इंदिरा गाँधी का राजनीतिक जीवन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

indira gandhi vishay soochi
indira gandhi ki pratima, kolakata
Statue Of Indira Gandhi, Kolkata

indira gandhi bharat ki pratham mahila pradhanamntri ke roop men apani pratibha aur rajanitik dridhata ke lie 'vishvarajaniti' ke itihas men jani jati hain. indira priyadarshini ko parivar ke mahaul men rajanitik vicharadhara virasat men prapt huee thi. yahi karan hai ki pati firoz gandhi ki mrityu se poorv hi indira gandhi pramukh rajanitigy ban gee thin. kangres parti ki karyakarini men unaka chayan 1955 men hi ho gaya tha. vah kangres snsadiy mndal ki bhi sadasya rahin. pndit neharoo unake sath rajanitik paramarsh karate aur un paramarshon par amal bhi karate the.

parti men indira gandhi ka qad

1957 ke am chunav ke samay pndit neharoo ne jahan lalabahadur shastri ko kangresi ummidavaron ke chayan ki zimmedari di thi, vahin indira gandhi ka sath shastri ji ko prapt hua tha. shastri ji ne indira gandhi ke paramarsh ka dhyan rakhate hue pratyashi tay kie the. lokasabha aur vidhanasabha ke lie jo ummidavar indira gandhi ne chune the, unamen se lagabhag sabhi vijayi hue aur achchhe rajanitigy bhi sabit hue. is karan parti men indira gandhi ka qad kafi badh gaya tha. lekin isaki vajah indira gandhi ke pita pndit neharoo ka pradhanamntri hona hi nahin tha, balki indira men vyaktigat yogyataen bhi thin.

kangres ki adhyaksh

indira gandhi ko rajanitik roop se age badhane ke arop us samay pndit neharoo par lage. 1959 men jab indira ko kangres ka adhyaksh banaya gaya to kee alochakon ne dabi juban se pndit neharoo ko parti men parivaravad phailane ka doshi thaharaya tha. lekin ve alochana itani mukhar nahin thi ki unaki baton par tavajjo di jati. vastutah indira gandhi ne samaj, parti aur desh ke lie mahattvapoorn kary kie the. unhen antarrashtriy star par pahachan prapt thi. videshi rajanayik bhi unaki prashnsa karate the. is karan alochana doodh men uthe jhag ki tarah baith gee. kangres adhyaksha ke roop men indira gandhi ne apane kaushal se kee samasyaon ka nidan kiya. unhonne nari shakti ko mahattv dete hue unhen kangres parti men mahattvapoorn pad pradan kie. yuva shakti ko lekar bhi unhonne abhootapoorv nirnay lie. indira gandhi 42 varsh ki umr men kangres adhyaksha bani thin.

parti ke sammukh samasyaen

indira gandhi jab kangres ki adhyaksha banin to us samay parti ke sammukh do badi samasyaen thin-

pahali samasya

ek samasya thi munbee ki, jahan marathi aur gujarati kafi snkhya men the. marathi aur gujarati bhasha ke karan hi donon samudayon men paraspar sauhardr bhav nahin tha. isaka karan yah tha ki gujarati log munbee ko apana manate the aur marathi log apana jabaki us samay ki munbee desh ki arthik rajadhani kahi jati thi. yah mudda atynt snvedanashil tha. isi karan use san 1959 tak nahin sulajhaya ja saka.

sach to yah hai ki netagan bhi is mudde ko thnde baste men dale rakhana chahate the. bhashaee adhar par pahale bhi andolan hote rahe jo hinsak bhi ho uthate the. phir moraraji desaee gujarati the aur kangres parti men unaka qad bada tha. lekin indira gandhi ne is samasya ko jas ka tas banae rakhane ke bajay isaka nidan karana hi uchit samajha. us samay munbee ek rajy tha aur gujarat tatha maharashtr donon isamen ate the. aise men indira gandhi ne rajy sarakar par dabav banakar munbee rajy ka vibhajan kar diya. munbee rajy ke vibhajan ke bad do rajy astitv men ae. ek rajy gujarat bana, jisaki rajadhani ahamadabad huee aur doosara rajy maharashtr bana, jisaki rajadhani munbee shahar ko banaya gaya. vibhajan ko lekar jo nakaratmak poorvagrah the. ve sabhi vyarth sabit hue. vibhajan ke bad gujarat tatha maharashtr ne kafi unnati bhi ki. sabase achchhi bat to yah thi ki vibhajan ke bad donon samudayon ke prem men bahut izafa hua. donon rajyon ne desh ki arthik unnati men bhi ullekhaniy yogadan dena arnbh kar diya.

doosari samasya

isi prakar doosari samasya thi keral ki, jahan samyavadi sarakar shasan kar rahi thi. parti adhyaksha indira gandhi ne keral ki sarakar ko barkhast kar diya. indira gandhi parti adhyaksha ke roop men kafi saphal rahin. unhen parti ke adhyaksh ka karyabhar do varshon ke lie pun: saunpa gaya. lekin indira gandhi ne ek varsh bad hi kangres adhyaksha ka pad chhod diya. us samay vipakshi rajanitigy aksar kaha karate the, pita banae ge pradhanamntri aur beti ko bana diya parti adhyaksh. indira ji ko is prakar ki tika-tippani achchhi nahin lagati thi. indira gandhi ka jo bhi rajanitik jivan pndit neharoo ke samay men raha, use ek prakar se pndit neharoo ki pradhanamntritv shakti ka parinam mana gaya. neharoo ji ki mrityu ke pashchath yah mana ja raha tha ki parti ke dhurndhar neta indira gandhi ko hashiye par dhakel denge.

kangres ka vibhajan

indira gandhi sngrahalay, dilli
Indira Gandhi Museum, Delhi

indira gandhi pun: pradhanamntri ban gee lekin sindiket ka parabhav lnbe samay tak nahin chala. kamaraj aur es. ke. patil up chunavon ke madhyam se vijayi hokar sansad ban ge. unhonne moraraji desaee ko apane sath milakar sindiket ko pun: mazaboot bana liya. aise men sindiket ne dava kiya ki kangres ka pradhanamntri parti se oopar nahin hai aur parti ki nitiyon ke anusar hi pradhanamntri ko shasan karane ka adhikar hota hai. 1967 ke ant men kamaraj ka adhyakshiy karyakal samapt hona tha. indira gandhi ko yah ummid bndhi ki parti ka naya adhyaksh pad nijalingappa ke supurd ho gaya. sindiket ne tay kar liya ki indira gandhi ko pradhanamntri pad se hatakar sindiket ke kisi vafadar vyakti ko is pad par niyukt kiya jae. moraraji desaee ne pradhanamntri banane ke lie apani razamndi bhi de di. indira gandhi bhi khatare ko bhanp chuki thi. lekin upayukt avasar ka intazar karane lagin. vah svayn pahala var nahin karana chahati thin. unhen yah avasar mee 1967 men tab prapt hua jab daauktar zakir husain ki rashtrapati pad par karyakal ke dauran mrityu ho gee. ne rashtrapati ke chunav ne yah bhoomika banaee ki indira gandhi ar-par ki ladaee lad saken. tab sindiket ne ne rashtrapati ke roop men nilam snjiv reddi ka nam prastavit kiya. phir kangres ki or se unaka namankan bhi kar diya gaya.

andolan

indira par parivar ke vatavaran ka kafi prabhav pada tha. un dinon annd bhavan svatntrata senaniyon ka akhada bana hua tha. vahan desh ki azadi ko lekar vibhinn prakar ki mntranaen ki jati thin. aur azadi ke lie yojanaen banaee jati thin taki angrezon ke virodh ke sath hi bharatiy janata ko bhi sngharsh ke lie jagrat kiya ja sake. yah sab balika indira bhi dekh samajh rahi thi. jab desh men videshi vastuon ke bahishkar ka andolan chal raha tha aur videshi vastuon ki holiyan jalaee ja rahin thin tab balika indira bhi kisi se pichhe nahin rahi.

videshi vastuon ke bahishkar ka andolan

indira ne bhi apane tamam videshi kapadon ko agni dikha di aur khadi ke vastr dharan karane lagi. jab indu ko toka gaya ki tumhari gudiyan bhi to videshi hain, tum unaka kya karogi. tab indu ne bade pyar se saheje ge un khilaunon ko bhi agni dikha di. beshak aisa karana kathin tha kyonki pratyek khilaune aur gudde gudiya se indira ka ek bhavanatmak rishta ban gaya tha jo ekaki jivan men unaka ekamatr sahara tha. indu apane parivar ke sngharsh ki bhi gavah banin. 1931 men jab inaki mata kamala neharoo ko giraftar kar liya gaya tab yah matr 14 varsh ki balika thin. pita pahale se hi karagar men the. isase samajha ja sakata hai ki indu namak balika apane apako kis had tak akela mahasoos karati rahi hogi. beshak annd bhavan men naukaron ki kami nahin thi lekin mata-pita ki maujoodagi se bachchon ko suraksha ki jo dhal anayas prapt hoti hai, usaki apeksha naukaron se kadapi nahin ki ja sakati. bachche apani jin jigyasaon ko mata-pita ke gyan se abhigyat karate hain, usaki poorti naukar nahin kar sakate the.

khadi ke vastr

indira ko khanapan ki aniyamitata ka bhi samana karana pada aur unaki padhaee bhi badhit huee yah avashy hai ki dada pndit motilal neharoo aur poti indira ka kafi vaqt ek sath gujarata tha. lekin dada bhi apani poti ko paryapt samay nahin de pate the. unhen karyakartaon ke sath vyast rahana padata tha. lekin ek samay aisa bhi aya jab angrezon ne pndit motilal neharoo ko bhi giraftar karake jel bhej diya aise men indu ki manodasha ki kalpana sahaj hi ki ja sakati hai. ab akeli indu apana samay kis prakar vyatit karati? samay bitane ke lie vah apane pita ki nakal karane lagi. usane apane pita ko karyakartaon ko snbodhit karate hue suna tha. is karan usane bhi hamumr bachchon ko ekatr karake bhashan dene ka kary arnbh kar diya. bhashan dete samay vah mej par khadi ho jati thi aur mej dvara mnch ka kary liya jata tha. is samay vah khadi ke vastr aur gandhi topi prayog karati thi. is prakar bachapan men hi sngharshon ki dhoop ne indira gandhi ko yah samajha diya tha ki koee bhi chiz asani se upalabdh nahin hoti. usaki prapti ke lie insan ko dridh pratigy hona chahie.

vanar sena ka gathan

rajaneta aur janasadharan, donon hi azadi ke andolanon men barabar ke bhagidar the. nanhi indira ke dil par in sabhi ghatanaon ka amit prabhav pada aur 13 varsh ki alpayu men hi unhonne 'vanar sena' ka gathan kar apane iradon ko spasht kar diya. is prakar indira ka bachapan vishay paristhitiyon se charitrik gunon ko prapt kar raha tha. bhavishy़ men indu ne jo fauladi vyaktitv prapt kiya tha, vah pratikool paristhitiyon se hi nirmit hua tha. indu ne apane kishoravay men svadhinata sngram men vibhinn prakar se sakriy sahayog bhi pradan kiya tha. unhonne bachchon ke sahayog se vanar sena ka nirman bhi kiya tha jisaka netritv vah svayn karati thin. vanar sena ke sadasyon ne desh seva ki shapath bhi li thi svatntrata andolan men is vanar sena ne andolanakariyon ki kee prakar se madad ki thi. krantikariyon tak mahattvapoorn soochanaen bhi inake madhyam se pahunchaee jati thin. sath hi samany janata ke madhy zaroori sndeshon ke parche bhi inake dvara vitarit kie jate the. indira ki is vanar sena ka mahattv is bat se samajha ja sakata hai ki matr ilahabad men isake sadasyon ki snkhya panch hazar thi. ek bar indu ne apane pita se jel men bhent karane ke dauran avashyak likhit dastavejon ka snpreshan bhi kiya tha. is prakar balika indira ne bachapan men hi svadhinata ke lie sndharsh karate hue yah samajh liya tha. ki kisi bhi rashtr ke lie usaki azadi ka kitana adhik mahattv hota hai.

sudharavadi arthik karyakram

indira gandhi sngrahalay
Indira Gandhi Museum

sindiket chahati thi ki reddi ke rashtrapati chune jane ke bad indira gandhi ko pradhanamntri pad chhodane ke lie vivash kar diya jae. indira gandhi ko sindiket ki is chal ka poorvanuman tha. unhonne tatkalin uparashtrapati vi.vi. giri ko rashtrapati ummidavar ke roop men khada kar diya. isase janata ke madhy unaki chhavi khndit huee ki vah parti ke viruddh ja rahi hain. lekin indira gandhi ko yah pata tha ki unhen age kya karana hai. lihaza unhonne moraraji desaee se vitt mntralay vapas le liya. ab indira gandhi ne vitt mntralay apane pas rakhate hue kee arthik karyakram chalae. unhonne desh ke mahattvapoorn 14 bainkon ka rashtriyakaran kar diya taki ve sarakar ki arthik niti ke anusar acharan kar saken.

indira gandhi ne doosara qadam yah uthaya ki bhootapoorv raja-maharajaon ko jo badi rashi privipars ke roop men milati a rahi thi, usaki samapti ki ghoshana kar di. in bade do qadamon ke karan janata ke madhy indira gandhi ki ek sudharavadi pradhanamntri ki chhavi qayam huee aur unaki lokapriyata ka graf ekadam hi uchhal gaya. garib, dalit, madhyam varg aur buddhijivi varg sabhi ne indira gandhi ke sudharavadi qadamon ki jamakar prashnsa ki. idhar sindiket ne indira gandhi par zor dala ki vah nilam snjiv reddi ke rashtrapati chunav hetu 'vhip' jari karen. lekin unhonne inkar kar diya aur antaratma ki avaz par yogy ummidavar ko vot dene ki apil ki. indira gandhi ne apani sudridh chhavi banakar vi.vi giri ke lie marg saf kar diya. vi. vi. giri rashtrapati ke roop men nirvachit hue aur sindiket ko pun: muhn ki khani padi.

12 navnbar, 1967 ko indira gandhi ko pradhanamntri pad par rahate hue parti se nishkasit kar diya. is prakar ve unhen pradhanamntri pad se apadasth karana chahate the. jo vyakti parti ki sadasyata se nishkasit ho chuka ho, vah us parti ki or se pradhanamntri kaise rah sakata tha? isake javab men indira gandhi ne kangres parti ko vibhajit kar diya. unhonne apani kangres ko kangres-ar (rikvisishanist) karar diya jabaki sindiket ki kangres ko kangres-o (argenaijeshan) nam prapt ho gaya.

Blockquote-open.gif aj tak bharat ke jitane bhi pradhanamntri hue hain. un sabhi ki anek visheshataen ho sakati hain. lekin indira gandhi ke roop men jo pradhanamntri bharat ko prapt hua, vaisa pradhanamntri abhi tak doosara nahin hua hai kyonki ek pradhanamntri ke roop men indira gandhi ne vibhinn chunautiyon ka muqabala karane men saphalata prapt ki. yuddh ho, vipaksh ki nitiyan hon, kootaniti ka antarrashtriy maidan ho athava desh ki koee samasya ho- indira gandhi ne svayn ko saphal sabit kiya. Blockquote-close.gif


indira gandhi ki parti men sindiket ki parti se zyada sadasy snkhya thi. is karan vah pradhanamntri, sath hi apani parti ki adhyaksh bhi bani rahin. lekin indira gandhi ab sindiket se poori tarah mukt ho jana chahati thin. isake lie yah avashyak tha ki vah pun: janadesh len aur nee parti adhyaksh ke roop men chunav sabha men jaen. madhyavadhi chunav ki ghoshana karane se poorv indira gandhi ne kuchh aise karyon ko snpadit kiya jisase chunavon ke dauran unhen labh mil sake. unhonne madhyavadhi chunav ki ghoshana se poorv nimnavat qadam uthae.

  • bainkon ke rashtriyakaran ka kary poorn kiya gaya. snsad men bahumat tha aur rashtrapati vi.vi. giri ne adhyadesh ko svikrit kar liya. isake poorv nyayalay ne bainkon ke rashtriyakaran ko avaidh thaharaya tha. baikon ke rashtriyakaran ke bad bharat sarakar ki rashtriy arthik niti ke antargat samajik sarokar ke kary hone lage. madhyam varg tatha alp madhyam varg ke logon ko rozagaraparak rin milane ka marg saf ho gaya.
  • bhoomi hadabndi yojana ko poori shakti ke sath lagoo kiya gaya. isase garib kisanon ko achchha labh mila.
  • agast 1970 men raja-maharajaon ko diya jane vala privipars samapt kar diya gaya. is prakar karodon rupayon ki bachat snbhav huee aur yah dhan desh ke sarvahara varg ke kam aya. indira gandhi ke is qadam ka garibon aur shoshit varg ke logon ne kafi samarthan kiya.
  • chauthi pnchavarshiy yojana ko lagoo kiya gaya taki pndit neharoo ne rashtr ke vikas ka jo madhyam taiyar kiya tha, use kriyanvit kiya ja sake. chauthi pnchavarshiy yojana bajat dugana kar diya gaya.

is prakar indira gandhi ne lok kalyanakari karyon ke madhyam se janata ke madhy apani ek nee pahachan qayam ki. lekin unake vishvast sansadon ki sthiti paryapt nahin thi. vah chahati thin ki ne vidheyakon ke lie unhen doosari partiyon ka munh n takana pade. is prakar chunav se poorv indira gandhi ne apana abhamndal taiyar kiya aur 27 disnbar, 1970 ko lokasabha bhng karake madhyavadhi chunav ka marg prashast kar diya. ek varsh poorv lokasabha bhng karane ka unaka nirnay sahasik tha.

nirvachan par muqadama

indira gandhi par ilahabad uchch nyayalay men ek muqadama chal raha tha, jo chunav men galat sadhan apana kar vijay hasil karane se snbndhit tha. 12 joon, 1975 ko rajanarayan dvara dayar kie ge muqadame ka phaisala "ilahabad uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhish shri sinh ne sunaya. usake anusar indira gandhi ka n keval chunav radd kiya gaya balki unhen chhah varshon ke lie chunav ladane se bhi pratibndhit kar diya gaya." un par arop tha ki unhonne chunav men sarakari mashinari ka durupayog kiya tha aur nirvachan ayog dvara nirdharit rashi se adhik rashi ka vyay chunav prachar men kiya tha. is phaisale ke viruddh unhen apil karane ka samay diya gaya tha. aise men indira gandhi ne phaisale ke khilaf sarvochch nyayalay men apil ki aur vahan sunavaee ke lie 14 julaee ka din mukarrar kar diya gaya. je.pi. aur virodhi dal ekajut hokar indira gandhi se naitikata ki duraee dekar istifa dene ki mang karane lage. is bich 24 joon, 1975 ko mamale ki snvaidhanik vyavastha karate hur avakash prapt nyayamoorti ne kaha ki sunavaee hone tak indira gandhi pradhanamntri pad par rah sakati hain aur snsad men bol bhi sakati hain parntu unhen matadan ka koee adhikar nahin hoga. lekin vipaksh yah mudda hath se nahin jane dena chahata tha. unhen 14 julaee tak ka bhi intazar gavara nahin tha jab sarvochch nyayalay men sunavaee honi thi. jayaprakash narayan ki neharoo parivar se dushmani ke sushupt pret jag ge. unhonne andolan ko poore desh men phaila diya. indira gandhi ke viruddh prachar kiya jane laga. hazar bar kaha gaya jhooth bhi sach jaisa lagane lagata hai. janata ne bhi ghrinit prachar par vishvas karana arnbh kar diya. ek vyakti ke khilaf itane log galat nahin ho sakate- janata is manovigyan ka shikar hokar yah bhool gee ki jo mamala sarvochch nyayalay men lnbit hai, usake lie hay tauba machane ki kya zaroorat.

madhyavadhi chunav

indira gandhi madhyavadhi chunav bhi karava sakati hain, vipaksh ko isaka andesha nahin tha. lokasabha bhng hone ki ghoshana ne unhen bhauchakka kar diya. unhonne n to koee taiyari ki thi aur n hi koee vyooh rachana karane men saphal hue the. unake pas paryapt samay bhi nahin tha jabaki janata ke pas jane ke lie samuchit kary yojana ki avashyakata thi. aisi sthiti men vipaksh is kasauti par khara nahin utar saka aur sngathanavadi kangres ke pas bhi koee mudda nahin tha. is karan vipaksh ne jahan 'kangres hatao' ka nara diya, vahin sngathan kangres ne indira hataon ko hi apani chunavi muhim ka mukhy mudda bana liya lekin janata thos karyon ki kary yojana chahati thi. indira gandhi ne 'garibi hataon' ke nare ke sath samajavadi siddhanton ke anurup chunavi ghoshana patr taiyar karaya 'garibi hatao' ka nara lokapriy sabit hua. unake poorvavarti lokahit karyon ki prishthabhoomi ne bhi chamatkari bhoomika nibhaee. indira gandhi ke paksh men chunavi mahaul banane laga aur indira gandhi ko bahutamat prapt ho gaya. unhen 518 men se 352 siton ki prapti huee. chunav men vijay hasil karane ke lie kangres (o), janasngh evn svatntr parti ne ek gathabndhan banaya jisaka nam 'graind alayns' rakha gaya tha. graind alayns ko bhari kshati huee aur janata ne unhen nakar diya. janata ne sabako dar-kinar karake indira gandhi ko bahumat pradan kiya. kendr men indira gandhi ki sthiti behad mazaboot ho gee thi. ab vah svatntr phaisale karane men svatntr thin. bharat ka nam antarrashtriy star par bhi badha. duniya bhar ke any rashtr bharat ki or utsuk drishti se dekh rahe the. kyonki rajanitik sthirata prapt karane ke bad unhen ummid thi ki bharat vikas path par badhate hue arthik svavalnban bhi prapt kar lega.

aaupareshan blyoo star

pnjab men bhindara vale ke netritv men alagavavadi takaten sir uthane lagin aur un takaton ko pakistan se hava mil rahi thi. pnjab men bhindaravale ka uday indira gandhi ki rajanitik mahattvakankshaon ke karan hua tha. akaliyon ke viruddh bhindaravale ko svayn indira gandhi ne hi khada kiya tha. lekin bhindaravale ki rajanitik mahattvakankshaen desh ko todane ki had tak badh gee thin. jo bhi log pnjab men alagavavadiyon ka virodh karate the, unhen maut ke ghat utar diya jata tha. bhindaravale ko aisa lag raha tha ki apane netritv men pnjab ka alag astitv bana lega. yah kam vah hathiyaron ke bal par kar sakata hai. yah indira gandhi ki galati thi ki 1981 se lekar 1984 tak unhonne pnjab samasya ke samadhan ke lie koee yuktiyukt karravaee nahin ki. is snbndh men kuchh rajanitigyon ka kahana hai ki indira gandhi shakti ke bal par samasya ka samadhan nahin karana chahati thin.vah pnjab ke alagavavadiyon ko varta ke madhyam se samajhana chahati thin.

pakistan yuddh

pakistan banane ke sath hi vahan apratyaksh roop se ek bntavara ho gaya tha- poorvi pakistan aur pashchimi pakistan ne bhasha ki shreshthata ke adhar par poorvi pakistan ke sath sautela vyavahar karana arnbh kar diya. bngala bhashi pakistaniyon ka shoshan hone laga aur unhen pakistan men doyam darje ka nagarik mana jane laga. pashchimi pakistan ke logon men shreshthata ka dnbh tha. is karan pakistan banane ke bad jo vikas kary hua, vah pashchimi pakistan men hi hua. aise men bngala bhashi pakistaniyon ki arthik sthiti men bhi nirntar giravat rahi. is sautelepan ke viruddh poorvi pakistan ne avaz bulnd ki isaka parinam yah hua ki unaki avaz ko kuchalane ke lie kee bar sainikon ki karravaee bhi ki gee. atah shekh mujiburrahaman ke netritv men samast poorvi pakistan sautelepan aur shoshan ke viruddh ekajut ho gaya. pakistan ke sainy shasak yahiya khan ne poorvi pakistan men sena bhej di. in sainikon ne poorvi pakistan men amanaviyata ki haden par karate hue nrishnsata ka jo nnga nrity kiya, usase insaniyat sharmasar ho gee. in sainikon ne poorvi pakistan ki bahoo-betiyon ke sath samoohik roop se galat vyavahar kiya. logon ka qatle-am karate hue dudh-munhe bachchon ko bhi snginon par uchhala gaya. poorvi pakistan ke bhayabhit log bharat ke simavarti pranton men sharan lene ke lie majaboor ho ge. 1971 ke navnbar mah tak poorvi pakistan ke ek karod sharanarthi bharat men pravisht ho chuke the. in sharanarthiyon ki udar poorti karana tab bharat ke lie ek samasya ban gee thi. aisi sthiti men bharat ne pakistan ke barbar rukh ke viruddh antarrashtriy star par manavata ke hit men avaz bulnd ki. ise pakistan ne apane desh ka antarik mamala batate hue poorvi pakistan men ghinauni sainik karravaee jari rakhi. chhah mah tak vahan daman chakr chala.

isake pashchath pakistan ne 3 disnbar, 1971 ko bharat ke vayu sena thikanon par hamala karate hue use yuddh ka nyota de diya. pashchimi bharat ke sainik addon par kiya gaya hamala pakistan ki aitihasik parajay ka karan bana. indira ji ne chaturatapoorvak tinon senadhyakshon ke sath milakar yah yojana banaee ki unhen do taraph se akraman karana hai. ek akraman pashchimi pakistan par hoga aur doosara akraman tab kiya jaega jab poorvi pakistan ki muktivahini senaon ko bhi sath mila liya jaega. janaral je.es.aroda ke netritv men bharatiy thal sena muktivahini ki madad ke lie matr gyarah dinon men dhaka tak pahunch gee. pakistan ki chhavani ko charon or se gher liya gaya. tab pakistan ko laga ki usaka mitr amerika usaki madad karega. usane amerika se madad ki guhar lagaee. amerika ne dadagiri dikhate hue apana satavan beda bngal ki khadi ki or ravana kar diya. tab indira gandhi ne fild marshal janaral maaunek shaau se paramarsh karake bharatiy sena ko apana kam shighrata se nipatane ka adesh diya.

13 disnbar ko bharat ki senaon ne dhaka ko sabhi dishaon se gher liya. 16 disnbar ko janaral niyaji ne 93 hazar pak sainikon ke sath hathiyar dal die. unhen bndi banakar bharat le aya gaya. shighr hi poorvi pakistan ke roop men bangladesh ka janm hua aur pakistan parajit hone ke sath hi sath do bhagon men vibhajit bhi ho gaya. bharat ne bangladesh ko apani or se sarvapratham manyata bhi pradan kar di. bharat ne yuddh viram ghoshit kar diya kyonki usaka uddeshy poorn ho chuka tha. isake bad kee any rashtron ne bhi bangladesh ko ek ne rashtr ke roop men manyata de di.

pakistan ke pas sena nahin bachi thi, isalie yuddh viram svikar karana usaki anivary majaboori thi. amerika aur pakistan ke any mitr sena rahit desh ki kya sahayata kar sakate the. dakshin eshiya men bharat ek mahashakti ke roop men avatarit ho chuka tha. bharat par kisi any desh dvara hamala kie jane ki sthiti men soviyat sngh ne gnbhir parinam bhugatane ki chetavani jari kar di. aise men amerika bhi chuppi lagakar baith gaya. bharat ne pakistan ki saikadon varg mil bhoomi par apana kabza kar liya tha aur usake lagabhag ek lakh sainik bndi bana lie the.

yuddh men sharmanak har jhelane ke bad yahiya khan ke sthan par zulphikar ali bhutto pakistan ke ne rashtrapati banae ge. unhonne bharat ke samaksh shanti varta ka prastav rakha jise indira gandhi ne svikar kar liya. shimala men huee varta ke dauran nimnalikhit muddon par shimala samajhauta hua.

  1. bharat dvara pakistan ke bndi banae ge sainikon ko riha kar diya jaega aur pakistan ki bhoomi bhi lauta di jaegi.
  2. kashmir ke jin mahattvapoorn samarik sthanon ko bharat ne hasil kiya hai, vahan bharat ka adhipaty bana rahega.
  3. yadi bhavishy men koee vivad paida hota hai to kisi bhi any desh ki madhyasthata svikary nahin hogi tatha vivad ko shimala samajhaute ki shart ke anusar hi hal kiya jaega.


pichhe jaen
indira gandhi ka rajanitik jivan
age jaen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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