आयरिश  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ayarish ayaralaind ki bhasha tatha sahity ko 'ayarish' nam se jana jata hai. ayaralaind men angrejon ke prabhutvakal men to angreeji ki hi pradhanata rahi, par desh ki svadhinata ke bad vahan ki apani bhasha ayarish (gaili) ko phir se mahatv diya gaya. gaili ka sahity panchavi shatabdi ee. tak ka milata hai. ayarish bharat yooropiy kul ki keltik shakha ke goideli varg se snbaddh nahin mani jati hai. vikas ki drishti se ayarish bhasha ke itihas ko tin kalon men vibhakt kiya jata hai-(1) prachin ayarish satavin sadi navin sadi ke madhy tak, (2) madhyakalin ayarish navin se 12vin sadi tak tatha (3) adhunik 13vin sadi ke uparant. adhunik ayarish ko pun: do kalon men bantate hain-17vin sadi se poorv tatha 17vin sadi ke bad. rashtriy punarjagaran ke phalasvaroop ayarish ko desh men phir se sthapit to kiya gaya, parntu adhunik ayarish ka koee ek sthirikrit roop nahin ban saka hai. ayarish ki kee boliyan ab bhi mahatv ki sthiti lie hue hain. pramukhat: ayarish bole janevale kshetron men 1946 ki ganana ke anusar 1,92,963 ayarish bhashabhashi batae ge the, jab ki snpoorn ayaralaind men yah snkhya 5,88,725 thi. is snkhya men kaphi bada samooh aise logon ka hai jo angreji ka prayog bhi saman suvidha aur ichchha se karata hai.

prarnbhik ayarish sahity men shauryagathaon ki pradhanata rahi hai jo gady tatha pady ke mile jule roop men likhi gee thin. aise gathachakron men 'alastar' ka nam vishesh mahatvapoorn hai. isake atirikt adikalin ayarish kavita men git tatv ki bhi pradhanata thi. aisa kavy pramukhat: dharmik tatha prakriti sambndhi preranaon ki prithabhoomi men likha gaya tha. in dharmik giton men sent paitrik ka git tatha ultan ka sent brijit ke prati git vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hain. navin tatha 10vin sadi ke asapas aitihasik abhas denevale sahity ka sarjan hua. dharmik sahity ke antargat upadesh, snton ke charitr tatha ilaham adi ate hain. is varg ke lekhakon men maikel o' klere (17vin sadi) ka nam mahatvapoorn hai. phir is yug men aitihasik rachanaen bhi likhi geen.

prarnbhik adhunik ayarish sahity ko klaisikal yug kahakar bhi abhihit kiya jata hai. 13vin se 17vin shatabdi ke bich pramukhat: darabaron men likha gaya kavy aise kaviyon dvara prastut kiya gaya jinhen peshevar kaha ja sakata hai. in kaviyon ne apani kuchh rachanaen gady men bhi likhin. 17vin sadi ke ant tak yah charanakavy samapt ho jata hai. ne kavyasnpraday men svaraghat par adharit chhndayojana prachalit huee. is yug ke pramukh kavi the eegan o' rahili (18vin sadi ka poorv) tatha dharmik kavi tag gaile o' suilayan. rivaivalist andolan ke pramukh lekhakon men hain---thaaumas o' kriomathan (mrityu--1937), thaaumas o' suilayan, paiplet o' konar tatha mahare.

ayarish punarjagaran ka ek sashakt roop angreji sahity men bhi vyakti hua hai jahan ayaralaind ke angreji lekhakon ne apani rachanaon men ayarish lokatatv, shabdavidhan tatha pratikayojana ke atynt saphal prayog kie hain. is andolan ko ayarish ya keltik punarjagaran ke nam se jana jata hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 399 |

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah