आर्य समाज  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ary samaj
aryasamaj ka adhikarik dhvaj
vivaran ary samaj ek hindoo sudhar andolan hai.
sthapana svami dayannd sarasvati ne snbhavat: 7 ya 10 aprail sanh‌ 1875 ee. ko bambee (ab mumbee) men.[1]
uddeshy vaidik dharm ko punah shuddh roop se sthapit karane ka prayas, bharat ko dharmik, samajik v rajanitik roop se ek sootr men bandhane ka prayatn aur pashyaty prabhav ko samapt karana.
arth 'ary' ka arth hai bhadr evn 'samaj' ka arth hai sabha. at: ary samaj ka arth hai 'bhadrajanon ka samaj' ya 'bhadrasabha'.
snbndhit lekh raja ramamohan ray, svami dayannd sarasvati, svami ramakrishn paramahns, svami vivekanand, svami ramatirth, lokamany tilak, rabindranath thakur, yogi aravind, mahatma gandhi
any janakari ary samaj ka kendr evn dharmik rajadhani lahaur men thi, yadyapi ajamer men svami dayanand ki nirvanasthali evn vaidik-yantralay (pres) hone se vah lahaur ka pratidvandvi tha. lahaur ke pakistan men chale jane ke pashchath ary samaj ka mukhy kendr ajakal dilli hai.

ary samaj unnisavin shatabdi ka bharatiy itihas aur sahity men mahattvapoorn sthan hai. itana vyapak aur sookshm parivartan madhyayug men islam dharm ke sampark ke phalasvaroop bhi n hua tha. ek or to bharatavarsh unnisavin shatabdi men ek sudoor sthit pashchaty jati ka das bana aur doosari or pashchaty gyan-vigyan tatha vaigyanik avishkaron se labh uthakar usane navin chetana prapt ki aur madhyayugin evn anek pauranik kuritiyon, kuprathaon tatha paramparaon se baddh jivan ka alasy chhodakar sphoorti prapt ki. itihas is bat ka sakshi hai ki yah sphoorti aur chetana, rajanitik evn arthik dasatv ki paristhiti men, poorv aur pashchim ke bich sngharsh ke roop men arthath bharatiy adhyatmikata aur pashchaty bhautikata ke sngharsh ke roop men, abhivyakt huee. rajanitik aur arthik chetana usi chetana ka ashnmatr thi. yahi poorv aur pashchim ka sngharsh tha, jisane raja ramamohan ray, svami dayannd sarasvati, svami ramakrishn paramahns, svami vivekanand , svami ramatirth, lokamany tilak, ravindranath thakur, yogi aravind aur mahatma gandhi ko janm diya.

pashchaty prabhav

ek or to pashchim ke badhate hue prabhav ke viruddh pratikriya thi, doosari or prachin bharatiy sahity aur kala ka pashchaty aur bharatiy vidvanon dvara anudin badhata hua adhyayan tha. hajasan, botlik, maiksamoolar, prinsep, kaningham, ed-vin arnald adi ki khojon aur rachanaon ka bharatavasiyon par bahut prabhav pada. unhen apane poorvajon ki mahatta ka parichay prapt hua. 'thiyosofikal sosaiti' (1875 ee.) ne bhi deshavasiyon ka desh ke prachin gaurav ki or dhyan akrisht kiya. in sab karanon se badhate hue pashchimi prabhav ke viruddh pratikriya hona aur bharat ki prachin garima ki or dhyan jana svabhavik tha. is pratikriya ne vishuddh bharatiy drishtikon avashy apanaya, kintu uddeshy vishuddhavadiyon ka bhi bharatiy jivan ka parishkar karana tha. is drishtikon ka jvalant udaharan ary samaj andolan hai. is andolan ne hindoo dharm ka punarooddhar karane ka mahanh prayas kiya.
ary samaj mahasammelan, mathura

ary samaj ki sthapana

dayannd sarasvati ne snbhavat: 7 ya 10 aprail sanh‌ 1875 ee. ko bambee men ary samaj ki sthapana ki[1]. isaka uddeshy vaidik dharm ko punah shuddh roop se sthapit karane ka prayas, bharat ko dharmik, samajik v rajanitik roop se ek sootr men bandhane ka prayatn, pashyaty prabhav ko samapt karana adi tha. 1824 ee. men gujarat ke mauravi namak sthan par paida hue svami dayannd ko bachapan men ‘moolashnkar’ ke nam se jana jata tha. 21 varsh ki avastha men moolashnkar ne grih tyag kar ghumakkadon ka jivan svikar kiya. 24 varsh ki avastha men unaki mulakat dandi svami poornannd se huee. inhin se sannyas ki diksha lekar moolashnkar ne dand dharan kiya. diksha pradan karane ke bad dandi svami poornannd ne moolashnkar ka nam 'svami dayanand sarasvati' rakha. gyan ki khoj men bhatakane ke bad 1861 ee. men svami ne dayannd ko vendon ki darshanik vyakhya ka parichay karaya. dayanand ne inhen guru bana liya. vedon aur bharatiy darshan ke gahan adhyayan ke bad svami ji ne yah nishkarsh nikala ki ary shreshth hain, ved hi eeshvari gyan hai tatha bharat bhoomi hi shreshth hai.

prachar-prasar

ary samaj mahasammelan, mathura

svami ji ne apane upadeshon ka prachar agara se prarambh kiya tatha jhoothe dharmon ka khandan karane ke lie ‘pakhand khandani pataka’ laharaee. inhonne apane upadeshon men moortipooja, bahudevavad, avataravad, pashubali, shraddh, jntr, tntr-mntr, jhoothe karmakand adi ki alochana ki. svami dayannd ji ne vedon ko eeshvariy gyan manate hue ‘punah vedon ki or chalo ka nara diya.’ samajik sudhar ke kshetr men inhonne chhuachhoot evn janm ke adhar par jati pratha ki alochana ki. ve shoodron evn striyon ke vedon ki shiksha grahan karane ke adhikaron ke himayati the. svami ji ke vicharon ka snkalan inaki kriti ‘satyarth prakash’ men milata hai, jisaki rachana svami ji ne hindi men ki thi. rajaniti ke kshetr men svami ji ka manana tha ki bure se bura deshi rajy achchhe se achchhe videshi rajy se behatar hota hai. ve svadeshi evn deshabhakti ke prabal samarthak the. vailentain shirol ne sach hi svami ji ke ary samaj ko ‘bharatiy ashanti ka janmadata’ kaha hai. svami ji ne godhan ki raksha ke lie ‘gorakshani sabha’ ki sthapana ki tatha ‘gaukarunanidhi’ namak pustak ki rachana ki. ary samaj ke mahattvapoorn samarthak evn utkrishn karyakarta the - mahatma hnsaraj, pandit gurudatt, lala lajapat ray, svami shraddhannd adi. is snstha ka prasar maharashtr ke alava uttar pradesh, pnjab, rajasthan evn bihar men bhi hua. ary samaj ka prachar-prasar pnjab men adhik saphal raha.

shuddhi andolan

dayannd sarasvati dvara chalaye gaye ‘shuddhi andolan’ ke antargat un logon ko punah hindoo dharm men ane ka mauka mila jinhonne kisi karanavash islam dharm svikar kar liya tha. eni besent ne kaha tha ki svami dayanand aise pahale vyakti the jinhonne kaha ki ‘bharat bharatiyon ke lie hai. 1892-1893 ee. men ary samaj men phoot pad gee. phoot ke bad bane do dalon men se ek ne pashchaty shiksha ka samarthan kiya. is dal men lala hnsaraj aur lala lajapat ray adi pramukh the. inhonne 'dayanand englo-vaidik kaaulej' ki sthapana ki. isi prakar doosare dal ne pashchaty shiksha ka virodh kiya jisake parinamasvaroop virodhi dal ke neta svami shraddhannd ji ne 1902 ee. men haridvar men ek ‘gurukul kangadi’ ki sthapana ki. is snstha men vaidik shiksha prachin paddhati se di jati thi. isase svami shraddhannd, lekharam aur munshi ram adi jude the.

ary samaj ke siddhant

ary samaj ke mukhy siddhant nimnalikhit hain—

  1. sabhi shakti aur gyan ka prarnbhik karan eeshvar hai.
  2. eeshvar hi sarv saty hai, sarv vyapt hai, pavitr hai, sarvgy hai, sarvashaktiman hai aur srishti ka karan hai. keval usi ki pooja honi chahie.
  3. ved hi sachche gyan grnth hain.
  4. saty ko grahan karane aur asaty ko tyagane ke lie sada tatpar rahana chahie.
  5. uchit-anuchit ke vichar ke bad hi kary karana chahie.
  6. manushy matr ko sharirik, samajik aur atmik unnati ke lie kary karana chahie.
  7. pratyek ke prati nyay, prem aur usaki yogyata ke anusar vyavahar karana chahie.
  8. gyan ki jyoti phailakar andhakar ko door karana chahie.
  9. keval apani unnati se sntusht n hokar doosaron ki unnati ke lie bhi yatn karana chahie.
  10. samaj ke kalyan aur samaj ki unnati ke lie apane mat tatha vyaktigat baton ko tyag dena chahie.

inamen se pratham tin siddhant dharmik hain aur antim sat naitik hain. age chalakar vyavahar ke star par ary samaj men bhi vichar-bhed paida ho gaya. ek varg 'dayannd englo vaidik kaaulej' ki vicharadhara ki or chala aur doosare ne 'gurukul' ki rah pakadi. yah ullekhaniy hai ki desh ke svatntrata-sngram men ary samaj ne snstha ke roop men to nahin, par sahasnstha ke adhikansh pramukh sadasyon ne vyaktigat star par mahattvapoorn bhoomika ada ki.

dharmik evn naitik siddhant

oopar ke das siddhanton men se pratham tin jo eeshvar ke astitv, svabhav tatha vaidik sahity ke siddhant ko darshate hain, dharmik siddhant hain. antim sat naitik siddhant hai. ary samaj ka dharmavigyan ved ke oopar avalambit hai. svamiji ved ko eeshvariy gyan manate the aur dharm ke sambandh men antim praman. ary samaj ke snsthapak svami dayanand ne dekha ki desh men apane hi vibhinn maton v sampradayon ke atirikt videshi islam evn eesaee dharm bhi jad pakad rahe hain. dayanand ke samane yah samasya thi ki kaise bharatiy dharm ka sudhar kiya jay. kis prakar prachin evn arvachin ka tatha pashchim evn poorv ke dharm v vicharon ka samanvay kiya jay, jisase bharatiy gaurav phir sthapit ho sake. isaka samadhan svami dayanand ne 'ved' ke siddhanton men khoj nikala, jo eeshvar ke shabd hain.

vaidik siddhant

svami dayanand ke vaidik siddhant ko snkshep men is prakar samajha ja sakata hai-'ved' shabd ka arth gyan hai. yah eeshvar ka gyan hai isalie pavitr evn poorn hai. eeshvar ka siddhant do prakar se vyakt kiya gaya hai-

  1. char vedon ke roop men, jo char rishiyon (agni, vayu, soory evn aginra) ko srishti ke arambh men avagat hue.
  2. prakriti ya vishv ke roop men, jo vedavihit siddhanton ke anusar utpann hua. vaidik sahity-granth evn prakriti-granth se yahan samy prakat hota hai. svami dayanand kahate hain, 'main vedon ko svat: pramanit saty manata hoon. ye snshayarahit hain evn doosare kisi adhikari granth par nirbhar nahin rahate. ye prakriti ka pratinidhitv karate hain, jo eeshvar ka samrajy hai.' vaidik sahity ke ary siddhant ko yahan snkshep men diya jata hai-
  • ved eeshvar dvara vyakt kiye gaye hain jaisa ki prakriti ke unake sambandh se pramanit hai.
  • ved hi keval eeshvar dvara vyakt kiye gaye hain kyonki doosare granth prakriti ke sath yah sambandh nahin darshate.
  • ve vigyan evn manushy ke sabhi dharmon ke mool srot hain.

ary samaj ke kartavyon men se siddhant do mahattvapoorn hain:-

  1. bharat ko (bhoole hue) vaidik path par pun: chalana aur
  2. vaidik shikshaon ko sampoorn vishv men prasarit karana.

ary samaj ka arth

svami dayanand ne apane siddhanton ko vyavaharikata dene, apane dharm ko phailane tatha bharat v vishv ko jagrat karane ke lie jis snstha ki sthapana ki use 'ary samaj' kahate hain. 'ary' ka arth hai bhadr evn 'samaj' ka arth hai sabha. at: ary samaj ka arth hai 'bhadrajanon ka samaj' ya 'bhadrasabha'. ary prachin bharat ka premapoorn evn dharmik nam hai jo bhadr purushon ke lie prayog men ata tha. svami ji ne deshabhakti ki bhavana jagane ke lie yah nam chuna. yah dharmik se bhi adhik samajik evn rajanitik mahattv rakhata hai is prakar yah any dharmik evn sudharavadi snsthaon se bhinnata rakhata hai, jaise –brahmasamaj (eeshvar ka samaj), prarthana samaj adi .

samaj ka vibhajan

svami dayanand ki mrityu se ab tak ki ghatanaon men samaj ka do dalon men bntana ek mukhy parivartan hai. is vibhajan ke do karan the:

  1. bhojan men mans ke upayog par matabhed aur
  2. uchch shiksha ke sambandh men uchit niti sambandhi matabhed.

pahale karan se utpann hue do varg 'mansabhakshi dal' evn 'shakahari dal' kahalate hai tatha doosare karan se utpann do dal 'kaaulej parti' evn 'mahatma parti' (prachin paddhati par chalane vale) kahalate hain. ye matabhed ek aur bhi gahara matabhed upasthit karate hain jisaka sambandh svami dayanand ki shikshaon ki manyata ke parinam se hai. is drishti se kaaulej parti adhik adhunik aur udar hai, jabaki mahatma parti ka drishtikon adhik prachinatavadi hai. kaaulej parti ne lahaur men sthapana ki, jabaki mahatma parti ne haridvar men 'gurukul' sthapit kiya, jisamen prachin siddhanton tatha adarshon par vishesh bal diya jata raha hai.

samaj ke prakar

ary samaj mahasammelan, mathura

snghatan ki drishti se isamen tin prakar ke samaj hain—

  1. sthaniy samaj
  2. prantiy samaj
  3. sarvadeshik samaj.

sadasyata ki niyamavali

sthaniy samaj ki sadasyata ke lie nimnalikhit niyamavali hai-

  • ary samaj ke das niyamon men vishvas
  • ved ki svami dayanand dvara ki huee vyakhyadi men vishvas
  • sadasy ki ayu kam se kam 18 varsh honi chahie
  • dvijon ke lie vishesh diksha snskar ki avashyakata nahin hai kintu eesaee tatha musalamanon ke lie ek shuddhi snskar ki vyavastha hai.
sthaniy sadasy

sthaniy sadasy do prakar ke hain-

  • pratham, jinhen mat dene ka adhikar nahin, arthath asthayi sadasy;
  • dvitiy, jinhen mat dene ka adhikar prapt hai, jo sthayi sadasy hote hain. asthayitv kal ek varsh ka hota hai. sahanubhooti darshane valon ki bhi ek alag shreni hai.
sthaniy samaj ke padadhikari

sthaniy samaj ke nimnankit padadhikari hote hain—

  • sabhapati
  • upasabhapati
  • mntri
  • koshadhyaksh
  • pustakalayadhyaksh.

ye sabhi sthayi sadasyon dvara unamen se hi chune jate hain.

prantiy samaj

prantiy samaj ke padadhikari inhin samajon ke pratinidhi evn bheje hue sadasy hote hain. sthaniy samaj ke pratyek bis sadasy ke pichhe ek sadasy ko prantiy samaj men pratinidhitv karane ka adhikar hai. is prakar isaka gathan pratinidhimoolak hai.

pooja paddhati

saptahik dharmik satsng pratyek ravivar ko prat: hota hai, kyonki sarakari karmachari is din chhutti par hote hain. yah satsng tin ya char ghante ka hota hai. bhashan karane vale ke thik samane poojasthan men vaidik agnikund rahata hai. dharmik pooja havan ke sath prarambh hoti hai. sath hi vaidik mantron ka path hota hai. pashchath prarthana hoti hai. phir dayanand-sahity ka pravachan hota hai, jisaka ant samaj gan se hota hai. isamen sthayi purohit ya achary nahin hota. yogy sadasy apane kram se pradhan-vakta ya pooja-snchalak ka sthan grahan karate hain.

karyapranali

ary samaj doosare pracharavadi dharmon ke saman bhashan, shiksha, samachar, patr adi ki sahayata se apana mat-prachar karata hai. do prakar ke shikshak hai-

  • pratham vetanabhogi aur
  • dvitiy, avaitanik.

avaitanik men sthaniy vakil, adhyapak, vyapari, daktar adi log hote hain. jabaki vetanabhogi sampoorn samay dene vale shastrgy aur vidvanh pracharak hote hain. pahala dal shiksha par zor deta hai; doosara dal upadesh aur snskar par bal deta hai. ary samaj ka pratyek sngathan kuchh haeeskool, gurukul, anathalay adi ki vyavastha karata hai. yah mukhyat: uttar bharatiy dharmik andolan hai yadyapi isake kuchh kendr dakshin bharat men bhi hain. barma tatha poorvi aphrika, maaurishas, phiji adi men bhi isaki shakhaen hai jo vahan base hue bharatiyon ke bich kary karati hain. ary samaj ka kendr evn dharmik rajadhani lahaur men thi, yadyapi ajamer men svami dayanand ki nirvanasthali evn vaidik-yantralay (pres) hone se vah lahaur ka pratidvandvi tha. lahaur ke pakistan men chale jane ke pashchath ary samaj ka mukhy kendr ajakal dilli hai.

bhasha aur sahity

bharatiy navotthan ke pratham charan men ary samaj-andolan dvara prerit snskrit bhasha aur sahity ke adhyayan ke phalasvaroop hindi snskrit shabdavali ke prayog ki or adhikadhik jhukati gayi. svami dayanand ne hindi ko rashtrabhasha ke roop men svikar kiya tha aur desh ke ek kone se lekar doosare kone tak unhonne isi bhasha ka prayog kiya, jahan pahale urdoo ka bol-bala tha. unhonne svayn satyarth-prakash (1874 ee.), vyavaharabhanu, gokarananidhi adi granthon ki rachana hindi men ki. unaki bhasha snskritagarbhit hai. any aryasamaji lekhakon ne bhi snskrit shabdavali ke prayog ki or adhik dhyan diya, phalat: bhasha ka jo adarsh bharatendu ne sthapit kiya, vah any anek karanon ke atirikt ary samaj ke prabal prabhav ke karan bahut dinon ke lie lupt ho gaya. hindi ke 'snskritikaran' ya 'tatsamikaran' ka ary samaj ek pradhan karan tha. hindi ke 'snskritikaran' aur rashtrabhasha-pad par svikar karane ke atirikt ary samaj ne hindi gady ko ek nayi shaili pradan ki, jo shastrarth aur khandan-mandan ke upayukt thi. bhasha men alochana aur vad-vivad karane ki shakti ayi. bhav-vynjana men bhi isase sahayata mili aur tarkashaili ke sath-sath vyngy tatha kataksh karane ki shakti ka avirbhav hua. hindi bhasha tatha gady shaili ka yah vikas abhootaparv tha aur kyonki ary samaj ka karyakshetr bahut vyapak tha, isalie usane sahityikon ko tarah-tarah ke vishay sujhaye.
ary samaj mahasammelan, mathura
yadyapi bharatendu harishchandr, radhakrishnadas, shrinivasadas, pratapanarayan mishr jaise kavi, upanyasakar aur natakakar ary samaji nahin the, to bhi unake dvara grihit anek vishay ve hi hain, jo aryasamaj-andolan apanaye hue the. aise anek tatkalin natak, prahasan aur upanyas upalabdh hote hain, jin par tarkapranali, vishay, shaili adi ki drishti se aryasamaj ka prabhav spasht roop se drishtigochar hota hai. kintu kuchh had tak aryasamaj natayakala ke lie ghatak bhi siddh hua. usane anek vishay sujhakar samagri prastut karane men koee kasar baqi n rakhi, yah thik hai, lekin shastrarth vali shaili ne kritiyon ki kalatmakata ko aghat pahunchaya. aisa pratit hota hai mano svayn lekhak vividh patron ke roop men aryasamaj ke pletapharm se bol raha hai. aryasamaj ka jitana prabhav natak aur kavy par pada utana sahity ke kisi aur ang par nahin pada. unnisavin shatabdi ke uttarardh men aur bisavin shatabdi men aryasamaji uchch koti ke prasiddh natakakar, kavi ya any lekhak aur kalakar bahut kam hue. unnisavin shatabdin men aryasamaji lekhak ya kavi nahin hua. bisavin shatabdi men bhi padmasinh sharma, nathooram shnkar sharma adi jaise kuchh hi prasiddh lekhak aur kavi hue hain. pracharatmak andolan hone ki vajah se uchch koti ka sahity prachur matra men n de saka. kala ka abhav aryasamaj men hi nahin, snsar ke sabhi sudharavadi (Puritonical) andolanon men paya jata hain. bhasha, vishay, chayan, lekhakon aur kaviyon ke drishtikon tatha unaki vichar-paddhati par aryasamaj ka kafi prabhav pada, yah nissandeh kaha ja sakata hai.

sudharavadi evn lokapriy snstha

yah uttar bharat ki sabase mool sudharavadi evn lokapriy snstha hai. strishiksha, harijanaseva, ashprishyata-nivaran evn doosare sudharon men yah pragatishil hai. vedon ko sabhi dharm ka mool adhar evn vishv ke vigyan ka srot batate hue, yah deshabhakti ko bhi sthapit karata hai. isake sadasyon men se anek aise hain jo vastavik desh hitaishi evn deshapremi hai. shiksha tatha samajik sudhar dvara yah bharat ka khoya hua poorv-gaurav lana chahata hai. lagabhag pichhale bis-pachchis varshon se aryasamaj ka sahity par prabhav ek prakar se nagany hai. vastav men aryasamaj ek aisa andolan tha, jisane desh ki ek aitihasik avashyakata poori ki. shiksha, samajasudhar, dharmasudhar adi kshetron men usake dvara prachalit lagabhag sabhi baten desh dvara svikrit ho jane ke phalasvaroop usaki gatishilata samapt ho gayi.

vithika ary samaj mahasammelan, mathura

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 varsh 1875 nishchit hai parantu tithi ke snbndh men sabhi vishvasaniy srot koee janakari nahin dete. is snbndh men satyarth prakash, insaiklopidiya britenika adi sabhi bharatakosh dvara dekhe gaye

sahayak granth

  1. 'aryasamaj': lala lajapataray
  2. adhunik hindi sahity': lammisagar varshney,
  3. maharshi dayanand': yaduvnsh sahay varma

sambndhit lekh