आधुनिक काल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat ka itihas
pashan yug- 70000 se 3300 ee.poo
meharagadh snskriti 7000-3300 ee.poo
sindhu ghati sabhyata- 3300-1700 ee.poo
hadappa snskriti 1700-1300 ee.poo
vaidik kal- 1500–500 ee.poo
prachin bharat - 1200 ee.poo–240 ee.
mahajanapad 700–300 ee.poo
magadh samrajy 545–320 ee.poo
satavahan samrajy 230 ee.poo-199 ee.
maury samrajy 321–184 ee.poo
shung samrajy 184–123 ee.poo
shak samrajy 123 ee.poo–200 ee.
kushan samrajy 60–240 ee.
poorv madhyakalin bharat- 240 ee.poo– 800 ee.
chol samrajy 250 ee.poo- 1070 ee.
gupt samrajy 280–550 ee.
pal samrajy 750–1174 ee.
pratihar samrajy 830–963 ee.
rajapoot kal 900–1162 ee.
madhyakalin bharat- 500 ee.– 1761 ee.
dilli saltanat
gulam vnsh
khilaji vnsh
tugalaq vnsh
saiyyad vnsh
lodi vnsh
mugal samrajy
1206–1526 ee.
1206-1290 ee.
1290-1320 ee.
1320-1414 ee.
1414-1451 ee.
1451-1526 ee.
1526–1857 ee.
dakkan saltanat
bahamani vnsh
nizamashahi vnsh
1490–1596 ee.
1358-1518 ee.
1490-1565 ee.
dakshini samrajy
rashtrakoot vnsh
hoyasal samrajy
kakatiya samrajy
vijayanagar samrajy
1040-1565 ee.
736-973 ee.
1040–1346 ee.
1083-1323 ee.
1326-1565 ee.
adhunik bharat- 1762–1947 ee.
maratha samrajy 1674-1818 ee.
sikh rajyasngh 1716-1849 ee.
aupanivesh kal 1760-1947 ee.

aurngazeb ki mrityukal se lekar plasi ki ladaee ke poorvakal tak bngal, bihar aur udisa ki rajaniti mugal prashasan se aprabhavit rahane lagi thi. 'sukumar bhattachary' ne likha hai ki 'yah saty hai ki, aurngazeb ki mrityu se poorv hi shadyantrakari shaktiyon ne sir uthana prarambh kar diya tha. yahan tak ki jis rajy ki jaden itani shaktishali thin, unhen dhool-dhoosarit kar diya gaya aur ab aurngazeb ke vnsh men koee bhi aisa nahin rah gaya, jo in shadyantron ko kuchal sakata. isaka karan yah tha ki, mugalon ka vishal samrajy kee pranton men vibhajit tha, jo soobedaron ke snrakshan men the. pratyaksh hai ki aisa shasan prabandh shaktishali kendriy sarakar ki upasthiti men hi chal sakata tha. lekin mugalon ka kendriy shasan-prabandh aurngazeb ki anupasthiti men nitant shaktihin aur adridh ho gaya tha.'

mugal samrajy ka patan

vah mugal samrajy, jo apani vistrit sainik shakti, vaibhav tatha sanskritik upalabdhiyon ke lie vikhyat tha, aurngazeb ki mrityu ke sath hi chhinn-bhinn ho gaya. lagabhag 50 varshon ki ek chhoti-si avadhi men ek ke bad ek kee mugal badashah sinhasan par baithe, lekin in shasakon men koee bhi itana prabhavashali nahin tha, jo apane poorvavartiyon ki virasat ko snbhal sake. stainalen lenapool ne likha hai ki aurngazeb ke shasan kal ke ant se pahale hi hindustan men gadabadi thi tatha bhavi samapti ke snkat prakat ho ge the. jaise koee sashastr evn mukutadhari lash dhool men mil jati hai, vaise hi mugalon ke rajy ka patan us samay hua, jab usaki raksha karane vala koee mahanh shesh n raha. yadi aurngazeb apani yogyata tatha sainik star ka koee varis bhi chhodakar jata, tab bhi vighatan ki prakriya ko shayad hi roka ja sakata tha, kyonki bimari is had tak badh chuki thi ki usaka ilaj sambhav nahin tha.

20 faravari, 1707 ee. ko aurngazeb ki mrityu ke samay mugal samrajy men 21 soobe[1] the, jinamen afaganistan men ek qabul, uttar bharat men 14 aur dakshin men 6- aurngabad, barar, bidar, telngana, haidarabad aur khanadesh the. akabar se lekar aurngazeb tak char mahanh mugal shasakon ne 151 varsh[2] tak shasan kiya, lekin inake kamazor uttaradhikariyon men bahadurashah pratham se lekar bahadurashah dvitiy tak[3] kul 13 paravarti shasak hue, jisamen ek bhi shaktishali nahin hua aur ye sabhi sharmanak tarike se gaddi se utar die ge. aurngazeb apane jivan ke antim samay men apane beton ke bich snbhavit uttaradhikar ke yuddh se ashnkit tha. isalie usane ek vasiyat ke dvara rajy ka bntavara kar diya tha. is vasiyat ke anusar-

  1. bade bete muajjam, bahadurashah athava shahalam ko 12 soobe; jisaki rajadhani dilli tatha qabul thi, ki soobedari pradan ki gee thi.
  2. muhammd ajam ko gujarat, agara, malava tatha dakkan ki soobedari mili.
  3. kamabakhsh ko bijapur aur haidarabad ki soobedari mili.

shaktihin mugal uttaradhikari

badashah aurngazeb ke sare uttaradhikari jahandarashah, farrukhasiyar, muhammadashah adi ayogy the, jo girate samrajy ko snbhal nahin sakate the. aisi sthiti men mugal soobedar apane pranton ke svami svayn ban baithe. is karan mugal samrajy men charon taraf ashanti, upadrav shadayantr adi ke bazar garm ho gaye. dakshin bharat ke rajy bhi ashant ho uthe. dakshin men nizamulamulk, asifajan aur avadh men sadat ali khan ne svatantr rajasatta ka prayog kiya. isi marg ka anushilan roohelakhand ke afagan pathanon ne bhi kiya. marathon ne bhi maharashtr, madhy pradesh, malava aur gujarat par adhikar karake poona ko apane rajanitik kary-kalapon ka kendr bana liya. inhen bhi dekhen: mugal vnsh, mugal kal, mugalakalin sthapaty evn vastukala evn mugalakalin rajasv pranali

maratha shakti ka uday

mugal shasan ki shaktihinata ke karan bharat men ane vali videshi jatiyon aur unaki kampaniyon ko prabhav jamane ka mauqa to mila hi, bharat ki ek any shakti maratha bhi apana vikas karati gee aur mugal prashasan ki snprabhuta ko chunauti dekar apani pradhanata qayam kar li. unnisavin shatabdi ka ek angrez itihasakar likhata hai ki, "aurngazeb ki mrityu ke sath hi mugal samrajy ka patan arambh ho gaya. jahandarashah laparavah, lampat aur pagalapan ki had tak nashebaz tha. usane duracharapoorn aur strain darabari jivan ka ek dusht namoona samane rakha aur shasak varg ki naitikata ko kalnkit kiya. is kathaputali badashah ke kal men sari satta vazir tatha any darabariyon ke hathon men chali gee. uttaradayitv bnt jane se prashasan men laparavahi ayi aur arajakata phail gee. apane gyarah mahine ke prashasan kal men jahandarashah ne apane poorvajon dvara snchit khazane ko adhikanshat: loota diya. sona, chandi aur babar ke samay se ikatthi ki gee any moolyavan chizen uda di geen. yuvak muhammadashah ko prashasan men koee ruchi nahin thi. vah nimn koti ke logon se ghira rahata tha aur tuchchh kamon men apana samay bitata tha. isi ke shasan kal men dilli par nadirashah ka akraman hua tha. is samay bharat ki shakti adhikanshat: marathon ke hathon men a chuki thi, aur vahi nadirashah ke akraman ka mukabala bhi kar sakate the. mugal samrajy ke mukabale is samay marathe hi ek mazaboot sthiti men the. inhen bhi dekhen: peshava, bajirav pratham, bajirav dvitiy, balaji bajirav, raghunatharav evn mahadaji shinde

any shaktiyon ka utkarsh

uttar mugalakalin shasakon ke shasanakal men marathon ke atirikt bharat men sikkhon, rajapooton, jaton tatha ruhelon ke roop men any shaktiyan bhi uchhal-kood kar rahi thin. sikkhon ne pnjab men apani shakti men vriddh kar li thi. pnjab men unhonne apani svatantr satta sthapit kar li aur mugalon ki snprabhoota ki avahelana kar di. isi prakar rajapooton ne rajapootana men, jaton ne dilli ke as-pas aur ruhelon ne roohelakhand men apani-apani shakti ka vistar kar liya. marathon tatha sikkhon ki tarah unhonne bhi apani svatantr satta ki sthapana kar dali. sampoorn desh ko vighatit karane vali in tamam shaktiyon par niyantran rakhana mugal shasakon ke lie sambhav nahin rah gaya aur desh vighatit hone laga.

sikkh

sikkh jati ko ek ladakoo jati ke roop men parivartit karane ka mahattvapooran kary guru haragovind sinh ne kiya. sikkhon ke dasaven guru govind sinh ke netritv men sikkh ek rajanitik evn fauji shakti banakar ubhare. guru govind sinh ki mrityu ke bad 'guru' ki parampara samapt ho gee. unake shishy banda sinh, jise 'banda bahadur' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai, usane apane guru ki mrityu ke bad sikkhon ka netritv snbhala. usake shishy use 'sachcha padashah' kahakar sambodhit karate the. 1715 ee. men banda sinh ko pakadakar usaki hatya kar di gee. 1748 ee. men navab 'karpoor sinh' ne sikkhon ke alag-alag dal ko 'khalasa dal' men shamil kiya, jisaka netritv 'jassa sinh' ne kiya. sikkhon ka vibhajan 12 misalon men hua tha. 1760 ee. tak sikkhon ka pnjab par poorn adhikar ho gaya tha. sikkhon ne 1763 se 1773 ee. ke bich sikkh shakti ka vistar poorv men saharanapur, pashchim men atak, dakshin men multan aur uttar men jammoo-kashmir tak kar liya. inhen bhi dekhen: ranajit sinh, banda bahadur, sikkh dharm evn guru haragovind sinh

jat

mugal saltanat ke akhari samay men jo shaktiyan ubhari, jinhonne brajamndal ke itihas men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee, un jat saradaron ke nam itihas men bahut mashahoor hain. jaton ka itihas purana hai. jat mukhyatah kheti karane vali jati hai; lekin aurngazeb ke atyacharon aur nirnkush pravritti ne unhen ek badi sainy shakti ka roop de diya. mugaliya saltanat ke ant se angrezon ke shasan tak brajamndal men jaton ka prabhutv raha. inhonne braj ke rajanitik aur samajik jivan ko bahut prabhavit kiya. yah samay braj ke itihas men 'jat kal' ke nam se jana jata hai. is kal ka vishesh mahattv hai. jat netaon ne is samay men braj men anek jagahon par, jaise sinasini, dig, bharatapur, murasan aur hatharas jaise kee rajyon ko sthapit kiya. in rajaon men dig−bharatapur ke raja mahattvapoorn hain. in rajaon ne braj ka gaurav badhaya, inhen 'brajendr' athava 'brajaraj' bhi kaha gaya. braj ke itihas men krishn (alaberooni ne krishn ko jat hi bataya hai)[4] ke pashchath jin kuchh hindoo rajaon ne shasan kiya , unamen dig aur bharatapur ke raja vishesh the. in rajaon ne lagabhag sau salon tak brajamndal ke ek bade bhag par rajy kiya. in jat shasakon men maharaja soorajamal (shasanakal sanh 1755 se sanh 1763 tak) aur unake putr javahar sinh (shasan kal sanh 1763 se sanh 1768 tak) braj ke itihas men bahut prasiddh hain.

inhen bhi dekhen: rajaram, thakur choodaman sinh, badanasinh, soorajamal evn badanasinh aur soorajamal

angrez

bngal ke sadhanon se balashali hokar angrezon ne 1760 ee. men vadivash ki ladaee men phransisiyon ko hara diya aur 1762 ee. men unase pandecheri le liya. is prakar unhonne bharat men phransisiyon ki rajanitik shakti samapt kar di. 1764 ee. men angrezon ne baksar ki ladaee men badashah bahadur shah aur avadh ke navab ki sammilit sena ko hara diya aur 1765 ee. men badashah se bngal, bihar tatha udisa ki divani prapt kar li. isake phalasvaroop eest indiya kampani ko pahali bar bngal, udisa tatha bihar ke prashasan ka qanooni adhikar mil gaya. kuchh itihasakar ise bharat men british rajy ka prarambh manate hain. inhen bhi dekhen: eest indiya kampani evn gavarnar-janaral

rajapoot

rajapooton ne muslim akramaniyon se shatabdiyon tak viratapoorvak yuddh kiya. yadyapi unamen paraspar ekata ke abhav ke karan bharat par antat: muslimon ka rajy sthapit ho gaya tha, tathapi unake tivr virodh ke phalasvaroop is kary men muslimon ko bahut samay laga. dirghakal tak muslimon ka virodh aur unase yuddh karate rahane ke karan rajapoot shithil ho ge aur unaki deshabhakti, virata tatha atm-balidan ki bhavanaen kunthit ho geen. yahi karan hai ki bharat men angrezi rajy ki sthapana ke viruddh kisi bhi mahattvapoorn rajapoot rajy athava shasak ne koee yuddh nahin kiya. isake viparit 1817 aur 1820 ee. ke bich sabhi rajapoot rajaon ne svechchha se angrezon ki sarvopari satta svikar karake apani tatha apane rajy ki suraksha ka bhar un par chhod diya. inhen bhi dekhen: rajapoot kal, rajapootana, rana udayasinh, maharana pratap, rana sanga evn rana amar sinh

adhunik kal ki pramukh ladaeeyan

bharatiy itihas men samay-samay par kee yuddh hue hain. in yuddhon ke dvara bharat ki rajaniti ne n jane kitani hi bar ek alag hi disha prapt ki. bharatiy riyasaton men apas men hi kee itihas prasiddh yuddh lade ge. in deshi riyasaton ki apasi phoot bhi is had tak badh chuki thi, ki angrezon ne usaka poora labh uthaya. rajapooton, marathon aur musalamanon men bhi kee sandhiyan hueen. bharat ke itihas men adhikansh yuddhon ka lakshy sirf ek hi tha, dilli saltanat par hukoomat. adhunik kal men angrezon ne hi apani soojhaboojh aur chalaki v kootaniti se dilli ki hukoomat prapt ki thi. halanki unhen bharat men apane panv jamane ke lie kafi pareshaniyon ka samana karana pada tha, phir bhi unhonne bharatiyon ki apasi phoot ka labh uthate hue ise ek lambe samay tak gulam banaye rakha.

angl-maratha yuddh

bharat ke itihas men tin angl-maratha yuddh hue hain. ye tinon yuddh 1775 ee. se 1818 ee. tak chale. ye yuddh british senaon aur maratha mahasngh ke bich hue the. in yuddhon ka parinam yah hua ki, maratha mahasngh ka poori tarah se vinash ho gaya. marathon men pahale se hi apas men kafi bhedabhav the, jis karan vah angrezon ke viruddh ekajut nahin ho sake. jahan raghunatharav ne eest indiya kampani se mitrata karake peshava banane ka sapana dekha, aur angrezon ke sath soorat ki sandhi ki, vahin qayar bajirav dvitiy ne basin bhagakar angrezon ke sath basin ki sandhi ki aur marathon ki svatntrata ko bech diya. pahala yuddh(1775-1782 ee.) raghunatharav dvara mahasngh ke peshava (mukhyamntri) ke dave ko lekar british samarthan se prarambh hua. janavari 1779 ee. men badaganv men angrez parajit ho ge, lekin unhonne marathon ke sath salabaee ki sandhi (mee 1782 ee.) hone tak yuddh jari rakha.

gorakha yuddh

gorakha yuddh 1816 ee. men british bharatiy sarakar aur nepal ke bich hua. us samay bharat ka gavarnar-janaral laaurd hestings tha. eest indiya kampani ke rajy ka prasar nepal ki taraf bhi hone laga tha, jabaki nepal apane rajy ka vistar uttar ki or chin ke hone ke karan nahin kar sakata tha. gorakhon ne pulis thanon par hamala kar diya aur kee angrezon ko apana nishana banaya. in sab paristhitiyon men kampani ne gorakha logon ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana kar di. inhen bhi dekhen: yuddh sandhiyan, andolan viplav sainik vidroh (1757-1856 ee.) evn gorakha

angl-sikkh yuddh

bharat ke itihas men do sikkh yuddh hue hain. in donon hi yuddhon men sikkh angrezon se parajit hue aur unhen angrezon se unaki manamani sharton ke anusar sandhi karani padi. pratham yuddh men parajay ke karan sikkhon ko angrezon ke sath 9 march, 1846 ee. ko 'lahaur ki sandhi' aur isake uparant ek aur sandhi, 'bhairoval ki sandhi' 22 disambar, 1846 ee. ko karani padi. in sandhiyon ke dvara 'lal sinh' ko vazir ke roop men angrezon ne manyata pradan kar di aur apani ek rejident ko lahaur men rakh diya. maharani zinda kaur ko dalip sinh se alag kar diya gaya, jo ki dalip sinh ki snrakshika thin. unhen 'shekhapura' bhej diya gaya. dvitiy yuddh men sikkhon ne angrezon ke age atm samarpan kar diya. dalip sinh ko penshan pradan kar di gee. use v rani zinda kaur ko 5 lakh rupaye varshik penshan par inglaind bhej diya gaya. jahan par kuchh samay bad hi rani zinda kaur ki mrityu ho gee.

gavarnar-janaral

laaurd karzan

eest indiya kampani ke shasan kal men bharat ka prashasan ek ke bad ek baees gavarnar-janaralon ke hathon men raha. is kal ke bharatiy itihas ki sabase ullekhaniy ghatana yah hai ki kampani yuddh tatha kootaniti ke dvara bharat men apane samrajy ka uttarottar vistar karati rahi. maisoor ke sath char ladaiyan, marathon ke sath tin, barma (myanmar) tatha sikhon ke sath do-do ladaiyan tatha sindh ke amiron, gorakhon tatha afaganistan ke sath ek-ek ladaee chhedi gayi. pratyek ladaee men kampani ko ek ya doosare deshi raja ki madad mili. usane jin faujon se ladaee ki unamen se adhikansh bharatiy sipahi the aur ladaee ka kharch poori tarah bharatiy karadata ko uthana pada. in ladaiyon ke phalasvaroop 1857 ee. tak sare bharat par sidhe kampani ka prabhutv sthapit ho gaya. do-tihaee bharat par deshi rajyon ka shasan bana raha. parantu unhonne kampani ka sarvabhaum prabhutv svikar kar liya aur adhinasth tatha ashrit mitr raja ke roop men apani riyasat ka shasan chalate rahe.

pratham svatntrata sngram

laaurd kaining ke gavarnar-janaral ke roop men shasan karane ke dauran hi 1857 ee. ki mahanh kranti huee. is kranti ka arambh 10 mee, 1857 ee. ko merath se hua, jo dhire-dhire kanapur, bareli, jhansi, dilli, avadh adi sthanon par phail gaya. is kranti ki shuruat to ek sainy vidroh ke roop men huee, parantu kalantar men usaka svaroop badal kar british satta ke viruddh ek janavyapi vidroh ke roop men ho gaya, jise bharat ka pratham svatantrata sngram kaha gaya. 1857 ee. ki is mahanh kranti ke svaroop ko lekar viddhan ek mat nahin hai. is bare men vidvanon ne apane alag-alag mat pratipadit kiye hain, jo is prakar hain-'sipahi vidroh', 'svatantrata sngram', 'samantavadi pratikriya', 'janakranti', 'rashtriy vidroh', 'muslim shadayntr', 'eesaee dharm ke viruddh ek dharm yuddh' aur 'sabhyata evn barbarata ka sngharsh' adi.

mngal pande

29 march, 1857 ee. ko mngal pande namak ek sainik ne 'bairakapur chhavani' men apane afasaron ke viruddh vidroh kar diya, lekin british sainy adhikariyon ne is sainik vidroh ko saralata se niyntrit kar liya aur sath hi usaki bataliyam '34 en.aee.' ko bhng kar diya. 24 aprail ko 3 el.si. pared merath men 90 ghudasavaron men se 85 sainikon ne naye karatoos lene se inkar kar diya. agya ki avahelana ke karan in 85 ghudasavaron ko kort marshal dvara 5 varsh ka karavas diya gaya. 'khula vidroh' 10 mee, din ravivar ko sanyakal 5 v 6 baje ke madhy prarambh hua. sarvapratham paidal tukadi '20 en.aee.' men vidroh ki shuruat huee, tatpashchath '3 el.si.' men bhi vidroh phail gaya. in vidrohiyon ne apane adhikariyon ke oopar goliyan chalaee. mngal pande ne 'hiyarase' ko goli mari thi, jabaki 'afasar bag' ki hatya kar di gee thi.

jhansi ki rani

jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee ka janm 19 navnbar, 1828 ko kashi ke puny v pavitr kshetr asighat, varanasi men hua tha. inake pita ka nam 'moropnt tanbe' aur mata ka nam 'bhagirathi baee' tha. inaka bachapan ka nam 'manikarnika' rakha gaya, parantu pyar se manikarnika ko 'manu' pukara jata tha. manu ki avastha abhi char-panch varsh hi thi ki usaki man ka dehant ho gaya. pita moropnt tanbe ek sadharan brahman aur antim peshava bajirav dvitiy ke sevak the. mata bhagirathi baee sushil, chatur aur roopavati mahila thin. apani man ki mrityu ho jane par vah pita ke sath bithoor (kanapur) a gee thin. yahin par unhonne mallavidya, ghudasavari aur shastravidyaen sikhin. choonki ghar men manu ki dekhabhal ke lie koee nahin tha, isalie unake pita moropnt manu ko apane sath bajirav dvitiy ke darabar men le jate the, jahan chnchal evn sundar manu ne sabaka man moh liya tha. bajirav manu ko pyar se 'chhabili' bulane the.

tatya tope

san 1857 ee. ke pratham svatantrata sngram ke agraniy viron men tatya tope ko bada uchch sthan prapt hai. is vir ne kee sthanon par apane sainik abhiyanon men uttar pradesh, rajasthan, madhy pradesh, gujarat men angrezi senaon se takkar li thi aur unhen pareshan kar diya tha. gorilla yuddh pranali ko apanate hue tatya tope ne angrezi senaon ke kee sthanon par chhakke chhuda diye the. tatya tope jo 'tantiya topi' ke nam se vikhyat hain, 1857 ee. ke svatntrata sngram ke un mahanh sainik netaon men se ek the, jo prakash men ae. 1857 ee. tak log inake nam se aparichit the. lekin 1857 ee. ki natakiy ghatanaon ne unhen achanak andhakar se prakash men la khada kiya. is mahanh vidroh ke prarnbh hone se poorv vah rajyachyut peshava bajirav dvitiy ke sabase bade putr bithoor ke raja, nana sahab ke ek prakar se sathi-musahib matr the, kintu svatntrata sngram men kanapur ke sammilit hone ke pashchath tatya peshava ki sena ke senadhyaksh ki sthiti tak pahunch ge.

bahadur shah

bahadur shah zafar akabar dvitiy aur lalabaee ke doosare putr the. apane shasanakal ke adhikansh samay unake pas vastavik satta nahin rahi aur vah angrezon par ashrit rahe. 1857 ee. men svatntrata sngram shuroo hone ke samay bahadur shah 82 varsh ke boodhe the, aur svayn nirnay lene ki kshamata ko kho chuke the. vidrohiyon ne unako azad hindustan ka badashah banaya. is karan angrez unase kupit ho gaye aur unhonne unase shatruvath vyavahar kiya. sitambar 1857 ee. men angrezon ne dubara dilli par qabza jama liya aur bahadur shah zafar ko giraftar karake un par muqadama chalaya gaya tatha unhen rngoon (vartaman yangoon) nirvasit kar diya gaya.

antim mugal shasak bahadurashah zafar, jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee, tantya tope (ramachnndr pandurng), bihar ke baboo kunvarasinh, maharashtr se nana sahab, is pratham kranti ke prayas ke nayak the, kintu prayas viphal ho gaya. adhikansh deshi rajaon ne apane ko kranti se alag rakha. kampani ko balapoorvak kranti ko kuchal dene men saphalata mili, parantu kranti ke bad british parliyament ne bharat par kampani ka shasan samapt kar diya. bharat ka shasan ab sidhe briten ke dvara kiya jane laga.

mahatma gandhi

mahatma gandhi ne bharat ko azadi dilane ke lie apana sampoorn jivan hi samarpit kar diya tha. vishvakavi ravindranath taigor ne unhen 'mahatma' ki upadhi di thi, jisase vah mahatma gandhi ke nam se pukare jane lage the. mahatma gandhi ka janm 2 aktoobar 1869 ee. ko gujarat ke porabndar namak sthan par hua tha. unake mata-pita kattar hindoo the. inake pita ka nam karamachnd gandhi tha. mohanadas ki mata ka nam putalibaee tha, jo karamachnd gandhi ji ki chauthi patni thin. mohanadas apane pita ki chauthi patni ki antim sntan the. unake pita karamachnd (kaba gandhi) pahale british shasan ke tahat pashchimi bharat ke gujarat rajy men ek chhoti-si riyasat ki rajadhani porabndar ke divan the aur bad men kramashah rajakot (kathiyavad) aur vankaner men divan rahe. karamachnd gandhi ne bahut adhik aupacharik shiksha to prapt nahin ki thi, lekin vah ek kushal prashasak the aur unhen sanaki rajakumaron, unaki duahkhi praja tatha sattasin kattar british rajanitik adhikariyon ke bich apana rasta nikalana ata tha. inhen bhi dekhen: asahayog andolan, savinay avgya andolan evn namak satyagrah

bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana

is prakar bharat men british shasan ka doosara kal (1858-1947 ee.) arambh hua. is kal ka shasan ek ke bad ikattis gavarnar-janaralon ke hathon men raha. gavarnar-janaral ko ab vaisaray (british samrat ka pratinidhi) kaha jane laga. laaurd kaining pahala vaisaray tatha gavarnar-janaral niyukt hua. 1885 ee. men bambee men bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana huee, jisamen desh ke samast bhagon se 71 pratinidhiyon ne bhag liya. kangres ka doosara adhiveshan 1883 ee. men kalakatta men hua, jisamen sare desh se nirvachit 434 pratinidhiyon ne bhag liya. is adhiveshan men mang ki gayi ki bharat men kendriy tatha prantiy vidhanamndalon ka vistar kiya jaye aur usake adhe sadasy nirvachit bharatiy hon. kangres har sal apane adhiveshanon men apani mangen doharati rahi. laaurd dafarin ne kangres par vyngy karate hue use aise alpasnkhyak varg ka pratinidhitv karane vali snstha bataya, jise sirf khurdabin se dekha ja sakata hai. laaurd lainsadaun ne usake prati poorn upeksha ki niti barati, laaurd karzan ne usaka khuleam mazak udaya tatha laaurd minto dvitiy ne 1909 ke indiyan kaauunsil ekt dvara sthapit vidhanamndalon men musalamanon ko anuchit riti se anupat se adhik pratinidhitv dekar unhen phodane tatha kangres ko todane ki koshish ki, phir bhi kangres zinda rahi.

saphalata ki shuruat

kangres ko pahali mamooli saphalata 1909 ee. men mili, jab inglaind men bharatamntri ke nirdeshan men kam karane vali 'bharat parishad' men do bharatiy sadasyon ki niyukti pahali bar ki gayi. vaisaray ki 'ekjikyootiv kaunsil' men pahali bar ek bharatiy sadasy ki niyukti ki gayi tatha 'indiyan kaunsil ekt' ke dvara kendriy tatha prantiy vidhanamndalon ka vistar kar diya gaya tatha unamen nirvachit bharatiy pratinidhiyon ka anupat pahale se adhik badha diya gaya. in sudharon ke prastav laaurd marle ne halanki bharat men snsadiy snsthaon ki sthapana karane ka koee irada hone se inkar kiya, phir bhi ekt men jo vyavasthaen ki gayin thi, unaka uddeshy usi disha men age badhane ke siva aur kuchh nahin ho sakata tha. 1911 ee. men laaurd karzan ke dvara 1905 ee. men kiya bngal ka vibhajan radd kar diya gaya aur bharat ne briten ka poora sath diya. bharat ne yuddh ko jitane ke lie briten ki faujon se, dhan se tatha samagri se madad ki. bharat asha karata tha ki is rajabhakti pradarshan ke badale yuddh se hone vale labhon men use bhi hissa milega.

saradar bhagat sinh

1919 ee. men raulat ekt ke virodh men snpoorn bharat men pradarshan ho rahe the aur isi varsh 13 aprail ko jaliyanvala bag kand hua. is kand ka samachar sunakar bhagat sinh lahaur se amritasar pahunche. desh par mar-mitane vale shahidon ke prati shradhdanjali di tatha rakt se bhigi mitti ko unhonne ek botal men rakh liya, jisase sadaiv yah yad rahe ki unhen apane desh aur deshavasiyon ke apaman ka badala lena hai. 1920 ee. ke mahatma gandhi ke asahayog andolan se prabhavit hokar 1921 ee. men bhagat sinh ne skool chhod diya. asahayog andolan se prabhavit chhatron ke lie lala lajapat ray ne lahaur men 'neshanal kaaulej' ki sthapana ki thi. isi kaaulej men bhagat sinh ne bhi pravesh liya. 'pnjab neshanal kaaulej' men unaki deshabhakti ki bhavana phalane-phoolane lagi. isi kaaulej men hi yashapal, bhagavaticharan, sukhadev, tirtharam, jhandasinh adi krantikariyon se snpark hua. kaaulej men ek neshanal natak klab bhi tha. isi klab ke madhyam se bhagat sinh ne deshabhaktipoorn natakon men abhinay bhi kiya.

chandrashekhar azad

chandrashekhar azad ke saphal netritv men bhagat sinh aur batukeshvar datt ne 8 aprail, 1929 ee. ko dilli ki 'kendriy asenbali' men bam visphot kie. ye visphot sarakar dvara banae ge kale qanoonon ke virodh men kie ge the. is kand ke phalasvaroop bhi krantikari bahut janapriy ho ge. kendriy asenbali men bam visphot karane ke pashchath bhagat sinh aur batukeshvar datt ne svayn ko giraphtar kara liya. ve nyayalay ko apana prachar–mnch banana chahate the. chandrashekhar azad ghoom–ghoomakar kranti prayason ko gati dene men lage hue the. akhir vah din bhi a gaya, jab kisi mukhabir ne pulis ko vah soochana di, ki chandrashekhar azad 'alfred park' men apane ek sathi ke sath baithe hue hain. chandrashekhar azad ne park men kafi der tak angrezon se mukabala kiya. unake pas sari goliyan samapt ho chuki thin, sirf ek goli hi shesh thi. ve angrezon ke hathon men ana nahin chahate the. svayn ko giraphtari se bachane ke lie unhonne vah ek shesh goli apane mastishk se satakar chali di. is prakar ek aise deshabhakt ka ant ho gaya, jisane azadi ki prapti ke liye pranon ka moh nahin kiya. desh ka har ek nagarik is vir ke rin ko sadaiv yad rakhe, yahi us vir ke liye ek sachchi shrriddhajnli hogi.

netaji bos

subhash chandr bos ek mahanh neta the. kahate hain n, ki neta apane siddhanton se kabhi samajhauta nahin karate, par unamen virodhiyon ko sath lekar chalane ka mahanh gun hota hai. so neta ji men yah gun koot-koot kar bhara tha. darasal, bharatiy svatntrata sngram men alag-alag vicharon ke dal the. zahir taur par mahatma gandhi ko udar vicharon vale dal ka pratinidhi mana jata tha. vahin netaji apane joshile svabhav ke karan krantikari vicharon vale dal men the. yahi karan tha ki mahatma gandhi aur subhash chandr bos ke vichar bhinn-bhinn the. lekin ve yah achchhi tarah janate the ki, mahatma gandhi aur unaka maqasad ek hai, yani desh ki azadi. ve yah bhi janate the ki mahatma gandhi hi desh ke rashtrapita kahalane ke sachamuch haqadar hain. sabase pahale gandhi ji ko rashtrapita kahane vale netaji hi the. inhen bhi dekhen: saradar ballabh bhaee patel , sukhadev, rajaguru, lala lajapat ray evn azad hind fauj

sampradayik dnge

kuchh british afasaron ne bharat ko svadhin hone se rokane ke lie antim durrabh sndhi ki aur musalamanon ki bharat vibhajan karake pakistan ki sthapana ki mang ka samarthan karana shuroo kar diya. isake phalasvaroop agast 1946 ee. men sare desh men bhayanak sampradayik dnge shuroo ho gaye, jinhen vaisaray laaurd vevel apane samast fauji anubhavon tatha sadhanon bavajood rokan men asaphal raha. yah anubhav kiya gaya ki bharat ka prashasan aisi sarakar ke dvara chalana sambhav nahin hai, jisaka niyntran mudhy roop se angrezon ke hathon men ho. atev sitambar 1946 ee. men laaurd vevel ne pndit javahar lal neharoo ke netritv men bharatiy netaon ki ek antarim sarakar gathit ki. british adhikariyon ki kripapatr hone ke karan muslim lig ke dimag kafi oonche ho gaye the. usane pahale to ek mahine tak antarim sarakar se apane ko alag rakha, isake bad vah bhi usamen sammilit ho gayi.

svatntrata prapti

bharat ka snvidhan banane ke lie ek bharatiy snvidhan sabha ka ayojan kiya gaya. 1947 ee. ke shuroo men laaurd vevel ke sthan par laaurd mauntabeten vaisaray niyukt hua. use pnjab men bhayanak sampradayik dngon ka samana karana pada. jinako bhadakane men vahan ke kuchh british afasaron ka hath tha. vah pradhanamntri etali ke netritv men briten ki sarakar ko yah samajhane men saphal ho gaya ki bharat ka bharat aur pakistan ke roop men vibhajan karake use svadhinata pradan karane se shanti ki sthapana sambhav ho sakegi aur briten bharat men apane vyaparik hiton ko surakshit rakh sakega. 3 joon, 1947 ee. ko british sarakar ki or se yah ghoshana kar di gayi ki bharat ka; bharat aur pakistan ke roop men vibhajan karake use svadhinata pradan kar di jayagi. british parliyament ne 15 agast, 1947 ee. ko 'indipedns aauf indiya ekt' pas kar diya. is tarah bharat uttar pashchimi sima prant, baloochistan, sindh, pashchimi pnjab, poorvi bngal tatha pashchim bngal ke muslim bahul bhagon se rahit ho jane ke bad, sat shatabdiyon ki videshi paradhinata ke bad svadhinata ke ek naye path par agrasar hua.

riyasaton ka vilay

adhikansh deshi riyasaton ne, jinake samane bharat athava pakistan men vilay ka prastav rakha gaya tha, bharat men vilay ke paksh men nirnay liya, parantu, do riyasaton-kashmir tatha haidarabad ne koee nirnay nahin kiya. pakistan ne balapoorvak kashmir ki riyasat par adhikar karane ka prayas kiya, parantu aktoobar 1947 ee. men kashmir ke maharaj ne bharat men vilay ki ghoshana kar di aur bharatiy senaon ko vayuyanon se bhejakar shrinagar sahit kashmiri ghati tak jammoo ki raksha kar li gayi. pakistani akramanakariyon ne riyasat ke uttari bhag par apana qabza banaye rakha aur isake phalasvaroop pakistan se yuddh chhid gaya. bharat ne yah mamala snyukt rashtr sngh men uthaya aur snyukt rashtr sngh ne jis kshetr par jisaka qabza tha, usi ke adhar par yuddh viram kar diya. vah aj tak is saval ka koee nipatara nahin kar saka hai. haidarabad ke nizam ne apani riyasat ko svatntrata ka darja dilane ka shadayntr racha, parantu bharat sarakar ki pulis karravaee ke phalasvaroop vah 1948 ee. men apani riyasat bharat men vilayan karane ke lie majaboor ho gaye. riyasaton ke vilay men tatkalin grihamntri saradar ballabh bhaee patel ki mukhy bhoomika rahi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. prant
  2. 1556 ee.-1707ee.
  3. 1707 ee.-1858ee.
  4. 'vasudev jati ka jat tha', 'bharat' al-berooni

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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