इब्रानी भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ibrani bhasha aur sahity sami (semetik) parivar ki bhashaon men se ek jo yahoodadiyon ki prachin sanskritik bhasha hai. isi men unaka dharmagrnth (baibil ka poorvardh) likha hua hai; at: ibrani ka gyan mukhyataya baibil par nirbhar hai.

'sami' shabd vyutpatti ki drishti se, nauh ke putr sem se snbndh rakhata hai. sami bhashaon ki poorvi upashakha ka kshetr mesopotemiya tha. vahan pahale sumeriyan bhasha boli jati thi; phalasvaroop sumer ki bhasha ne poorvi sami bhashaon ko bahut kuchh prabhavit kiya hai. prachinatam sami bhasha akkadiy ki do upashakhaen hain, arthath‌ asoori aur babuli. sami parivar ki dakshini upashakha men arabi, habshi (ithopiyaee) tatha saba ki bhashaen pradhan hain. sami varg ki pashchimi upashakha ki mukhy bhashaen is prakar hain: ugaritiy, kananiy, aramiy aur ibrani. inamen se ugaritiy bhasha (1500 ee. poo.) sabase prachin hai; isaka tatha kananiy bhasha ka gahara snbndh hai. jab yahoodi log pahale pahal kanan desh men akar basane lage tab ve kananiy se milati julati ek aramiy upabhasha bolate the; usase unaki apani ibrani bhasha ka vikas hua hai. aisa pratit hota hai ki 'ibrani' shabd hapiroo se nikala hai; hapiroo (shabdarth 'videshi') uttari arabi marubhoomi ki ek yayavar jati thi, jisake sath yahoodiyon ka snbndh mana jata tha. babilon ke nirvasan ke bad (539 ee. poo.) yahoodi log dainik jivan men ibrani chhodakar aramiy bhasha bolane lage. is bhasha ki kee boliyan prachalit thin. eesa bhi aramiy bhasha bolate the, kintu is mool bhasha ke bahut kam shabd surakshit rah sake.

any sami bhashaon ki tarah ibrani ki nimnalikhit visheshataen hain. dhatuen pray: trivynjanatmak hoti hain. dhatuon men svar hote hi nahin aur sadharan shabdon ke svar bhi pray: nahin likhe jate. pratyay aur upasarg dvara purush tatha vachan ka bodh karaya jata hai. kriyaon ke roopantar apekshakrit kam hain. sadharan arth men kal nahin hote, keval vachy hote hain. vakyavinyas atynt saral hai, vakyansh pray: 'aur' shabd se sahare jode jate hain. ibrani men arth ke sookshm bhed vyakt karana du:sadhy hai. vastav men ibrani bhasha darshanik vivechana ki apeksha kathasahity tatha kavy ke lie kahin adhik uparyukt hai.

pratham shatabdi ee. men yahoodi shastriyon ne ibrani bhasha ko lipibaddh karane ki ek nee pranali chalaee jisake dvara bolachal men shatabdiyon se aprayukt ibrani bhasha ka svaroop tatha usaka uchcharan bhi nishchit kiya gaya. athavin 10vin sadi men unhonne samast ibrani baibil ka isi pranali ke anusar snpadan kiya hai. yah masora ka parnparagat path batalaya jata hai aur pichhali das shatabdiyon se ibrani baibil ka yah sabase prachalit path hai. isaka sarvadhik prasiddh snskaran ben hyim ka hai jo 1524 ee. men venis men prakashit hua tha. sanh‌ 1947 ee. men philistin ke kumaram namak sthan par ibrani baibil tatha any sahity ki atynt prachin hastalipiyan mil gee. inaka lipikal pray: doosari shatabdi ee.poo. mana jata hai vidvanon ko yah dekhakar ashchary hua ki baibil ki ye prachin pothiyan masora ke path se adhik bhinn nahin hain. pashchim ke vishvavidyalayon men ajakal ibrani ka adhyayan apekshakrit lokapriy hai.

madhyakal men ek vishesh ibrani boli ki utpatti huee thi jise jarmani ke ve yahoodi bolate the jo polaind aur roos men jakar bas ge the. is boli ko 'yahoodi jarman' athava 'yiddish' kahakar pukara jata hai. vastav men yah ek jarmani boli hai jo ibrani lipi men likhi jati hai or jisamen bahut se aramiy, polish tatha roosi shabd bhi sammilit hain. isaka vyakaran asthir hai, kintu isaka sahity samriddh hai.

pratham mahayuddh ke bad philistin (yahoodiyon ka izarayal namak naya rajy) ki rajabhasha adhunik ibrani hai. sanh‌ 1925ee. men jeroosalam ka ibrani vishvavidyalay sthapit hua jisake sabhi vibhagon men ibrani hi shiksha ka madhyam hai. izarayal rajy men kee dainik patr bhi ibrani men nikalate hain.

sahity

(1) baibil-rachanakal ki drishti se baibil ka pramanik roop ibrani bhasha ka prachinatam sahity hai. isaka drishtikon mukhyataya sahityik ne hokar dharmik hi hai; kalatmak abhivynjana ki apeksha shiksha ka pratipadan ya upadesh isaka pradhan uddeshy hai (dr. baibil).

(2) apramanik dharmik sahity-doosari shatabdi ee. poo. se lekar doosari shatabdi ee. tak bahut se aise grnthon ki rachana huee thin jinaka uddeshy hai baibil men pratipadit vishayon ki vyakhya athava unaka vistar. inamen pray: baibil ke pramukh patron ki bhavishy snbndhi uktiyon ka samavesh hai. udaharanarth, adam aur hauva ki jivani. in rachanaon ko baibil men sthan nahin mila. inhen apramanik sahity kaha jata hai. is prakar ke sahity ki mool bhasha pray: ibrani thin, kintu ajakal yah keval aramiy athava paravarti anuvadon men hi milata hai.

(3) shastriy sahity-eesaee dharm ke pravartan ke pashchath‌ yahoodi shastri (ibrani men inaka nam rabbi hai), jo eesaee dharm svikar karate the, ek atynt vistrit sahity ki rachana karane lage. yah shastriy sahity ke nam se vikhyat hai. isaka tin vargo men vibhajan kiya ja sakata hai:

(a) mishna-yah parv, snskar, pooja, kanoon adi ke vishay men yahoodiyon ke yahan prachalit maukhik parnparaon ka sngrah hai jise doosari shatabdi ee. men yoodah hanasi ne snkalit kiya tha. 'tosephta' isaka arvachin parishisht hai.

(a) talamood-yah mishna ki vyakhya hai jo sthaniy paristhitiyon ke anusar vibhinn roop dharan kar leti hai. jeroosalam ke shastriyon ne apana jeroosalami talamood tisari chauthi eesavi men likha hai. babiloniya ke talamood ka nam babli athava gemara hai; isaka rachanakal chauthi chhathi shatabdi eesavi hai. babli talamood sabase vistrit (10,000 pri.) tatha sarvadhik mahatvapoorn hai. talamood ki bhasha ibrani tatha aramiy hai.

(i) midrashim-ye moosa ke niyam ki vyavaharik tatha upadeshatmak vyakhen hain. gaun midrashim sanh‌ 500 ee. ke hain, unamen se mekhilata saphrai tatha saphrei ullekhaniy hain. paravarti midrashim (rabbot) apekshakrit vistrit hain. unaki rachana chhathi shatabdi se lekar 12vin shatabdi tak hoti rahi.

(4) madhyakalin sahity-vibhinn deshon men basanevale yahoodiyon men kee snpraday utpann hue jinaka ibrani sahity ab tak surakshit hai. babiloniya ke soora namak sthan par 600 ee. se lekar geonim snpraday hai jisaka kanoon, mina tatha baibil vishayak sahity vistrit hai. isake pramukh vidvanh‌ sadiyah 942 ee. men chal base. kara-vadi athavin shatabdi ee. ka yahoodi shastriyon ka ek snpraday hai jisaka sahity mukhyataya baibil ki vyakhya hai.

navin shatabdi ee. men spen musalamani aur yahoodi snskriti ka kendr bana; vahan visheshakar vyakaran, baibil ki vyakhya tatha arastoo ke darshan par sahity ki srishti huee. is snbndh men moosa ibn ejhऱa (1140 ee.) tatha joodah hallevi (1140 ee.) ullekhaniy hain, kintu us samay ke sabase mahanh‌ yahoodi darshanik maimonides (1135-1204 ee.) hain. maimonides ne arastoo ki kuchh rachanaon ke arabi anuvad ka vishesh adhyayan karane ke bad dharmik vishvas tatha buddhi ke samanvay ki avashyakata dikhalane ka prayatn kiya. yahoodiyon ne ibn sina (1137 ee.) tatha ibn roos (1198 ee.) jaise arabi vidvanon ki rachanaen madhyakalin yoorop tak pahunchakar arabi tatha yoonari gyan vigyan ke prachar men mahatvapoorn yog diya hai.

(5) adhunik sahity-moosa mendelason (1729-1786) ke buddhivad se prabhavit hokar ibrani sahity ka drishtikon uttarottar udar tatha sahityik hota jata raha hai. 19vin shatabdi men ek navin rashtravadi dhara utpann huee jo bad men sionavadi (zionist) andolan men parinat huee. yah philistin desh ko pun: yahoodi jati ka sanskritik kendr banana chahati hai. adhunikatam ibrani sahity men pratibha, kalatmakata tath vidvatta ka bhndar hai; usaka vishvasahity tatha vishvavyapi andolanon ke sath gahara snbndh hai. eliejeraban yahoodah (1923) apana 'ibrani bhasha ka kosh' (10 khnd) likhakar vishvavikhyat ban ge. jeroosalam ke ibrani vishvavidyalay ki or se ek suvistrit ibrani vishvakosh ka snpadan sanh‌ 1950 ee. men pranrabh hua. dvitiy mahayuddh ke bad ibrani sahityik jivan ka kendr poorvi yoorop se hatakar pashchimi yoorop, amarika tatha izarayal men a gaya hai.[1]

ibrani bhasha ke svaroop ke varnan men yiddish ka oopar ullekh ho chuka hai. abramovich ke yiddish upanyas prasiddh hain. idhar sholem asha ke bahut se etihasik upanyas angreji men anoodit ho chuke hain. ai.el. perez ek adhunik rahasyavadi lekhak tatha maris rosenapheld ek lokapriy kavi hain. sanh‌ 1897 ee. men abraham kahan ne amarika men yiddish patrakarita ka prarnbh kiya tha.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 532-33 |
  2. sn.grn.-enasaiklopidiya britainika khnd 11; hibroo laingvez, litarechar; je. brokelamain : knparetiv gramar aauv semetik laingvejez, barlin 1912; jai. henpel : alt hebreshche litaretyor, paautsadaim, 1934; e. laauds : istvar de la litaretyor hebrek e jooee, peris, 1950.

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