आदि शंकराचार्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

adi shnkarachary
adi shnkarachary
poora nam adi shnkarachary
janm 788 ee.
janm bhoomi kaladi़ gram, keral
mrityu 820 ee.
mrityu sthan kedaranath, uttarakhand
guru govind yogi
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr darshanik, snt, snskrit sahityakar
mukhy rachanaen upanishadon, shrimadbhagavad gita evn brahmasootr par bhashy likhe hain.
vishesh yogadan char pithon (math) ki sthapana karana inaka mukhy roop se ullekhaniy kary raha, jo aj bhi maujood hai.
nagarikata bharatiy
sthapit math jyotishapith badrinath, govardhanapith puri, sharadapith dvarika, shrringeripith maisoor
any janakari hindoo dharmik manyata ke anusar inako bhagavan shnkar ka avatar mana jata hai. inhonne lagabhag poore bharat ki yatra ki aur inake jivan ka adhikansh bhag uttar bharat men bita.

adi shnkarachary (angrezi: Adi Shakaracharya, janm nam: shnkar, janm: 788 ee. - mrityu: 820 ee.) advait vedant ke praneta, snskrit ke vidvan, upanishad vyakhyata aur hindoo dharm pracharak the. hindoo dharmik manyata ke anusar inako bhagavan shnkar ka avatar mana jata hai. inhonne lagabhag poore bharat ki yatra ki aur inake jivan ka adhikansh bhag uttar bharat men bita. char pithon (math) ki sthapana karana inaka mukhy roop se ullekhaniy kary raha, jo aj bhi maujood hai. shnkarachary ko bharat ke hi nahin apitu sare snsar ke uchchatam darshanikon men mahatv ka sthan prapt hai. unhonne anek granth likhe hain, kintu unaka darshan vishesh roop se unake tin bhashyon men, jo upanishad, brahmasootr aur gita par hain, milata hai. gita aur brahmasootr par any acharyon ke bhi bhashy hain, parantu upanishadon par samanvayatmak bhashy jaisa shnkarachary ka hai, vaisa any kisi ka nahin hai.

janm

shnkarachary ka janm dakshin bharat ke keral men avasthit nimboodaripad brahmanon ke 'kaladi़ gram' men 788 ee. men hua tha. unhonne apane jivan ka adhikansh samay uttar bharat men vyatit kiya. unake dvara sthapit 'advait vedant sampraday' 9vin shatabdi men kafi lokapriy hua. unhonne prachin bharatiy upanishadon ke siddhanton ko punarjivan pradan karane ka prayatn kiya. unhonne eeshvar ko poorn vastavikata ke roop men svikar kiya aur sath hi is snsar ko bhram ya maya bataya. unake anusar agyani log hi eeshvar ko vastavik n manakar snsar ko vastavik manate hain. gyani logon ka mukhy uddeshy apane ap ko bhamr v maya se mukt karana evn eeshvar v brahm se tadamy sthapit karana hona chahie. shnkarachary ne varn par adharit brahman pradhan samajik vyavastha ka samarthan kiya. shnkarachary ne snnyasi samuday men sudhar ke lie upamahadvip men charon dishaon men char mathon ki sthapana ki. 'avataravad' ke anusar, eeshvar tab avatar leta hai, jab dharm ki hani hoti hai. dharm aur samaj ko vyavasthit karane ke lie hi ashutosh shiv ka agaman adi shakarachary ke roop men hua.

shiksha

adi shnkarachary pratima

hindoo dharm ki manyata ke anusar adi shnkarachary ne apani anany nishtha ke phalasvaroop apane sadaguru se shastron ka gyan hi nahin prapt kiya, balki brahmatv ka bhi anubhav kiya. jivan ke vyavaharik aur adhyatmik paksh ki satyata ko inhonne jahan kashi men ghati do vibhinn ghatanaon ke dvara jana, vahin mndanamishr se hue shastrarth ke bad parakaya pravesh dvara us yatharth ka bhi anubhav kiya, jise sannyas ki maryada men bhoga nahin ja sakata. yahi karan hai ki kuchh baton ke bare men poorvagrah dikhate hue bhi lok sngrah ke lie, achary shnkar adhyatm ki charam sthiti men kisi tarah ke bndhan ko svikar nahin karate. apani mata ke jivan ke antim kshanon men pahunchakar putr hone ke kartavy ka palan karana is sndarbh men atynt mahattvapoorn ghatana hai.

rachanaen v vyaktitv

shnkarachary ne upanishadon, shrimadbhagavad gita evn brahmasootr par bhashy likhe hain. upanishad, brahmasootr evn gita par likhe gaye shnkarachary ke bhashy ko 'prasthanatrayi' ke antargat rakhate hain. shnkarachary ne hindoo dharm ke sthayitv, prachar-prasar evn pragati men apoorv yogadan diya. unake vyaktitatv men guru, darshanik, samaj evn dharm sudharak, vibhinn maton tatha sampradayon ke samanvayakarta ka roop dikhaee padata hai. shnkarachary apane samay ke utkrisht vidvanh evn darshanik the. itihas men unaka sthan inake 'advait siddhant' ke karan amar hai. gaudapad ke shishy 'govind yogi' ko shnkarachary ne apana pratham guru banaya. govind yogi se unhen 'paramahns' ki upadhi prapt huee. kuchh vidvanh shnkarachary par bauddh shoonyavad ka prabhav dekhate hain tatha unhen 'prachchhann bauddh' ki sngya dete hain.

hindoo dharm ki punah sthapana

adi shnkarachary ko hindoo dharm ko punah sthapit evn pratishthit karane ka shrey diya jata hai. ek taraf unhonne advait chintan ko punarjivit karake sanatan hindoo dharm ke darshanik adhar ko sudridh kiya, to doosari taraf unhonne janasamany men prachalit moortipooja ka auchity siddh karane ka bhi prayas kiya. sanatan hindoo dharm ko dridh adhar pradan karane ke liye unhonne virodhi panth ke mat ko bhi anshik taur par angikar kiya. shnkar ke mayavad par mahayan bauddh chintan ka prabhav mana jata hai. isi adhar par unhen 'prachhann buddh' kaha gaya hai.

moksh aur gyan

achary shnkar jivan men dharm, arth aur kam ko nirarthak manate hain. ve gyan ko advait gyan ki param sadhana manate hain, kyonki gyan samast karmon ko jalakar bhasm kar deta hai. srishti ka vivechan karate samay ki isaki utpatti kaise hoti hai?, ve isaka mool karan brahm ko manate hain. vah brahm apani 'maya' shakti ke sahayog se is srishti ka nirman karata hai, aisi unaki dharana hai. lekin yahan yah nahin bhoolana chahie ki shakti aur shaktiman ek hi hain. donon men koee antar nahin hai. is prakar srishti ke vivechan se ek bat aur bhi spasht hoti hai ki paramatma ko sarvavyapak kahana bhi bhool hai, kyonki vah sarvaroop hai. vah anekaroop ho gaya, 'yah anekata hai hi nahin', 'main ek hoon bahut ho jaoon' addhait mat ka yah kathan snket karata hai ki shaitan ya buri atma ka koee astitv nahin hai. aisa kahin dikhaee bhi deta hai, to vah vastutah nahin hai bhram hai bas. jivon aur brahmaiv naparah- jiv hi brahm hai any nahin.

nishkam upasana

aise men bndhan aur mukti jaise shabd bhi khelamatr hain. vicharon se hi vyakti bndhata hai. usi ke dvara mukt hota hai. bhavarog se mukt hone ka ekamatr upay hai vichar. usi ke lie nishkam karm aur nishkam upasana ko achary shnkar ne sadhana bataya. nishkam hone ka arth hai snsar ki vastuon ki kamana n karana, kyonki sharirik mang to prarabdhata se poori hogi aur manovaigyanik chah ki koee sima nahin hai. is saty ko janakar apane kartavyon ka palan karana tatha eeshvariy satta ke prati samarpan ka bhav, alasy prasad se uthakar chitt ko nishchal bana degen, jisamen gyan tikega.

buddhi, bhav aur karm ka sntulan

shrringeri pith, sharada, karnatak
Sringeri Peeth, Sharada, Karnataka

achary ne buddhi, bhav aur karm in tinon ke sntulan par zor diya hai. is tarah vaidantik sadhana hi samagr sadhana hai. kabhi-kabhi lagata hai ki achary shnkar paramparavadi hain. lekin vastavikata aisi nahin hai. unaki chhoti-chhoti, lekin mahattvapoorn rachanaon se is bat ka spasht snket milata hai. parampara ka nirvah karate hue bhi unaka lakshy 'saty' pratipadan karana hai. prashnottari men kahe is shlokansh se snket milata hai, pashuon men bhi pashu vah hai jo dharm ko janane ke bad bhi usaka acharan nahin karata aur jisane shastron ka adhyayan kiya hai, phir bhi use atmabodh nahin hua hai. isi prakar 'bhaj govindam' men bahari roop-svaroop ko nakarate hue ve kahate hain ki "jo snsar ko dekhate hue bhi nahin dekhata hai, usane apana pet bharane ke lie tarah-tarah ke vastr dharan kie hue hain."

vyavaharik saty

jivan ke param saty ko vyavaharik saty ke sath jodane ke karan hi aparokshanubhooti ke bad achary shnkar maun baithakar usaka anand nahin lete, balki samooche bharatavarsh men ghoom-ghoom kar usake roop-svaroop ko nikharane men tatpar hote hain. mano tyag-vairagy aur nivritti ke moortaroop hon, lekin pravritti ki parakashtha hai, unamen shriram, shri krishn ki tarah.

jagadaguru

char mathon ki sthapana, dashanam sannyas ko suvyavasthit roop dena, sagun-nirgan ka bhed mitane ka prayas, harihar nishtha ki sthapana ye kary hi unhen 'jagadaguru' pad par pratishthit karate hain. svami vivekanand, svami ramatirth jaise yuva sannyasiyon ne videshon men jakar jis vedant ka ghosh kiya, vah shnkar vedant hi to tha. jagadaguru kahalana, keval us parampara ka nirvah karana aur svayn ko us roop men pratishthit karana bilkul alag-alag baten hain. aj bharat ko ek aise hi mahanh vyaktitv ki avashyakata hai, jisamen yogi, kavi, bhakt, karmanishth aur shastriy gyan ke sath hi janakalyan ki bhavana ho, jo saty ke lie sarvasv ka tyag karane ko udyat ho.

adi shnkarachary apane shishyon ko gyan dete hue

shnkarachary ka kathan

shnkarachary ka kathan hai ki advait darshan ki parampara atyant prachin hai aur upanishadon ki shiksha par avalambit hai. advait darshan ke tin pahaloo hain-

  1. tatv mimansa
  2. gyan mimansa
  3. achar darshan

inaka alag-alag vikas shnkarachary ke bad ke vaidantiyon ne kiya. tatv mimansa ki drishti se advaitavad ka arth hai ki sabhi prakar ke dvait ya bhed ka nishedh. antim tatv brahm ek aur advay hai. usamen svagat, svajatiy tatha vijatiy kisi bhi prakar ka dvait nahin hai. brahm niravayav, avibhajy aur anant hai. use sachchidannd ya 'satyn, gyann, anantamh brahma' bhi kaha gaya hai. asath ka nishedh karane se jo prapt ho, vah sath, achith ka nishedh karane se jo prapt ho, vah chith aur du:kh ka nishedh karane se jo prapt ho, vah annd hai. yah brahma ka svaroop lakshan hai, parantu yahan dhyan rakhane ki bat yah hai ki sath, chith aur annd n to brahm ke tin pahaloo hain, n hi brahm ke tin ansh aur n brahm ke tin visheshan hain. jo sath hai vahi chit hai aur vahi annd bhi hai. drishti bhed ke karan use sachchidannd kaha gaya hai- asath ki drishti se vah sath achith ki drishti se chith aur du:kh ki drishti se annd hai.

jagat ka karan- eeshvar

shnkarachary dvara sthapit math
math pradesh
jyotishapith, badrinath uttarakhand (himalay men sthit)
govardhanapith, puri udisa
sharadapith, dvarika gujarat
shrringeripith, maisoor karnatak

yah nirgun, nirakar, avikari, chith brahm hi jagath ka karan hai. jagath ke karan ke roop men use eeshvar kaha jata hai. mayopahit brahm hi eeshvar hai. at: brahm aur eeshvar do tatv nahin hain- donon ek hi hain. jagath ka karan hona- yah brahm ka tatasth lakshan hai. tatasth lakshan ka arth hai, vah lakshan jo brahm ka ang n hote hue bhi brahm ki or snket kare. jagath brahm par ashrit hai, parantu brahm jagath par kisi bhi prakar ashrit nahin hai, vah svatntr hai. jagath ka karan prakriti, anu ya svabhav men se koee nahin ho sakata. isi se upanishadon ne spasht kaha hai ki brahm vah hai jo jagath ki srishti, sthiti aur lay ka karan hai. jagath ki srishti adi ke lie brahm ko kisi any tatv ki avashyakata nahin hoti. isi se brahm ko abhinn nimittopadan karan kaha hai. jagath ki rachana brahmashrit maya se hoti hai, parantu maya koee svatntr tatv nahin hai. yah mithya hai, isalie brahm ko hi karan kaha gaya hai. srishti vastavik nahin hai, at: use mayajanit kaha gaya hai. maya ya avidya ke karan hi jahan koee nam-roop nahin hai, jahan bhed nahin hai, vahan nam-roop aur bhed ka abhas hota hai. isi se srishti ko brahm ka vivart bhi kaha gaya hai. vivart ka arth hai karan ya kisi vastu ka apane svaroop men sthit rahate hue any roopon men avabhasit hona, arthath parivartan vastavik nahin balki abhas matr hai.

vidya ke prakar

brahm ki srishti ka karan kahane se yah maloom pad sakata hai ki brahm ki satta kary-karan anuman ke adhar par siddh ki gee hai. parantu yah bat nahin hai. brahm jagath ka karan hai, yah gyan hamako shruti se hota hai. at: brahm ke vishay men shruti hi praman hai.[1] kintu isaka yah arth nahin hai ki tark ke lie koee sthan nahin hai. shrutyanukool tark vedant ko many hai. svatntr roop se brahmgyan karane ka samarthy tark men nahin hai, kyonki brahm nirgun hai. isi se tark aur shruti men virodh bhi nahin ho sakata hai. donon ke kshetr prithak-prithakh hain. shruti aur pratyaksh ka bhi kshetr alag-alag hone ke karan unamen virodh nahin ho sakata. shruti par-tatv vishayak hai aur pratyaksh aparatatv-vishayak. isi se vidya bhi para aur apara do prakar ki mani gee hai.

sattaen

adi shnkarachary

aisa kaha gaya hai ki jagath brahm ka vivart hai, arthath avidya ke karan abhas matr hai. avidya ko gyan ka abhav matr nahin samajhana chahie. vah bhav to nahin hai, parantu bhav roop hai-bhav aur abhav donon se bhinn anirvachaniy hai. bhav se bhinn isalie hai ki usaka bodh hota hai, tatha abhav se bhinn isalie ki isake karan mithya vastu dikhaee padati hai, jaise rajju ke sthan par sarpabhas. isalie kaha gaya hai ki avidya ki do shaktiyan hain- avaran aur vikshep. vikshep shakti mithya sarp ka srijan karati hai aur avaran shakti sarp ke dvara rajju ka avaran karati hai. isi se rajju agyan ki avastha men sarvapath dikhaee padati hai. isi prakar brahm bhi agyan ke karan jagatavath dikhaee padata hai. at: vedant men tin sattaen svikrit ki gee hain-

  1. pratibhasik (sarp) - jo hamare sadharan bhram ki sthiti men abhasit hota hai aur rassi ke gyan ke badhit hota hai.
  2. vyavaharik (jagat) - jo mithya to hai parantu, jab tak brahm ka gyan nahin ho jata, tab tak saty pratit hota hai, aur gyan ho jane par badhit ho jata hai.
  3. brahm - jise paramarthik kaha jata hai. isaka kabhi bhi gyan nahin hota hai. yah nity hai. brahmgyan hone se jagath ka bodh ho jata hai aur mukti prapt ho jati hai.

jiv vastav men brahm hi hai, doosara kuchh nahin, sharir dharan ke karan vah bhinn pratit hota hai. sharir tin prakar ka hota hai- sthool sharir, sookshm sharir aur karan sharir. anadi pravah ke adhin hokar karmaphal ko bhogane ke lie sharir dharan karana padata hai. karm avidya ke karan hote hain. at: sharir dharan avidya ke hi karan hai. ise hi bndhan kahate hain. avidya ke karan kartritvabhiman aur bhoktritvabhiman paida hota hai, jo atma men svabhavat: nahin hota. jab kartritvabhiman aur bhoktritvabhiman se yukt hota hai, tab atma jiv kahalata hai. mukt hone par jiv brahm se ekakarata prapt karata hai ya usaka anubhav karata hai.

upanishad kathan

atma aur brahm ki ekata athava abhinnatv dikhane ke lie upanishadon ne kaha hai- 'tatvamasi' (tum vahi ho). isi karan se gyan hone par 'soahamasmi' (main vahi hoon) ka anubhav hota hai. jagrat avastha men sthool sharir, svapn men sookshm sharir aur sushupti men karan sharir rahata hai. sushupti men chetana bhi rahati hai, parantu vishayon ka gyan n hone ke karan jan padata hai ki sushupti men chetana nahin rahati. yadi sushupti men chetana n hoti to jagane par kaise ham kahate ki sukhapoorvak soya? vahan chetana sakshiroop ya shuddh chaitany roop hai. parantu sushupti men agyan rahata hai. isi se shuddh chetana ke rahate hue bhi sushupti mukti se bhinn hai- mukti ki avastha men agyan ka nash ho jata hai. shuddh chaitany roop hone ke karan hi kaha gaya hai ki atma ek hai aur brahmasvaroop hai. chetana ka vibhajan nahin ho sakata hai. jivatma anek hain, parantu atma ek hai, yah dikhane ke lie upamaon ka prayog hota hai. jaise akash ek hai parantu simit hone ke karan ghat ya ghatakash anek dikhaee padata hai, athava soory ek hai, kintu usaki parachhaee anek sthalon men dikhaee padane se vah anek dikhaee padata hai, isi prakar yadyapi atma ek hai phir bhi maya ya avidya ke karan anek dikhaee padata hai.

jiv aur eeshvar men bhed

jiv aur eeshvar men vyavaharik drishti se bhed hai. jivan baddh hai, eeshvar nityamukt hai. mukt hone par bhi jiv ko nityamukt nahin kaha ja sakata. nityamukt hone ke karan hi eeshvar shruti ka janak ya adiguru kaha jata hai. eeshvar ko mayopahit kaha gaya hai, kyonki maya vikshep pradhan hone ke karan aur eeshvar ke adhin hone ke karan eeshvar ke gyan ka avaran nahin karati. parantu jiv ko agyanopahit kaha gaya hai, kyonki agyan dvara jiv ka svaroop dhak jata hai. isi se kabhi-kabhi maya aur avidya men bhed kiya jata hai. maya eeshvar ki upadhi hai- satv pradhan hai, vikshep pradhan hai aur avidya jiv ki upadhi hai, tamash-pradhan hai aur usamen avaran vikshep hota hai.

agyanata tatha mukti

agyan ke karan jiv apane svaroop ko bhool kar apane ko karta-bhokta samajhata hai. isi se usako sharir dharan karana padata hai aur bar-bar snsar men ana padata hai. yahi bndhan hai. is bndhan se chhutakara tabhi milata hai, jab agyan ka nash hota hai aur jiv apane ko shuddh chaitany brahm ke roop men jan jata hai. sharir rahate hue bhi gyan ke ho jane par jiv mukt ho sakata hai, kyonki sharir tabhi tak bndhan hai, jab tak jiv apane ko atma roop men n janakar apane ko sharir, indriy, man adi ke roop men samajhata hai. isi se vedant men jivanamukti aur videhamukti nam ki do prakar ki mukti mani gayi hain. gyan ho jane ke bad bhi prarabdh bhog ke lie sharir kumhar ke chakr ke saman poorvaprerit gati ke karan chalata rahata hai. sharir chhootane par gyani videh mukti prapt karata hai.

gyan prapti ke gun

gyan prapti ke lie sarvapratham gyan ka adhikari hona avashyak hai. adhikari vahi hota hai, jisamen nimnalikhit char gun hon-

  1. nityanity-vastu-vivek
  2. ihamutr-phalabhog-virag
  3. shamadamadi
  4. mumukshatv

in gunon se yukt hokar jab jigyasu guru ka upadesh sunata hai, tab use gyan ho jata hai. kabhi-kabhi shravan matr se bhi gyan ho jata hai, parantu vah asadharan jivon ko hi hota hai. sadharan jiv shravan ke uparant manan karate hain. manan se brahm ke vishay men ya atma ke vishay men ya brahmatmaiky ke vishay men jo bauddhik shnkaen hoti hain, unako door kiya jata hai aur jab buddhi shnkamukt hokar sthir ho jati hai tabhi dhyan ya nidivyasan sambhav hota hai. karm se avidya ka nash nahin hota, kyonki karm svayn avidyajany hai. karm aur upasana se buddhi shuddh hokar gyan ke yogy hoti hai. isi se in donon ki upayogita to mani gee hai, parantu mukti gyan ya avidya nash se hi hoti hai. mukti ke uparant karm aur upasana ki avashyakata nahin rahati. phir bhi mukt purush jan-kalyan ke lie ya eeshvaradesh ki poorti ke lie karm kar sakata hai. jaise achary shnkar ne kiya.

ekadandi

  • shnkarachary dvara sthapit dasanami sannyasiyon men se pratham tin (tirth, ashram evn sarasvati) vishesh sammany mane jate hain.
  • inamen keval brahman hi sammilit ho sakate hain. shesh sat vargon men any varnon ke log bhi a sakate hain, kintu dnd dharan karane ke adhikari brahman hi hain.

maniman

  • shnkarachary evn madhvachary ke shishyon men paraspar ghor pratispardha rahati thi.
  • madhv apane ko vayu dev ka avatar kahate the tatha shnkar ko mahabharat men udadhrit ek aspasht vyakti, maniman ka avatar manate the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. advaitavedant men chh: praman mane ge hain, parantu brahm gyan ke lie shruti ki hi anivaryata hai. dekhie- vedant paribhasha.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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