarv-abhyantar-siddhi sannidhata sngrahat snkrant snkar kul snkar gram sadhy ayanangal attapatibhag asvaynkrit krishi ardhasitika akshayanivi akshapataladhyaksh akshapatal akrit akrisht akaradayin akarad agrahar agraharik adevamatrik adhyiy-manussanam niyog samaharta sali sakarukar sadbhag sachitt sabha-madhyam shulk shaulkik shasan roodhamarodhi ropan rajju rajakiy kshetr yogakshem yav mey masu moolavap mndapika mahatran bhootavatapratyay bhoomichchhidranyay bhoomask bhukti bhujyaman bhogayak bhogapati bhogagam bhog bhikshu hal bhikhkhuhalaparihar bhandagarik brahmadey bittuvatt bhadrabhog bhagadudh bhaikshak bijagan baraj phenaghat pustapal poorvavap pur pratikar pradesh pathak patit pindak pautavamh pattala parshv parru patak pallika pariharik parihar padonalaksh panyasnstha paribhog pnchakul nyay karnik nivartan vyamishr-bhoomi brihi vivita vittolakar vishamatta vilop vatthupati vatak vaset-kutambik varta varshikashasy varatra varaj viparyast viparyay vapi vapatiriktamh vap gatya langul roopajiva roopadarshak shastriy kala shastr astr shastr shastriy thana sootr svabhav savyasachi puny tithi jaynti sair rngashala tarani tarani jatak ghoshanapatr godhooli mahamaya vitan meharab sharkara gaz yatana shivir samanvayavad goshthi kachahari anamika (ungali) madhyama tarjani angootha nuqta kootasth smart kandara khana khanabadosh koshn upabhog upabhokta utpadan utpadak akhetak naugamy avasthit aur upasthit abhigy aur anabhigy afavah aur kinvadnti adhikansh aur adhikatar antarrashtriy aur antararashtriy anuvad adhyas sahodara sahodar dashalakshan dharm snyam janashruti paras rajamahal sudarshan anushthan kathauti kathauta baragir baragi bijana jugad kharal nal kashkol sadaqa chhinnak arani ap: valay tarng avashesh sakhi abhng abir shrring raka lokakatha akhada angahin bavali khndahar safar sarika antardhan daity vidhi yam (snyam) nivesh nam puchhattar bakhar tattho-thnbho bela goru asarait muda alagyojha dvij ambu pravrajya eehit eehamrig eeha eehag eesari eesar eesan ees eeshm eeshu eeshika eesha eeshana eeshad eeshath‌sprisht eeshat eeshvaropasana eeshvariy eeshvari eeshvaradhin eeshvaravadi eeshvar-vad eeshvar-pranidhan eeshitv eeshita eesha eeshata eeli eeli eel eershyalu eershya eershyak eershy eershu eershit eershalu eersha eershana eerit eeran eeramad eerakha eer eemanadari eemanadar eeman-kalyan eeman eepsu eepsit eepsa eeda trignbhir trigndhak trigng trikhi trikha trikh trikshur trikshar trikon-miti trikon-bhavan trikon-phal tri-koorchak trikoota trikoot gadh trikuti trikuta trikut trikaladarshi trikaladarshita trikal-darshak trikalgyta trikalgy trikal trikarshik trikay trika trikandiy eedrish eedi eetar eedh trikand eedy trik-shool eedit trikal eedan eethi trikarma trikarman trikatray eethana trikatuk trikatu trikat eejad trikakum eeja trikakud eechha tri-knt gyanad gyanachakshu gyanagochar gyanagamy gyan krit gyatrivy gyati putr gyati gyata gyatavy gyat yauvana gyat-nndan gyat gypti gyapit gyapan gypt gypan eechhan eekharaj trishansh tri eekh eekshit trinshatpatr eeksha eekshika trishat eekshan trishah eekshanik eekshak eekarant trahi indr savarni indr sabha indr varuni indr vadhoo indr vnsha indr yav indr mndal indr nil indr dhvaj indradhanushi indr jau indrajali indr jav indrachap indr gop eekar indr giri indr krisht eedh indrak eenta indriyavad eencha-tani indiralay indira-raman indira eenchana intaha intazar eestar intazam intaqal eesh manohari intaqam intakohara eesh-gaud intaee ingur eesh-giri ingudi eeth dravy kafan adrisht sadi grnth kalantar drishy tatavarti gntavy supachy paridrishy udagam talluq dar benami sauda apavah prayopavesh anushruti ang shabd sndarbh soochi alnkaran bhuv kinvadnti madhu vaikunth (bahuvikalpi) agni jin (bahuvikalpi) asndi mithak atma bhakt pradarsh pradar astik toran kanik kanika eshana ela upahasit unmatt unmukh udrek udot aja upashaman upasham eeti apoh anooru anuyog anuyojy nepathy nrimedh nirdisht nivritt nivritti nirvap nirvat nishkantak viplav nishk viplavi viplav chinty ajiv ajivak parapatr nikshepak nikshep dhrishtata dhrisht dhav akhilesh vitarkan vitark latta vitat kurng kunjar kalush dhatri vidya dhatriphal dhatri navami dhatri karni kapisha kanakhi karsh dript ark shamy sushravy dhriti sushrava ayut shishi dhrit sushthu sushrav apatr snvrit rnjan rnjak yoothika yoop yuti yashti lunchan lasy sasy samarchan sahik sukrit lalam binb banak bhasvar bhavy pranav achchhadit achchhadak achchhann janmandh vivart vivarn hapana hap vachy vak lav rochana rochan rechan rechak ruchira ruchir mukari (paheli) audichy aurvashey shala aurv sharika shari shakun amlan phurahari charvi agah chakanachoor shnku shaman sharabh shardool chokha chitra okha okh aindr phunagi agamy vahika vahik kshataj kshat ksharan kshar ghalana ghal bilalana bndhak jhilamila jhilam kshitij yatharthavad ookha yatharth ookh oogat khanak khan kanak laghavi laghavik laghavakari laghav kshiprahast chhak havi havy kanishthika sugat janant tush hriti hritadhikar drishti drishtarth drishtant drishtavad pratyakshavad pratyagatma kshiprakari kshipr hrit pratyakshar hrichchhool kheh pratyaksh drishtavat moolabhoot drishtaphal vayavi vayaviy kanishtha vayav kanishth maulik drisht dosh drishtakoot moolik drisht vishti nidagh harmy achyut punit tattv mukari anand yntr pad andhata sadhu yash snt diksha vidhu muramardan purushottam bhav pitambar har madhav chaturbhuj ugr upendr sthanu kratudhvnsin bharg nilalohit trilochan viroopaksh vamadev (shiv) shitakinth (shiv) shitakinth garudadhvaj girish govind suparn shrikanth kapardin pinaki mrityunjay mrid girish nagantak bhootesh shnkar sharv narayan maheshvar (shiv) vainatey shoolin pashupati tarkshy eesh muni vikat munindr vighnanashak sumukh lokajit garutmath marajit bhagavat tathagat dharmaraj sarvgy vinayak agadh ary arh alp ikshu ichchha asrav asy ahary akrand akarsh asooyak akshar oj prakarsh panth prakrit ekarth unnamr ujjrimbhan eeshan unnat ujjrimbh jayy jay nairujy jalp mand tej namaskar namrata namr prabhav arjav pratap akropolis antashchetana ant:karan agora atinootan yug anagami anal anagradnt ativriddhi adhihrishata (ailarji) anubndh anubhav anubhavavad anyathanupapatti anyathasiddhi apil abhiprerak albam arajakata amin ayam injil intar lingua

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