इतालवी भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

adhunik italiy ganatntr ki bhasha italavi hai, kintu korsi ka (phransisi), triyeste (yoogoslaviya) ke kuchh bhag tatha sanamarino ke chhote se prajatntr men bhi italavi boli jati hai. itali men anek boliyan boli jati hain jinamen se kuchh to sahityik italavi se bahut bhinn pratit hoti hain. in boliyon men paraspar itana bhed hai ki uttari itali ke lonbard prant ka nivasi dakshini itali ke kalabriya ki boli shayad hi samajh sakega ya rom men rahanevala keval sahityik italavi janane vala videshi romano boli (rom ke traetevere muhalle ki boli) ko shayad hi samajh sakega. italavi boliyon ke nam italavi pranton ki simaon se thode bahut milate hain. svitzaralaind se mile hue uttari itali ke kuchh bhagon men ladin varg ki boliyan boli jati hain-jo romans boliyan hain; svitzaralaind men bhi ladini boli jati hai. venatsiyan boliyan itali ke uttari pashchimi bhag men boli jati hain, venis nagar isaka pratinidhi kendr kaha ja sakata hai. pimaute, ligooriya, lonbardiya tatha emiliya pranton men inhin namon ki boliyan boli jati hain jo kuchh-kuchh phransisi boliyon se milati hain. latini ke anty svar ka inamen lop ho jata hai-udaharanarth phatton (toskano), phett (pimotese) otto, ot (ath). toskana prant men toskana varg ki boliyan boli jati hain. sahityik italavi ka adhar toskana prant ki, visheshakar phlorens ki boli (phiyorentibo) rahi hai. yah latini keadhik samip kahi ja sakati hai. knthy ka mahapran uchcharan isaki pramukh visheshata hai-yatha kasa, kahasa (ghar). uttari aur dakshini boliyon ke kshetron ke bich men hone ke karan bhi isamen donon vargon ki visheshataen kuchh-kuchh samanvit ho geen. uttari korsika ki boli toskano se milati hai. lansiyo (rom kendr), oonbiya (peroojya kendr) tatha marke ki boliyon ko ek varg men rakha ja sakata hai aur dakshin ki boliyon men abroojji, kanpaniya (nepals pradhan kendr), kalabriya, poolya aur sisili ki boliyan pramukh hain-inaki sabase pramukh visheshata latini ke snyukt vynjan nd ke sthan par nn, mb ke sthan par mm, ll ke sthan dd ka ho jana sardenya ki boliyan italavi se bhinn hain.

ek hi mool srot se vikasit hote hue bhi inaki bhinnata in boliyon men kadachith‌ latini ke bhinn prakar se uchcharan karane men a gee hogi. bahari akramanon ka bhi prabhav pada hoga. itali ki boliyon men sundar gramy git hain jinaka ab sngrah ho raha hai aur adhyayan bhi kiya ja raha hai. boliyon men sajivata aur vynjanashakti paryapt hai. nopolitano ke lokagit to kaphi prasiddh hain.

sahityik bhasha-navin sadi ke arnbh ki ek pahale 'indovinello veronese' (verona ki pahale ) milati hai jisamen adhunik italavi bhasha ke shabdon ka prayog hua hai. usake poorv ke bhi latini apabhrnsh (latino bolgare) ke prayog latini men likhe ge hisab ke kagajapatron men milate hain jo adhunik bhasha ke prarnbh ki soochana dete hain. satavin aur athavin sadi men likhit patron men sthanon ke nam tatha kuchh shabdon ke roop men milate hain jo navin bhasha ke dyotak hain. sahityik latini aur janasamany ki boli men dhire-dhire antar badhata gaya aur boli ki latini se hi adhunik italavi ka vikas hua. is boli ke anek namoone milate hain. sanh‌ 960 men montekassino ke math ki sima ke pnchayat ke prasng men ek gavahi ka bayan tatkalin boli men milata hai; isi prakar ki boli tatha latini apabhrnsh men likhit lekh rom ke snt klemente ke giraje men milata hai. oonbriya tatha marke men bhi 11vin 12vin sadi ki bhasha ke namoone dharmik svikaroktiyon ke roop men milate hain, kintu italavi bhasha ki padyabaddh rachanaon ke udaharan sisili ke samrath phredarik dvitiy (13vin sadi) ke darabari kaviyon ke milate hain. ye kavitaen sisili ki boli men rachi gee hongi. shrringar hi in kavitaon ka pradhan vishay hai. pier della vinya, yakopo d akvino adi anek padyarachayita phredarik ke darabar men the. vah svayn kavi tha.[1]

venevetto ke yuddh ke pashchath‌ sahityik aur sanskritik kendr sisili ke bajay toskana ho gaya jahan shriringaravishayak gitikavy ki rachana huee, gooittone del viva d arejjo (mrityu 1294 ee.) is dhara ka pradhan kavi tha. phlorens, pisa, lookka tatha arejjo men is kal men anek kaviyon ne tatkalin boli men kavitaen likhin. bolon (ita. bolonya) men sahityik bhasha ka roop sthir karane ka prayas kiya gaya. sisili aur toskana kavyadharaon ne sahityik italavi ka jo roop prastut kiya use antim aur sthir roop diya 'dolche stil novo' (mithi navin shaili) ke kaviyon ne. in kaviyon ne kalatmak snyam, parishkrit ruchi tatha parimarjit samriddh bhasha ka aisa roop rakha ki age ki kee sadiyon ke italavi lekhak usako adarsh manakar isi men likhate rahe. dante alimieri (1265-1321) ne isi navin shaili men, toskana ki boli men, apani mahanh‌ kriti 'divina komediya' likhi. dante ne 'konvivio' men gady ka bhi parishkrit roop prastut kiya aur gooido phaba tatha gooittone d arejjo ki kritrim tatha sadharan bolachal ki bhasha se bhinn svabhavik gady ka roop upasthit kiya. dante tatha 'doche stil novo' ke any anuyayiyon men agragany hain phraenchesko, petrarka aur jvovanni bokkachyo. petrarka ne phlorens ki bhasha ko parimarjit roop pradan kiya tatha use vyavasthit kiya. petrarka ki kavitaon aur bokkachcho ki kathaon ne italavi sahityik bhasha ka atynt suvyavasthit roop samane rakha. pichhe ke lekhakon ne dante, petrarka aur bokkachyo ki kritiyon se sadiyon tak prerana grahan ki. 15vin sadi men latini ke prachin sahity ke prashnsakon ne latini ko chalane ki cheshta ki aur prachin sabhyata ke adhyayanavadiyon (manavatavadi-mainist) ne navin sahityik bhasha banane ki cheshta ki, kintu yahi latini prachin latini se bhinn thi. is pravritti ke phalasvaroop sahityik bhasha ka roop kya ho, yah samasya khadi ho gee. ek dal vibhinn boliyon ke kuchh tatv lekar ek nee sahityik bhasha gadhane ke paksh men tha, ek dal toskana, visheshakar phlorens ki boli ko yah sthan dene ke paksh men tha aur ek dal, jisamen pietaro benbo (1470-1587) pramukh tha, chahata tha ki dante, petrarka aur bokkachyo ki bhasha ko hi adarsh mana jae. maikiyaveli ne bhi phiyorentino ka hi paksh liya. toskana ki hi boli sahityik bhasha ke pad par pratishthit ho gee. age sanh‌ 1612 men krooska akadami ne italavi bhasha ka pratham shabdakosh prakashit kiya jisane sahityik bhasha ke roop ko sthir karane men sahayata pradan ki. 18vin sadi men ek nee sthiti aee. italavi bhasha par phrench ka atyadhik prabhav padana shuroo hua. phrench vicharadhara, shaili, shabdavali tatha vakyanshon se aur muhavaron ke anuvadon se italavi bhasha ki gati rug gee. phransisi buddhivadi andolan usaka pradhan karan tha. italavi bhasha ke anek lekhakon-algarotti, verri, bekh‌kariya-ne ni:snkoch phrench ka anusaran kiya. shuddh italavi ke pakshapati isase bahut du:khit hue. milan ke nivasi alessandro manjoni (1775-1873) ne is sthiti ko sulajhaya. rashtr ki ekata ke lie ve ek bhasha ka hona avashyak manate the aur phlorens ki bhasha ko ve us sthan ke upayukt samajhate samajhate the. apane upanyas 'ee promessi sposi' (sagaee huee) men phlorens ki bhasha ka sahityik adarsh roop unhonne sthapit kiya aur is prakar toskana ki bhasha hi antim roop se sahityik bhasha ban gee. itali ke rajanitik ekata prapt kar lene ke bad yah samasya nishchit roop se hal ho gee.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 516-17 |
  2. sn.gre.-bha. skyaphphini : momenti di storiya della lingua italiyana, bari, 1952; jyakomo devoto-prophilo di storiya lingu : istipha italiyana, phirenje, 1953; anjelo monteveradi : manuale di avviyamento alyi stoodi romanji, milano, 1952; na. sapenyo : kanpendio di storiya della letterattoora italiyana, 3 bhag, phirenj 1952.

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