इंदिरा गाँधी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

indira gandhi vishay soochi
indira gandhi
Indira-Gandhi.jpg
poora nam indira priyadarshani gandhi
any nam indu
janm 19 navambar, 1917
janm bhoomi ilahabad, uttar pradesh
mrityu 31 aktoobar, 1984
mrityu sthan dilli
mrityu karan hatya
abhibhavak javaharalal neharoo, kamala neharoo
pati/patni firoz gandhi
sntan rajiv gandhi aur snjay gandhi
smarak shakti sthal, dilli
nagarikata bharatiy
prasiddhi 1971 ke bharat -pakistan yuddh men bharat ki vijay
parti kangres
pad bharat ki tritiy pradhanamntri
kary kal 19 janavari, 1966 se 24 march, 1977, 14 janavari, 1980 se 31 aktoobar, 1984
vidyalay vishvabharati vishvavidyalay bngal, inglaind ki aauksaford yoonivarsiti, shanti niketan
bhasha hindi, angrezi
jel yatra aktoobar, 1977 aur disambar, 1978
puraskar-upadhi bharat ratn samman
vishesh yogadan bainkon ka rashtriyakaran
any janakari indira gandhi apani pratibha aur rajanitik dridhata ke lie 'vishv rajaniti' ke itihas men jani jati hain aur indira gandhi ko 'lauh-mahila' ke nam se snbodhit kiya jata hai. ye bharat ki pratham mahila pradhanamntri thin.

indira priyadarshani gandhi (angrezi:Indira Gandhi, janm- 19 navambar, 1917, ilahabad; mrityu- 31 aktoobar, 1984, dilli) n keval bharatiy rajaniti par chhaee rahin balki vishv rajaniti ke kshitij par bhi ve ek prabhav chhod geen. shrimati indira gandhi ka janm neharoo khanadan men hua tha. indira gandhi, bharat ke pratham pradhanamntri pndit javaharalal neharoo ki ikalauti putri thin. aj indira gandhi ko sirf is karan nahin jana jata ki vah pndit javaharalal neharoo ki beti thin balki indira gandhi apani pratibha aur rajanitik dridhata ke lie 'vishvarajaniti' ke itihas men jani jati hain aur indira gandhi ko 'lauh-mahila' ke nam se snbodhit kiya jata hai. ye bharat ki pratham mahila pradhanamntri thin.

inhen bhi dekhen: indira gandhi ka jivan parichay, indira gandhi ka pradhanamntritv kal, indira gandhi ka vidyarthi jivan evn indira gandhi ka rajanitik jivan

jivan parichay

indira ji ka janm 19 navambar, 1917 ko ilahabad, uttar pradesh ke annd bhavan men ek sampann parivar men hua tha. inaka poora nam hai- 'indira priyadarshani gandhi'. inake pita ka nam javaharalal neharoo aur dada ka nam motilal neharoo tha. pita evn dada donon vakalat ke peshe se snbndhit the aur desh ki svadhinata men inaka prabal yogadan tha. inaki mata ka nam kamala neharoo tha, jo dilli ke pratishthit kaul parivar ki putri thin. indira ji ka janm aise parivar men hua tha, jo arthik evn bauddhik donon drishti se kafi snpann tha. at: inhen annd bhavan ke roop men mahalanuma avas prapt hua. indira ji ka nam inake dada pndit motilal neharoo ne rakha tha. yah snskritanishth shabd hai jisaka ashay hai kanti, lakshmi, evn shobha. inake dadaji ko lagata tha ki pautri ke roop men unhen man lakshmi aur durga ki prapti huee hai. pndit neharoo ne atynt priy dekhane ke karan apani putri ko priyadarshini ke nam se snbodhit kiya jata tha. choonki javaharalal neharoo aur kamala neharoo svayn behad sundar tatha akarshak vyaktitv ke malik the, is karan sundarata ke mamale men yah gunasootr unhen apane mata-pita se prapt hue the. inhen ek ghareloo nam bhi mila jo indira ka snkshipt roop 'indu' tha.

yogadan

indira gandhi ne apane bachapan se hi bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke karyon men yogadan arnbh kar diya tha. apake paitrik nivas annd bhavan ka vatavaran rashtriy jivan darshan aur svatntrata andolan ka kendrabindu tha. apane bachapan men hi bal charakha sngh ki sthapana ki. 1930 men asahayog andolan ke dauran kangres parti ki sahayata karane ke lie bachchon ki ek vanari sena banaee, jo pulis tatha anyany sarakari gatividhiyon ki soochana kangres ko deti rahi. sanh‌ 1942 ki agast ki mahakranti ke andolan men apane jelayatra ki. bharat ki ajadi ke avasar par dilli men jo bhishan hindoo-muslim-dnga hua, usamen gandhi ji ke nirdeshanusar apane seva aur shantisthapan ka kam kiya. desh ki samajik, sahityik, sanskritik aur samajasevi snsthaon se bhi apaka nikat ka snbndh raha hai, jinamen se kuchh ke nam is prakar hai : adhyaksh, trastij bord, (1) kamala neharoo memoriyal aspatal aur (2) kastooraba gandhi memoriyal trast; snsthapak trasti aur adhyaksh, bal sahayog, nee dilli; adhyaksh, bal bhavan bord aur bal rashtriy sngrahalay, nee dilli; snsthapak aur adhyaksh, kamala neharoo vidyalay, ilahabad; upadhyaksh, kendriy samaj kalyan bord; ajivan snrakshak, bharatiy bal kalyan parishadh; snrakshak, nagaripracharini sabha, kashi; upadhyaksh, antararashtriy bal kalyan parishadh; mukhy snrakshak, indiyan kaunsil phaaur aphrika (1960); petran, bharat men videshi chhatr sngh; sadasy, kangres karyakarini samiti, kendriy chunav samiti aur kendriy snsadiy bord; adhyaksh, akhil bharatiy kongres kameti ki rashtriy ekata parishadh; adhyaksh, akhil bharatiy yuvak kangres; adhyaksh, bharatiy rashtriy kangres (1959-60); sadasy, dilli vishvavidyalay kort; yoonesko men bharatiy shishtamndal (1960); yoonesko ka kary karini bord (1960-64); sadasy, rashtriy suraksha parishadh (1962); rashtriy suraksha nidhi ki karyakarini samiti (1962); adhyaksh, kendriy nagarik parishadh (1962); sadasy, rashtriy ekata parishadh, bharat sarakar; adhyaksh, sngit natak akadami (1965) se achary, vishvabharati; chansalar, javaharalal neharoo vishvavidyalay; adhyaksh, himalay parvatarohan snstha aur dakshin bharat hindi prachar sabha; petran, indiyan sosaiti aauv intaranaishanal la; adhyaksh, neharoo memoriyal sngrahalay tatha laibreri sosaiti; trasti, gandhi smarak nidhi; adhyaksh, svarajy bhavan trast; madars evard, amarika (1953); kootaniti ke kshetr men mahatvapoorn kary ke liye itali ka ijavela d-este evard aur yel yoovirsiti, halaind memoriyal praij prapt kie.

upadhiyan

phrans ki janamat snkhya dvara lie ge abhimat ke anusar 1967 tatha 1968 lagatar do varsh ke lie phransisiyon men sabase adhik vikhyat mahila, amarika men ek gellap abhimat sarvekshan ke anusar varsh 1971 men vishv ka sabase adhik vikhyat vyaktitv, 1971 men arjentina sosaiti phar protekshan aauv ainimals dvara 1971 men diploma aauv anar se vibhooshit; andhr vishvavidyalay, agara vishvavidyalay, vikram vishv vidyalay, byoones ayars ke elasailvador vishvavidyalay, japan ke baseta vishvavidyalay, masko rajy vishvavidyalay aur aksaphord vishvavidyalay se manarth daktaret ki upadhiyan prapt huee. sitizan aauv distinkshan, kolnbiya vishvavidyalay; sadasy, rajy sabha (agast 1964 se pharavari, 1967). 1971 men lokasabha ke liye chuni gee. soochana aur prasaran mntri, bharat sarakar, 1964-66; 1966 se bharat ki pradhan mntri-24 janavari, 1966 ko pratham bar, 13 march, 1967 ko doosari bar aur 18 march, 1971 ko tisari bar shapath grahan; sath hi, paramanu oorja mntri; cheyaramain, yojana ayog; adhyaksh, vaigyanik tatha audyogik anusndhan parishadh tatha cheyaramain, hindi samiti adi ke roop men desh ki mahati seva ki.

mukhy baten

shrimati indira gandhi ke dada svargiy pn. motilal neharoo us asenbali bhavan men upasthit the jisamen saradar bhagat sinh aur batukeshvar datt ne desh ki janata ki avaj kan men tel dale baithe british adhikariyon tak pahunchane ke lie bam phenka tha. pn. motilal neharoo ne snbhavat: vahin se yah than liya ki aisi nirdayi aur beeeman sarakar se sahayog karana mahapap hai. sare parivar ka jivan desh ko, rajy ko samarpit ho gaya. svargiy pn. motilal neharoo, svargiy pn. javaharalal neharoo, shrimati indira gandhi aur ab hamare yuva neta shri snjay gandhi, sabaka jivan isaka sakshi hai. sare snsar ke lokatntr ke itihas men aisi bemisal kulaparnpara dekhane men nahin ati jisane kisi rashtr ke hriday aur man par is gaurav evn sahajata ke sath shasan kiya ho aur rashtr ne bhi apani poori hardikata ke sath apana prem aur apani shraddha jisake prati udel di ho.

svargiy pn. javaharalal neharoo ke pradhan mntritvakal men hi shrimati indira gandhi ne yoorop, eshiya, aphrika aur amarika ke vibhinn deshon ki anek yatraen ki thin. in yatraon men unhen antararashtriy rajaniti ki barikiyon ko gnbhirata se janane samajhane aur usase parichit hone ka poora mauka mila tha. rashtramndaliy pradhanamntri sammelan ke silasile men briten ki anek yatraen, soviyat sngh ki yatra, chin ki yatra, pnchashil siddhant ke janak bandung snmelan ke liye indoneshiya ki yatra adi in vaideshik yatraon men ullekhaniy hain. apane desh men bhi shrimati indira gandhi ko chin ke pradhanamntri chau en laee, roos ke pradhanamntri bulganin aur khraushchev, amariki rashtrapati ki patni jaikalin kenedi, yoogoslaviya ke rashtrapati tito adi vishvaprasiddh rajanitigyon ka atithisatkar karane ke avasar mile the. in sare suavasaron ne shrimati gandhi ko vyavaharik rajanitigyta men usi samay paripakp kar diya tha jab ve nepathy men thin.

sanh‌ 1956 men indira ji ke samane kangres ki adhyakshata ka prastav aya. isase pahale ve kangres ki karyakarini ki sadasy rah chuki thin. khoob soch vichar kar aur apani shakti ko taul parakhakar unhonne adhyaksh pad svikar kar liya. pragatishil kangres adhyaksh ke roop men indira ji atynt saphal siddh huee. kangresi mathadhishon ke sthan par yogy yuvakon ko, jab bhi avasar milata, lane men ve kabhi hichake nahin. unaki karyashakti, samarthy, oj aur nishtha dekhakar unake pita ji ko bhi kahana pada tha---indira pahale meri mitr aur salahakar thi, bad men meri sathi bani aur ab to vah meri neta bhi hai.

kangres adhyaksh ke roop men shrimati indira gandhi ki apane pita pradhanamntri pn. javaharalal neharoo se takkar bhi huee. prashn keral ki bigadati huee rajanitik sthiti ka tha. indira ji ki ray thi ki keral ki is sthiti ka sudharane ke lie vahan rashtrapati shasan lagoo kar dena chahie. sarakar ne aisa kadam pahale kabhi uthaya nahin tha, isalie neharoo ji dvividha men the. par paristhiti ko janch parakhakar antat: unhen indira ji ki bat manani padi aur keral men desh ka sabase pahala rashtrapati shasan lagoo hua. kuchh aisi hi halat udisa men bhi thi. ve din door nahin the jab udisa ke shasan se kangres ko nikal bahar kiya jata aur vahan hay toba mach jati. udisa jakar vahan ki paristhiti ka adhyayan karake indira ji ne vahan ke netaon ko salah di ki kangres ko tatkal vahan ki ganatntr parishadh ke sath mili juli sarakar bana leni chahie. yah samayochit paramarsh bhi man liya gaya aur udisa ka asann snkat tal gaya. matr ye do ghatanaen unaki soojhabujh aur tvarit-nirnay-buddhi ka parichay dene ke liye asha hai, paryapt hongi.

desh ka vibhajan

indira gandhi stamp

us samay desh vibhajan ke kinare par tha. jinna ke netritv men muslim lig ne pakistan ki mang ki thi aur angrez bhi jinna ki mang ko spasht hava de rahe the lekin gandhiji vibhajan ke paksh men nahin the. laaurd mauntabetan kootaniti ka khel khelane men lage hue the. vah ek or mahatma gandhi ko ashvast kar rahe the ki desh ka vibhajan nahin hoga to doosari or pndit neharoo se kah rahe the ki do rashtron ke vibhajan ke phaaurmoole par hi azadi pradan ki jaegi. pndit neharoo sthiti ki gnbhirata ko samajh rahe the jabaki mahatma gandhi is bhram men the ki angrez vayasaray vibhajan nahin chahata hai. jinna ki anuchit mang ke karan hindoo aur musalamanon men vaimanasy pasar gaya tha. mahattvakankshi jinna pakistan ka pradhanamntri banane ke lie bahut lalayit the. mahatma gandhi ne jinna ko snpoorn aur akhnd bharat ka pradhanamntri banane ka ashvasan diya. lekin jinna yah janate the ki pndit neharoo ke karan yah snbhav nahin hai. hindoo kisi bhi muslim ko pradhanamntri ke roop men svikar nahin karenge. aise men desh sanpradayik dngon ki ag men jhulasane laga tha. mahatma gandhi kisi tarah dngon ki ag shant karana chahate the. dilli men bhi kee sthanon par insaniyat sharmasar ho rahi thi. tab mahatma gandhi ne indira ji ko yah muhim saunpi ki vah dngagrast kshetron men jakar logon ko samajhaen aur aman lautane men madad karen.

dngagrast kshetron ka daura

indira gandhi ne phir mahatma gandhi ke adesh ko shirodhary kiya aur dngagrast kshetron men donon samudayon ke logon ko samajhane ka prayas karane lagin. vastutah yah atynt jokhim kary tha. pndit neharoo ki beti hone ke karan ativadi unhen nuqasan pahuncha sakate the parntu nirbhik indira ne dngon ki ag shant karane ke lie purazor prayas kie. lekin 15 agast ke bad sanpradayikata apane charam par pahunch gee. dngon men donon samudayon ke anaginat log maut ke ghat utar die ge. pakistan se lakhon sharanarthi dilli a ge the. sharanarthiyon ke punarvas ka saval bhi utpann ho gaya tha. un bhookhe-pyase ghar se bhage logon ke lie prathamik avashyakataen bhi zaroori thin. aisi sthiti men dilli ke kee sthanon par sharanarthi evn dnga pidit shivir lagae ge the. pndit neharoo ne 17, park rod ke apane bngale par bhi sharanarthi shivir lagae. sharanarthiyon ke jivan ki buniyadi suvidhaon ka dhyan rakha ja raha tha. us samay mahatma gandhi pashchim bngal ke noakhali zile men jahan muslimon ki kee bastiyon ko jala diya gaya tha. pakistan se ane vali trenon men hazaron hinduon ki lashen bhi a rahi thin. is karan hindoo akroshit hokar musalamanon par hamala kar rahe the.

ghar men sharanarthi shivir

pndit javaharalal neharoo ke bngale men jo sharanarthi shivir lagae ge the, unaki dekharekh indira gandhi hi kar rahi thin. sabhi kamare khali karake sharanarthiyon ko unamen thahara diya gaya tha aur prangan adi men bhi tamboo ityadi laga die the taki adhikadhik sharanarthiyon ko vahan rakha ja sake. yahan ki sabhi vyavastha indira gandhi dvara dekhi ja rahi thi. antarim sarakar ke gathan ke sath pndit neharoo karyavahak pradhanamntri bana die the. 26 janavari, 1950 ko bharat ka snvidhan bhi lagoo ho gaya. bharat ek ganatantrik desh bana aur pradhanamntri neharoo ki sakriyata kafi adhik badh gee. is samay neharooji ka nivas trimoorti bhavan hi tha. samay-samay par vibhinn deshon ke agntuk trimoorti bhavan men hi neharooji ke pas ate the. unake svagat ke sabhi intazam indira gandhi dvara kie jate the. sath hi sath umradaraz ho rahe pita ki avashyakataon ko bhi indira dekhati thin.

kangres parti ki sarakar

abhi tin varsh bhi poorn nahin hue the ki janata parti men dararen pad geen aur desh ko madhyavadhi chunav ka bhar jhelana pada. indira gandhi ne desh men ghoom-ghoomakar chunav prachar ke dauran apatakal ke lie sharmindagi ka ijahar kiya aur kam karane vali sudridh sarakar ka nara diya. logon ko yah nara kafi pasnd aya aur chunav ke bad natijon ne yah pramanit bhi kar diya. indira kangres ko 592 men se 353 siten prapt hueen aur spasht bahumat ke karan kendr men inaki sarakar bani. indira gandhi punah pradhanamntri ban geen. is prakar 34 mahinon ke bad vah satta par dobara qabij hueen. janata parti ne 1977 men satta men ane ke bad kee rajyon ki kangres sarakar ko barkhast kar diya tha. us samay usane yah tark diya ki janata ka rujhan janata parti ke sath hai, atah ne chunav hone chahie. indira gandhi ne satta men ane ke bad janata parti dvara arnbh ki gee paripati par chalakar un pradeshon ki sarakaron ko barkhast kar diya jahan janata parti tatha vipaksh ka shasan tha. bad men hue in rajyon ke chunavon men kangres ne abhootapoorv saphalata prapt ki. 22 rajyon men se 15 rajyon men kangres parti ki sarakar ban gee. yah chunav joon 1980 men snpann hue the.

mrityu

svarn mandir par hamale ke pratikar men panch mahine ke bad hi 31 aktoobar 1984 ko shrimati gandhi ke avas par tainat unake do sikkh angarakshakon ne goli marakar unaki hatya kar di. bharat ke jitane bhi pradhanamntri hue hain, un sabhi ki anek visheshataen ho sakati hain, lekin indira gandhi ke roop men jo pradhanamntri bharat bhoomi ko prapt hua, vaisa pradhanamntri abhi tak doosara nahin hua hai kyonki ek pradhanamntri ke roop men unhonne vibhinn chunautiyon ka muqabala karane men saphalata prapt ki. yuddh ho, vipaksh ki galatiyan hon, kootaniti ka antarrashtriy maidan ho athava desh ki koee samasya ho- indira gandhi ne aksar svayn ko saphal sabit kiya. indira gandhi, neharoo ke dvara shuroo ki gee audyogik vikas ki arddh samajavadi nitiyon par qayam rahin. unhonne soviyat sngh ke sath nazadiki sambandh qayam kie aur pakistan-bharat vivad ke dauran samarthan ke lie usi par ashrit rahin. jinhonne indira gandhi ke pradhanamntritv kal ko dekha hai, ve log yah manate hain ki indira gandhi men apar sahas, nirnay shakti aur dhairy tha.

upalabdhiyan

  • bainkon ka rashtriyakaran
  • bangla desh ko svatntr karana
  • nirdhan logon ke utthan ke lie ayojit 20 sootriy karyakram
  • gut nirapeksh andolan ki adhyaksha
  • privipars samapti


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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