आनन्दवर्धन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

anandavardhan 9vin shati ee. ke uttarardh men kashmir nivasi snskrit ke kavyashastri tatha 'dhvani sampraday' ke pravartak achary the. inaki kriti 'dhvanyalok' bahut prasiddh hai. 'dhvani sampraday' ka sambandh mukhyat: shabd shakti aur arthavigyan se hai. shabd shakti bhasha darshan ka vishay hai aur arthavigyan bhasha darshan ka vishay hote hue kavy shastr aur samanyat: saundaryashastr ke lie bhi mahattvapoorn hai. anandavardhan ne arth ka vivechan pradhanat: kavy ke sandarbh men kiya hai. anek anusar kavy dhvani hai. dhvani us vishisht kavy ki sngya hai, jisamen shabd aur vachy arth ki apeksha pratiyaman arth ka chamatkar adhik hota hai. anandavardhan ka mahattv pradhanat: ek bhasha-darshanik v ek saundary shastri ke roop men hai.

samay evn krititv

anandavardhan ka samay navin shati eesavi hai. ye kashmir ke maharaj avantivarma ke ashrit kavi the. ye muktagan, shivasvami tatha ratnakar ke samakalin the. avantivarma ka samay 855 se 883 ee. tak mana jata hai. inake pita ka nam 'non' athava 'nonopadhyay' tha, jaisa ki unake granth 'dhvanyalok' men ullikhit hai. apane granth 'devishatak' men anandavardhan ne apane ko 'nonasut' kaha hai. dhvanyalok aur devishatak ke atirikt anandavardhan ke aur bhi granth hain, jaise- arjun charit, savikramaban lila, vinishchay tika vivriti aur tatvalok. isamen vinishchaya tika vivriti aur tatvalok darshanik drishti se mahattvapoorn hain, kintu ye ab upalabdh nahin hain. inake upalabdh granthon men 'dhvanyalok' sabase adhik mahattvapoorn hai.

alochak matabhed

'dhvanyalok' ke char udyot hain. is granth ke do bhag hain, karika aur vritti. alochakon men is bat ko lekar matabhed hai ki ye donon anandavardhan ki kritiyan hain athava do bhinn-bhinn vyaktiyon ki. parantu tikakar abhinavagupt ke anusar donon hi unaki kritiyan hain. is granth men anandavardhan ne dhvani ke viruddh sambhavy apattiyon ka nirakaran karake dhvani ki sthapana tatha vynjana shakti ka vivechan kiya hai evn amidha se usaki shreshthata pratipadit ki hai. isake pashchath dhvani ke bhed, usaki vyapakata, arthath prakriti pratyay se lekar mahakavyon tak men usaki vyapakata ka vivechan kiya hai. isamen gun, riti evn alnkaron ke sath dhvani ka uchit sambandh niroopit kiya hai. ras ka virodhavirodh darshakar is par atyant bal diya gaya hai. shant ras ko paramanand mana gaya hai. ant men kavi ki pratibha shakti ka mahattv batalaya gaya hai.

vynjana shakti aur navy-arthavigyan

'dhvani siddhant' ka sambandh mukhyat: shabd shakti aur arthavigyan se hai. shabd shakti, bhasha darshan ka vishay hai aur arthavigyan bhasha darshan ka vishay hote hue kavy shastr aur samanyat: saundaryashastr ke lie bhi mahattvapoorn hai. is siddhant ke anusar pratyek shabd men ek vynjana shakti hoti hai, jo usaki abhidha shakti aur lakshana shakti se bhinn hai. vynjana shakti se hi pratyek shabd ka bhavatmak ya vyngy arth gyat hota hai. udaharanarth 'suvasti ho gaya' ko lijie-is vaky ka vynjana shakti se kisi ke lie yah arth ho sakata hai ki ab usaki apani priyatama se milane ka avasar a raha hai. amidha aur lakshana se aisa arth nahin lagaya ja sakata, kyonki is arth ka sambandh n to prastut vaky ke ke amidhey ya vachy arth se hai aur n usase sambandhit kisi lakshanik arth se. yahan jo arth hai, yah shuddh bhavatmak hai. vynjana bhavatmak arth ko prakat karati hai.

dhvani shakti ki pratishthapana

dhvanikar anandavardhan ne vynjana athava dhvani ko ek svatntr shabdashakti ke roop men pratishthit kiya hai. yah shakti amidha aur lakshana donon se bhinn hai. dhvani lakshana se svaroopat: bhinn hai, kyonki dhvani vyatirikt vishay men bhi lakshan sambhav hai tatha dhvani lakshana ye adhik vyapak bhi hai. at: vynjana aur lakshana ko abhinn manane men ativyapti aur avyapti donon hi dosh hain. dhvani lakshana ka bhi ashray lekar ho sakati hai aur amidha ka bhi. at: vynjana ya dhvani ka lakshana se abhed nahin kiya ja sakata hai. yah anuman aur arthapatti se bhi bhinn hai, kyonki anuman ka adhar vyapti sambandh hai aur arthapatti ka adhar tarkik apadan ya anyatha anupapannata hai, jo vynjana ke adhar nahin hain. shabd ko to adhikansh bharatiy darshanikon ne ek svatntr praman mana hai, parantu jab vynjana ki bat ati hai to tab ve log use shabd shakti nahin manate. ve usaka antarbhav anuman athava arthapatti men kar lete hain. parantu dhvanikar anandavardhan ne isaka khndan kiya hai. anuman aur arthapatti donon se hi vyngy arth ka gyan nahin ho sakata. vynjana shabd bhinn gyan ka koee sadhan ya praman nahin hai. isalie anuman aur arthapatti se vah bhinn hai, jo ki gyan ke praman hain. vynjana ka sambandh shabd se hai, kintu vynjana se prapt arth ko tarkat: ya vastut: saty hone ki avashyakata nahin hai. yah asaty hote hue bhi bhavagat hai. yah sahriday anubhavakarta ki bhavamoolak anubhooti hai. anandavardhan ne vyngy arth ka bodh lavany bodh ke adhar par upaman praman ke dvara karaya hai. yah vyngy arth pratiyaman aur tatpary roop hai. isaka karan hai vynjana. yah vynjana shabd aur arth ka ek svatntr vyapar hai. isase yukt bolachal ki bhasha ko vyakaran shastr men dhvani ki sngya di gee hai.

dhvani siddhant tatha sphotavad

dhvani siddhant ko vyakaran darshan se prerana prapt huee hai. vyakaran darshan ka sphotavad hi dhvani siddhant ka mool prerak hai. dhvani siddhant se sambandhit sphotavad ko samajhane ke lie patnjali ke 'mahabhashy' tatha bhartuhari ke 'vakyapadiy' ke tatsambandhi maton ko janana apekshit hai. ath ka pratyayak 'sphot' hai. yah akram, nirnsh, niravayav, avibhag, bodh-svabhav, shabd-tatv, hai, jo sarvada buddhi men janmajat hai. sphot ki vynjana karane vale uchcharit nad ko dhvani kahate hain. at: sphot vyngy hai aur dhvani usaki vynjak. sphot ko anity karyakram manane vale utpattivadiyon ke anusar snyog athava vibhag se pratham utpann shabd ka nam hi sphot hai, aur jo sunaee padane vala shabd hai, vah shabdajany shabd hi dhvani hai. anandavardhan ke dhvanivadi vyakhyakar abhinavagupt ke anusar dhvani ke ye panch arth hain- vynjak shabd, vynjak arth, kyonki ve donon us pratiyaman arth ka vynjan karate hain, vyngy arth, dhvanan-vyapar (vynjana vyapar) tatha in charon (vynjak shabd, vynjak arth, vyngy arth aur vynjana vyapar) se yukt vaky. abhinavagupt ke anusar dhvanikar anandavardhan ne ukt panchon hi arthon men dhvani shabd ka prayog kiya hai.

sara dhvani siddhant vyngyarth aur vynjana-vritti par adharit siddhant hai. vynjana vyapar dhvani siddhant ka pranatatv hai. isi ki pratishtha karana dhvanivadiyon ka pradhan lakshy raha hai. vynjana vyapar ki pratishtha karana vyngyath ki hi pratishtha karana hai, kyonki vyngyarth aur vynjana vyapar paraspar sapeksh hain.

arth ka vivechan

anandavardhan ne arth ka vivechan pradhanat: kavy ke sandarbh men kiya hai. anek anusar kavy dhvani hai. dhvani us vishisht kavy ki sngya hai, jisamen shabd aur vachy arth ki apeksha pratiyaman arth ka chamatkar adhik ho.[1] arth do prakar ka hota hai, vachy aur pratiyaman. vaky arth hai upamadi roop. pratiyaman arth lalana ke alnkrit angon men, lavany ki bhanti, kavy ke angon men hi rahata hai, parantu sarvatha bhinn hota hai. pratiyaman arth ki pratiti vyapar se hoti hai. isaka vivechan oopar kiya ja chuka hai. yah tatpary roop hai, parantu isaka gyan anuman evn arthapatti donon men hi nahin hota hai.

vachy aur pratiyaman arth ka sambandh adhar adhey aur gyapak-gyapy ka hai. vachyarth padarth vishayak hota hai aur pratiyaman arth bhav vishayak. vachy nashvar aur anity hai tatha pratiyaman shashvat aur nity sphot hai. yadi vachy pariabhidheyarth hai to pratiyaman abhidha ya lakshana par adharit vyngyarth hai. vachy yadi vaky prayog hai, to pratiyaman usaka abhipray. vachy yadi avayav hai to pratiyaman usaka avayavi. dhvanikar anandavardhan keval uchch koti ke lakshanakar hi nahin the, apitu ve ek sahriday evn pratibhavan kavi bhi the. unako kavita 'kamini' ka bahyalnkaran pasand nahin tha. at: unhonne kavy ke antastatv men pravesh karake usake marm ko pahachanane tatha usake rahasyamay mool ko khojane ka saksham prayas kiya. unhonne kavy ke ramaniy tatv ki tulana nari ke angon men rahane vale parantu sarvatha bhinn lavany namak tatv se ki hai. isi tatv ka nam hai kavy ka pratiyaman arth, arthath dhvani.

jis prakar atishay alnkrit nari lavany ke abhav men hridayavarjak nahin ho sakati, usi prakar dhvani tatv ke abhav men alnkrit kavy bhi hridayavarjak nahin ho sakata. isalie apane kavy ke prarambh men hi unhonne 'kavyasyatma dhvani' kaha. dhvani hi unake anusar kavy ka atmabhoot tatv hai. yah ek nitant krantikari manyata thi. isaka kavy men vahi sthan hai, jo sthan striyon men lajja ka hai. kavy men is atiramaniy pratiyaman tatv tak pahunchane ke lie alnkar prasthan atyant asamarth hai. kavy shastr men dhvani siddhant ne alnkar, gun, riti, ras aur auchity adi ka khndan karake shreshth kavy ki kasauti ke roop men vynjana se prapt vyngy arth ko hi mahattv diya hai. adhunik yug men isaka aur sadharanikaran kiya gaya aur yah mana gaya ki samast saundary shastriy arth, n ki keval kavy, vyngy hai aur usake mool men vynjana shakti hai. darshanik drishti se isaka arth hua ki saundaryaparak arth ki vyakhya akaravad, vyavaharavad aur yatharthavad ke dvara nahin ki ja sakati hai. usaki vyakhya ke adhar saundary bodh ki parampara tatha usako grahan karane ki pratibha hai.

dhvani-siddhant ka vikas

alnkaravad ki maryada ka atikraman karane vala dhvani siddhant rudhivadi alnkaravadiyon ko nitant apriy laga. un logon ne isaka prabal virodh kiya. anandavardhan ki poorv paristhitiyon par dhyan dene se yah spasht pratit hota hai ki yadyapi bharatamuni ne apane 'natyashastr' men ras nishpatti ka vivechan kiya tha tathapi kavyashastr ka mool chintan alnkar sooktiyon par kendrit tha. rudrat ne sarvapratham kavy ke kshetr men ras ko lakar alnkar aur ras ki pratidvandvita utpann ki. dhvani siddhant ne is pratidvandvita men alnkar ko aghat pahunchakar marmahit kiya tatha ras ko prabal samarthan pradan kiya. parantu svayn anandavardhan ka dhyey yah nahin tha. ve kavy ki atma dhvani ko (n keval ras dhvani ko) sarvopari pratishthit kar gun, alnkar, riti, vritti adi sabhi ko usi ke antargat rakhana chahate the. parantu paravarti vicharakon ke vivechan se yah spasht hota hai ki aitihasik sakshy isake viparit raha. kavy ke kshetr men alnkar evn ras donon pragatishil charcha ke vishay bane rahe.

yadyapi anandavardhan ne dhvani ki pratishtha ka saiddhantik vivechan avashy prastut kiya tathapi unake pashchath kisi any achary ne dhvani siddhant ko navin paripreksh men vivechit nahin kiya. isake phalasvaroop dhvani par adharit ras siddhant, chintan ke navinatam ayamon ko prapt karata raha, parantu dhvani siddhant jaisa tha, pray: vaisa hi duharaya jata raha. yadyapi virodhiyon ne dhvani siddhant ke khndan ka avashy prayas kiya, tathapi samarthakon ne usako utana hi sarvangapoorn aur paryapt mana. usamen tanik bhi her-pher karane ki avashyakata nahin anubhav ki. parantu jab is bat par dhyan diya jata hai ki anandavardhan ke pashchath unake dhvani siddhant par aur pragandh chintan prastut karane ka kisi ne bhi prayas nahin kiya to dhyan anivaryat: dhvani siddhant ke unmilan ki mool bhoomikaon par jata hai. isake atirikt ve alochak bhi hamari drishti men ate hain, jinhonne anandavardhan ke pashchath dhvani siddhant ko ni:sarita pramanit karane ke lie granthon ka pranayan kiya. vastav men dhvani siddhant ke vikas ka yahi paksh hai. bhattanayak ka 'bhuktivad', kuntak ka vakrokti-siddhant, mahimabhatt ka anumitivad tatha any dhvani virodhi siddhant prakarantar se dhvani siddhant ki pratishtha aur usake vikas ke soochak hain. abhinavagupt ki 'lochan' tika to matr usaki yathavath vyakhya hai. isake pashchath dhvani siddhant ka sthayi sambandh ras siddhant se ho gaya aur sahityadarpanakar vishvanath ne 'rasatmak kavyamh' ka sootr de diya.

alochana

dhvani siddhant ki alochanaon ko do kotiyon ke antargat rakha ja sakata hai. ek koti ke antargat sambhavit alochanaen ayengi, jinhen ki dhvanikar anandavardhan ne dhvani svaroop ke vivechan ke sndarbh men poorvapaksh ke roop men prastut kiya hai. doosari koti ke antargat vastavik dhvani virodhiyon dvara prastut alochanaen hoti hain. dhvani virodhiyon men mukulabhatt, pratiharenduraj, bhattanayak, kuntak tatha mahimabhatt vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hain. dhvani siddhant ke sambhavit poorvapakshiyon men pramukh hain, abhavavadi, lakshanavadi, mimansak evn naiyayik. is prakar anandavardhan ne dhvani siddhant ki pratishtha karake ek or to kavyashastriy chintan ka marg parivartit kar diya aur doosari or kavy rachana men ras ki pratishtha ki apal ninv dal di.

anandavardhan ki mimansa

yah durbhagyapoorn hai ki anandavardhan ke tatvamimansa vishayak mukhy granth upalabdh nahin hain. unamen se ek vinishchay tika vivritti tha, jisaka ullekh svayn anandavardhan ne apane dhvanyalok ke tritiy udyot ke ant men apani vritti ke antargat is prakar kiya hai-

'matvanirdeshyatvamh sarvalakshanavishay bauddhanan prasiddhamh vivritti tattanyath parikshayn granthantare nishpayishyam:.'

is sambandh men 'granthakar' ki vyakhya karate hue abhinavagupt ne lochan men jo likha usake anusar vinishchay tika vivatti dharmakirti ke granth pramanavinishchay ke oopar likhi gee dharmottar ki tika ki vivritti hai. yah dhamakirti ke pramanavinishchay ki tika nahin hai, jaisa ki kuchh log agyanat: manate hain. anandavardhan ne is granth men bauddhon ke is mat ka khndan kiya tha ki sabhi lakshan anirdeshy hain. dhvanyalok men unhonne siddh kiya ki jaise bauddh sabhi vishay ko anirdeshy manate hue bhi pratyay adi ka lakshan karate hain, vaise hi unhonne bhi dhvani ka lakshan saphalatapoorvak kiya hai, 'bauddhamaten va yatha pratyakshadilakshann tatha asmakn dhvanilakshann bhavishyati'.[2]

shaivamat ka vivechan

tatvalok granth men anumanat: kashmir ke shaivamat ke tatvon ka snkshipt kintu tarkapoorn vivechan tha, jisaka vistrit varnan anandavardhan ke yashasvi tikakar abhinavagupt ne apane tntrasar men kiya hai. kuchh bhi ho dhvanyalok jaisa maulik granth anandavardhan ka aur koee bhi granth nahin hai. aisa pratit hota hai ki anandavardhan se bauddh darshan se arambh karake kashmiri shaiv darshan tak prati ki aur usake pashchath shaktamat ko svikar kar liya, jo 'devishatak' ki rachana se nigamit hota hai. anand aur dhvani siddhanton ki udbhavana ki prerana unaki inhin shaiv-shakt darshanon se prapt huee. apane mat ko tarkapoorn aur snkshipt shaili men abhivyakt karane ki prerana unhen dhamakirti se prapt huee thi. jaise arastu ne pleto ke darshan se arambh karake ant men ek uttam kavy shastr ki rachana ki, jo pleto ke siddhanton se shreshthatar hai, vaise hi anandavardhan ne bhi bauddh aur shaiv darshanon se gujarate hue ant men ek aise kavy shastr ki rachana ki jo un darshanon ki sthiti se pare hai.

anandavardhan ne gyan ka sambandh saundaryamooly se joda. samanyat: any bharatiy darshanikon ne gyan ka sambandh dharm athava naitikata ya adhyatmikata aur bhakti se joda hai, parantu anandavardhan ne gyan ka samanvay yoonani darshanik pleto aur arastu ki bhanti in sabaki apeksha saundarshabodh se kiya. jahan any logon ne 'satyashiv' par adhik bal diya, vahin inhonne 'satyn sundaramh' par adhik bal diya aur usaki laukik maryada ko banaye rakha. usamen aishvary bodh ko utana mahattv nahin diya. anandavardhan ka darshanik mahattv vidvanon ne tab samajha, jab kroche aur boekvete jaise naye hegelavadiyon ke saundaryashastriy moolyon ke adhar par taigaur aur shri aravind adi ne 'satyn shivamh sundaramh' ko sarvochch mooly mana. isake poorv bharatiy vicharak sundar ka sthan 'satyn aur shiv' se avar manate the. anandavardhan ne 'sundar' ko kisi bhi moolyon se hinatar nahin mana. 'sundar' ki pratishtha ke sath anandavardhan ki bhi darshanik jagath men pratishtha badhi, kyonki vahi pratham darshanik hain, jinhonne 'sundar' ko sarvochch mooly ke roop men pratishthit kiya tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dhvanyalok 9/13
  2. dhvanyalok, tritiy udyot ke ant ki vritti

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