इस्लाम धर्म  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

islam vishay soochi
islam dharm
islam dharm ka pratik
vivaran 'islam' ek ekeshvaravadi dharm hai jo allah ki taraf se antim rasool aur nabi, muhammad dvara insanon tak pahunchaee gee antim eeshvariy kitab (quran) ki shiksha par sthapit hai.
'islam' ka arth allah ko samarpan
adharabhoot siddhant islam dharm ka adharabhoot siddhant allah ko sarvashaktiman, ekamatr eeshvar aur jagath ka palak tatha hazarat muhammad ko unaka sndeshavahak ya paigambar manana hai.
qalama 'la ilaha illallah muhammadurrasoolullah' arthath allah ek hai, usake alava koee doosara nahin aur muhammad usake rasool ya paigambar.'
dharm pravartak aur snt hazarat muhammad, abd allah bin al-abbas, abd al- qadir al-jilani, salim chishti, mueenuddin chishti, nizamuddin auliya adi
pavitr pustak quran jisaka hindi men arth 'sasvar path' hai. quran sharif men 30 pare, 114 sooraten aur 540 rukooa hain. quran sharif ki kul ayat ki tadad 6666 (chhah hazar chhah sau chhiyasath) hai.
mukhy sampraday shiya aur sunni
snbndhit lekh namaz, allah, farishta, shaitan, roza, kaba
any janakari 712 ee. men muhammad-ibn-qasim ke netritv men arab ke musalamanon ne sindh par hamala kar diya aur vahan ke brahman raja dahir ko hara diya. is tarah bharat ki bhoomi par pahali bar islam ka pravesh hua.

islam (arabi: الإسلام, angrezi: Islam) ek ekeshvaravadi dharm hai jo allah ki taraf se antim rasool aur nabi, muhammad dvara insanon tak pahunchaee gee antim eeshvariy kitab (quran) ki shiksha par sthapit hai. islam shabd ka arth hai – 'allah ko samarpan'. is prakar musalaman vah hai, jisane apane apako allah ko samarpit kar diya, arthath islam dharm ke niyamon par chalane laga. islam dharm ka adharabhoot siddhant allah ko sarvashaktiman, ekamatr eeshvar aur jagath ka palak tatha hazarat muhammad ko unaka sndeshavahak ya paigambar manana hai. yahi bat unake 'kalame' men doharaee jati hai - la ilaha illallah muhammadurrasoolullah arthath 'allah ek hai, usake alava koee doosara (doosari satta) nahin aur muhammad usake rasool ya paigambar.' koee bhi shubh kary karane se poorv musalaman yah qalama padhate hain. islam men allah ko kuchh had tak sakar mana gaya hai, jo is duniya se kafi door sataven asaman par rahata hai. vah abhav (shoony) men sirf 'kun' kahakar hi srishti rachata hai. usaki rachanaon men ag se bane farishte aur mitti se bane manushy sarvashreshth hain. gumarah farishton ko 'shaitan' kaha jata hai. islam ke anusar manushy sirf ek bar duniya men janm leta hai. mrityu ke pashchath punah vah eeshvariy nirnay (qayamat) ke din ji uthata hai aur manushy ke roop men kiye gaye apane karmon ke anusar hi 'jannat' (svarg) ya 'narak' pata hai.

'islam' ko shuruat hi se sabaka virodh sahana pada. usane nirbhikatapoorvak jab doosaron ke mithyavishvason ka khandan kiya, to sabhi ne bharasak islam ko ukhad phainkane ka prayatn kiya. sachamuch jis prakar ka virodh tha, yadi usi prakar ki dridhata musalamanon aur unake dharmaguru ne n dikhaee hoti to kaun kah sakata hai ki islam is prakar snsar ke itihas ko palat dene men samarth hota.

bharat men islam ka pravesh

712 ee. men bharat men islam ka pravesh ho chuka tha. muhammad-ibn-qasim ke netritv men arab ke musalamanon ne sindh par hamala kar diya aur vahan ke brahman raja dahir ko hara diya. is tarah bharat ki bhoomi par pahali bar islam ke pair jam gaye aur bad ki shatabdiyon ke hindoo raja use phir hata nahin sake. parantu sindh par arabon ka shasan vastav men nirbal tha aur 1176 ee. men shahabuddin muhammad gori ne use asani se ukhad diya. isase poorv subuktagin ke netritv men musalamanon ne hamala karake pnjab chhin liya tha aur gazani ke sultan mahamood ne 997 se 1030 ee. ke bich bharat par satrah bar hamale kiye aur hindoo rajaon ki shakti kuchal dali, phir bhi hindoo rajaon ne musalamani akraman ka jis anavarat riti se prabal virodh kiya, usaka mahattv kam karake nahin ankana chahie.

arab

atynt prachin kal men ‘jadis’, ‘ad’, ‘samood’ adi jatiyan, jinaka ab namamatr shesh hai, arab men nivas karati thin, kintu bharat-samrat harshavarddhan ke sam-samayik hazarat muhammad ke samay ‘qahatan’, ‘ismaeel’ aur ‘yahoodi’ vnsh ke log hi arab men nivas karate the. prachin kal men arab-nivasi susabhy aur shilp-kala men pravin the. parantu ‘nichairgachchhatyupari ch tatha chakranemikramen’ ke anusar kalantar men unake vnshaj ghor avidyandhakar men nimagn ho gaye aur sari shilpakalaon ko bhool kar oont-bakari charana matr unaki jivika ka upay rah gaya. vah isake lie ek srot se doosare srot, ek sthan se doosare sthan men hare charagahon ko khojate hue khemon men nivas karake kalakshep karane lage. kanakhajoora, goh, giragit adi sare jiv unake bhakshy the. prajjvalit agni men jivit manushy ko dal dena unake samip koee asadhu karm nahin samajha jata tha. hindoo-putr amru ne apane bhaee ke mare jane par ek ke badale sau ke marane ki pratigya ki.

hazarat muhammad

islam dharm ke pravartak hazarat muhammad sahab the, jinaka janm 570 ee. ko sudi arab ke makka namak sthan men kuraish qabile ke abdulla namak vyapari ke ghar hua tha. janm ke poorv hi pita ki aur panch varsh ki ayu men mata ki mrityu ho jane ke phalasvaroop unaka palan-poshan unake dada mutallib aur chacha aboo talib ne kiya tha. 25 varsh ki ayu men unhonne khadija namak ek vidhava se vivah kiya. mohammad sahab ke janm ke samay arabavasi atyant pichhadi, qabilaee aur charavahon ki zindagi bita rahe the. atah muhammad sahab ne un qabilon ko sngathit karake ek svatntr rashtr banane ka prayas kiya. 15 varsh tak vyapar men lage rahane ke pashchath ve karobar chhodakar chintan-manan men lin ho gaye. makka ke samip hira ki choti par kee din tak chintanashil rahane ke uparant unhen devadoot jibaril ka sndesh prapt hua ki ve jakar quran sharif ke roop men prapt eeshvariy sndesh ka prachar karen. tatpashchath unhonne islam dharm ka prachar shuroo kiya. unhonne moorti pooja ka virodh kiya, jisase makka ka purohit varg bhadak utha aur antatah muhammad sahab ne 16 julaee 622 ko makka chhodakar vahan se 300 kilomitar uttar ki or yasarib (madina) ki or kooch kar diya. unaki yah yatra islam men 'hijarat' kahalati hai. isi din se 'hijari snvat' ka prarambh mana jata hai. kalantar men 630 ee. men apane lagabhag 10 hazar anuyayiyon ke sath muhammad sahab ne makka par chadhaee karake use jit liya aur vahan islam ko lokapriy banaya. do varsh pashchath 8 joon, 632 ko unaka nidhan ho gaya.

tatkalin moortiyan

‘hubl’, ‘lath’, ‘manath’ ‘ujj’ adi bhinn-bhinn anek dev-pratimaen us samay arab ke pratyek kabil men logon ki isht thin. bahut purane samay men vahan moortipooja n thi. ‘amaroo’ namak kaba ke ek pradhan pujari ne ‘sham’ desh men suna ki isaki aradhana se dushkal se raksha aur shatru par vijay prapt hoti hai. usi ne pahale-pahal ‘sham’ se lakar kuchh moortiyan kaba ke mandir men sthapit kin. dekhadekhi isaka prachar itana badha ki sara desh moortipooja men nimagn ho gaya. akele ‘kaba’ mandir men 360 devamoortiyan thin, jinamen hubl-jo chhat par sthapit tha - kuresh - vnshiyon ka isht tha. ‘jay[1] hubl’ unaka jatiy ghosh tha. log manate the ki ye moortiyan eeshvar ko prapt karati hain, isilie ve unhen poojate the. arabi men ‘ilah’ shabd devata aur unaki moortiyon ke lie prayukt hote hai; kintu ‘alah’ shabd ‘islam’ kal se pahale us samay bhi ek hi eeshvar ke lie prayukt hota tha.

shrimati ‘khadija’ aur unake bhaee ‘naufal’ moortipooja - virodhi yahoodi dharm ke anuyayi the. unake aur apani yatraon men anek shisht mahatmaon ke satsng evn logon ke pakhand ne unhen moortipooja se vimukh bana diya. vah eesaee bhikshuon ki bhanti bahudha ‘hira’ ki gupha men ekant-sevan aur eeshvar - pranidhan ke lie jaya karate the. ‘ika bi-ismi rabbik’ (padh apane prabhu ke nam ke sath) yah pratham quran vaky pahale vahin par devadoot ‘jibrail’ dvara mahatma muhammad ke hriday men utara gaya. us samay devadoot ke bhaynkar sharir ko dekhakar kshan bhar ke lie vah moorchchhit ho gaye the. jab unhonne is vrittant ko shrimati ‘khadija’ aur ‘naufal’ ko sunaya to unhonne kaha- avashy vah devadoot tha jo is bhagavatvaky ko lekar tumhare pas aya tha. is samay mahatma muhammad ki ayu 40 varsh ki thi. yahin se unaki paigambari (bhagavatata) ka samay prasmbh hota hai.

islam ka prachar

Blockquote-open.gif yah puny nahin ki tum apane munh ko poorv ya pashchim ki or kar lo. puny to yah hai - parameshvar, antim din, devadooton, pustak aur rishiyon par shrriddha rakhana, dhan ko premiyon, sambandhiyon, anathon, daridron, pathikon, yachikon aur gardan bachane valon ke lie dena, upavas (roza) rakhana, dan dena, jab pratigya kar chuke to apani pratigya ko poorn karana, vipattiyon, haniyon aur yuddhon men sahishnu (hona), (jo aisa karate hain) vahi log sachche aur snyami hain. Blockquote-close.gif

eeshvar ke divy adesh ko prapt kar unhonne makka ke dambhik aur samagat yatriyon ko quran ka upadesh sunana arambh kiya. mela ke khas dinon (‘ihram’ ke mahinon) men door se ayen hue tirth-yatriyon ke samooh ko chhal-pakhandayukt lokachar aur anek devataon ki apasana ka khandan karake, vah ek eeshvar (allah) ki upasana aur shuddh tatha saral dharm ke anushthan ka upadesh karate the. ‘quraishi’ log apane isht, achar aur amadani ki is prakar ninda aur us par is prakar ka kutharaghat dekhakar bhi ‘hashim’- parivar ki chirashatruta ke bhay se unhen marane ki himman n kar sakate the. kintu is navin dharm-anuyayi, das-dasiyon ko tapt baloo par litate, kode marate tatha bahut kasht dete the; to bhi dharm ke matavale pranapan se apane dharm ko n chhodane ke lie taiyar the. is amanushik asahy atyachar ko din par din badhate dekh kar ant men mahatma ne anuyaniyon ko ‘aphrika’ khand ke ‘habs’ namak rajy men- jahan ka raja bada nyayaparayan tha- chale jane ki anumati de di. jaise-jaise musalamanon ki snkhya badhati jati thi, ‘quraishi’ ka dvesh bhi vaise-vaise badhata jata tha; kintu ‘abootalib’ ke jivan-paryant khulakar upadrav karane ki unaki himmat n hoti thi. jab ‘abootalib’ ka dehant ho gaya to unhonne khule taur par virodh karane par kamar bandhi.

madina-pravas

ab mahatma muhammad ki avastha 53 varsh ki thi. unaki stri shrimati ‘khadija’ ka dehant ho chuka tha. ek din ‘quraishiyon’ ne hatya ke abhipray se unake ghar ko charon or se gher liya, kintu mahatma ko isaka pata pahale se hi mil chuka tha. unhonne poorv hi vahan se ‘yasrib’ (madina) nagar ko prasthan kar diya tha. vahan ke shishy-varg ne ati shraddha se guru sushrusha karane ki prarthana ki thi. pahunchane par unhonne mahatma ke bhojan, vasagrih adi ka prabandh kar diya. jab se unaka nivas ‘yasrib’ men hua, tab se nagar ka nam ‘maditunnabi’ ya nabi ka nagar prakhyat hua. usi ko chhota karake ajakal keval ‘madina’ kahate hain. ‘quran’ men tis khand hain aur vah 114 ‘sooraton’ (adhyayon) men bhi vibhakt hai.[2] nivas-kram se pratyek soorat ‘makki’ ya ‘madni’ nam se pukari jati hai, arthath makka men utari ‘sooraten’ ‘makki’ aur madina men utari ‘madni’ kahi jati hai.

muhammad antim paigambar

"jo koee parameshvar aur usake prerit ki agya n mane, usako sarvada ke lie narak ki agni hai."[3] mahatma muhammad ke acharan ko adarsh manakar use doosaron ke lie anukaraniy kaha gaya hai. "tumhare lie prabhu–prerit ka sundar acharan anukaraniy hai."[4] yah kah hi ae hain ki arab ke log us samay ekadam asabhy the. unhen chhote–chhote se lekar bade–bade achar aur sabhyata–sambandhi vyavaharon ko bhi batalana padata tha. unako guru-shishy, pita-putr, bade-chhote ke sambandh ka bhi vishesh vichar nahin tha. mahatma muhammad ko guru aur prerit svikar karane par unaka yahi mukhy sambandh musalamanon ke sath hai, n ki bhaeebandi, chacha-bhatija vala pahala sambandh; yatha- "muhammad tum purushon men se kisi ka bap nahin, vah prabhu-prerit aur sab preriton par muhar (antim) hai."[5] 'musalamanon ka us (muhammad) ke sath pran se bhi adhik sambandh hai aur usaki striyan tumhari (musalamanon) ki mataen hain.'

quran sharif

islam dharm ki pavitr pustak ka nam quran hai jisaka hindi men arth 'sasvar path' hai. quran sharif 22 sal 5 mah aur 14 din ke arse men zaroorat ke mutabiq kiston men nazil hua. quran sharif men 30 pare, 114 sooraten aur 540 rukooa hain. quran sharif ki kul ayat ki tadad 6666 (chhah hazar chhah sau chhiyasath) hai.[6]

lauh mahaphooj men quran

quran ke vishay men usake anuyayiyon ka vishvas hai aur svayn quran men bhi likha hai- sachamuch poojy quran adrisht pustak men (vartaman) hai. jab tak shuddh n ho, use mat chhuo. vah lok-paralok ke svami ke pas utara hai.[7] adrisht pustak se yahan abhipray us svargiy lekh-patitka se hai jise islami paribhasha men ‘lauh-mahaphooj’ kahate hain. srishtikartta ne adi se usamen trikalavritti likh rakkha hai, jaisa ki sthanantar men kaha hai- “hamane arabi quran racha ki tumako gyan ho. nissandeh vah uttam gyan-bhandar hamare pas pustakon ki mata (lauh mahaphooj) men likha hai.“ [8]

jagadishvar ne quran men varnit gyan ko jagath ke hit ke lie apane prerit muhammad ke hriday men prakashit kiya, yahi is sabaka bhavarth hai. apane dharm ki shiksha dene vale granth par asadharan shraddha hona manushy ka svabhav hai. yahi karan hai ki quran ke mahatmy ke vishay men anek kathaen janasamuday men prachalit hain, yadyapi un sabaka adhar shraddha chhod kar quran men dhoondhana yukt nahin hai, kintu aise vakyon ka usamen sarvatha abhav hai, yah bhi nahin kaha ja sakata. ek sthal par kaha hai- yadi ham is quran ko kisi parvat (va parvat-sadrish kathor hriday) par utarate, to avashy too use parameshvar ke bhay se daba aur phata dekhata. in drishtanton ko manushyon ke lie ham varnit karate hai jisase ki vah sochen.[9]

islam ke siddhant

arabi ke 'mazahab' aur 'din' shabd jis arth men prayukt hain, use angrezi ka rilijan shabd to avashy vyakt kar sakata hai. kintu snskrit ya hindi men unaka paryayavachi koee ek shabd nahin milata. yadyapi 'panth' shabd thik 'mazahab' shabd ke hi dhatvarth ko prakashit karata hai. kintu jis prakar 'dharm' shabd ativyapt hai, usi prakar yah avyapti–doshagrast hai. is nibandh ke varnananusar jo marg manushy ke aihik aur ayushmik shrey ki prapti ke lie anusaran karane ke yogy hai, vahi islam panth, dharm ya sampraday hai. asani ke lie ham prayah 'panth' shabd hi ko isake lie prayukt karenge. har ek panth men do prakar ke mantavy hote hain. ek vishvasatmak, doosara kriyatmak. niche donon prakar ke islami mantavyon ko quran ke shabdon hi men udadhrit kiya jata hai— "yah puny nahin ki tum apane munh ko poorv ya pashchim ki or kar lo. puny to yah hai—parameshvar, antim din, devadooton, pustak aur rishiyon par shrriddha rakhana, dhan ko premiyon, sambandhiyon, anathon, daridron, pathikon, yachikon aur gardan bachane valon ke lie dena, upavas (roza) rakhana, dan dena, jab pratigya kar chuke to apani pratigya ko poorn karana, vipattiyon, haniyon aur yuddhon men sahishnu (hona), (jo aisa karate hain) vahi log sachche aur snyami hain."[10]

purani kathaen

"yah (vah) bastiyan hain, jinaka vrittant tujhe (ham) sunate hain."[11] "so too (muhammad) katha varnan kar, shayad yah vichar kare."[12] quran ka ek vishesh bhag shikshaprad itivritton aur kathaon se poorn hai. uparyukt vaky isake sakshi hain. quran men varnit sabhi vishayon ka samany gyan is quranasar ki rachana se abhipret hai. atah yahan par un kathaon ka thoda–sa varnan kar diya jata hai. inamen se anek kathaen kuchh ghata - badha kar vahin hain jo baibil men aee hain. in mahatmaon ke bare men hai-

allah, farishte, shaitan

duniya ke sare dharm prayah sare padarthon ko do shreniyon men vibhakt karate hain, arthath jad aur chetan. chetan ke bhi do bhed hain - eeshvar, jiv. jivon men hi farishte shaitan bhi hain.

allah

eeshvar ko ‘quran’ ne srishti ka karta, dharta, harta mana hai, jaisa ki usake nimn uddharanon se maloom hoga -

  • “vah (eeshvar) jisane bhoomi men jo kuchh hai (sabako) tumhare lie banaya.“[13]
  • “usane sachamuch bhoomi aur akash banaya. manushy ka kshudr viry – bindu se banaya. usane pashu banae, jinase garm vastr pate tatha aur bhi anek prakar ke labh uthate ho, evn unhen khate ho.“[14]
  • “vah tumhara eeshvar chizon ka banane vala hai. usake sivay koee bhi poojy nahin hai.“[15]
  • “eeshvar sab chizon ka srashta tatha adhikari hai.“[16]
  • “nissandeh eeshvar bhoomi aur akash ko dharan kie hue hai ki vah nasht n ho jae.“[17]
  • “jo parameshvar marata aur jilata hai.“[18]
  • eeshvar bada hi dayalu hai, vah aparadhon ko kshama kar deta hai -
“nissandeh tera eeshvar manushyon ke lie unake aparadhon ka kshama karane vala hai.“[19]
  • astikon par hi nahin, farishton par bhi—
“is bat men (he muhammad !) tera kuchh nahin, chah vah (eeshvar) un (qafiron) ko kshama kare ya un par vipad dale, yadi vah atyachari hai.“[20]
  • eeshvar saty hai -
“parameshvar saty hai.“[21]
  • eeshvar ka nyayakari hona is prakar se kaha gaya hai -
“qayamat ke din ham thik taulenge, kisi jiv par kuchh bhi anyay nahin kiya jaega. chahe vah ek sarason ke barabar hi kyon n ho, kintu hamare pas men poora hisab rahega.“[22]
  • nimn vaky ke anek eeshvariy gun batalae ge hain -
“parameshvar jisake sivay koee bhi eeshvar nahin hai - jivan aur sath hai. use nind ya aungh nahin ati. jo kuchh bhi bhoomi aur prakash men hai, vah usi ke lie hi hai. jo ki usaki agya ke bina usake pas sifarish kare? vah janata hai, jo kuchh unake age ya pichh hai, vah koee bat usase chhipa nahin sakate, sivay isake ki jise vah chahe vishal bhoomi aur prakash ki kursi, jisaki raksha use nahin thakati vah uttam aur mahanh hai.“
[23]
  • parameshvar mata - pita - stri - putradi rahit hai -
“n vah kisi se paida hua hai, n usase koee paida hai.“[24]
  • eeshvar men marg men kharch karane ka varnan is prakar hai -
“kaun hai jo ki eeshvar ko achchha karz de, vah use kee guna badhaega.“[25]
“nissandeh data stri–purushon ne parameshvar ko achchha karz diya hai, unaka vah duguna hoga, aur unake lie (isaka) achchha badala hai.“[26]

farishta

jis prakar puranon men parameshvar ke bad anek devata bhinn–bhinn kam karane vale mane jate hain, yamaraj mrityu ke adhyaksh, indr vrishti ke adhyaksh ityadi, isi prakar ‘islam’ ne farishton’ ko mana hai. pahale farishton ke sambandh men quran men ae kuchh vaky dene par is par vichar karana achchha hoga, isalie yahan ve vaky udadhrit kie jate hain- “jab hamen (parameshvar) ne farishton ko (adam ke lie) dandavat karane ko kaha, to sabane dandavat ki, kintu iblis ne inkar kar diya, ghamand kiya aur (vah) nastikon men se tha.“[27] “jab hamane farishton ko dandavat karane ka kaha, to iblis ke atirikt sabhi ne kiya. (iblis) bola - kya main use dandavat karoon jo mitti se bana hai.“[28] “jab hamane farishton ko kaha - adam ko dandavat karo to (unhonne) dandavat ki, kintu iblis, jo ki jinnon men se tha - ne n kiya.“[29]

oopar ke vakyon men farishton ka varnan aya hai. bhagavan ne adam (manushy ke adi pita) ko banakar unhen adam ko dandavat karane ko kaha. sabane vaisa kiya, kintu iblis ne n kiya. yah iblis us samay farishton men sabase oopar (devendr) tha. tritiy vaky men jo use ‘jinn’ kaha gaya hai, usase gyat hota hai ki farishte aur jinn ek hi hain ya jinn farishton ke antargat hi koee jati hai. iblis ne yah kah kar adam ko dandavat karane se inkar kiya ki vah mitti se bana hai. atah maloom padata hai ki utpatti kisi aur achchhe padarth se huee hai. anyatr iblis ke vaky hi se maloom ho jata hai ki unaki utpatti agni se huee hai. apane bhakton ki raksha ke lie eeshvar in farishton ko bhejate hain.

shaitan

farishton ke atirikt quran men ek prakar aur bhi adrisht prani kahe ge hain, jo sab jagah ane–jane men farishton ke saman hi hain; kintu vah shubhakarm se hatane aur ashubh karane ke lie manushyon ko prerana dete rahate hain. inhen shaitan kahate hain. unake lie papatma shabd ata hai. shaitanon men sabaka saradar vahi iblis hai. shaitan ke vishay men kaha gaya hai- yah keval shaitan hai, jo tumhen apane doston se darata hai.[30] shaitan kis prakar manushyon ko ashubh karm ki or prerit karata hai, usako is vaky men kaha gaya hai- “shaitan unake karmon ko snvar deta hai tatha kahata hai - ab koee bhi manushy tumhen jit nahin sakata, main tumhara rakshak hoon, kintu jab donon paksh amane–samane ate hain, to vah munh mod leta hai aur kahata hai - main tumase alag hoon, main nissandeh dekhata hoon, jise tum nahin dekhate, aur parameshvar pap ka kathor nashak hai.“[31]

bhed

islam dharm ke panch bhed kiye jate hain-

(i) nity ve adharabhoot hain, jinhen har roz karana chahie. islam men nimn panch kartavyon ko har musalaman ke lie anivary bataya gaya hai-

  1. pratidin panch vaqt (fajar, juhar, asar, magarib, isha) namaz padhana
  2. zarooratamndon ko zakat (dan) dena
  3. ramazan ke mahine men sooryoday ke pahale se lekar sooryast tak roza rakhana
  4. jivan men kam se kam ek bar haj arthath makka sthit kaba ki yatra karana tatha
  5. islam ki raksha ke lie zihad (dharmayuddh) karana.

(ii) naimittik karm ve karm hain, jinhen karane par puny hota hai, parantu n karane se pap nahin hota.

(iii) kamy ve karm hain jo kisi kamana ki poorti ke lie kie jate hain.

(iv) asammat ve karm hain jinakon karane ki dharm sammati to nahin deta, kintu karane par karta ko dandaniy bhi nahin thaharata.

(v) nishiddh (haram) karm ve hain, jinhen karane ki dharm manahi karata hai aur isake karta ko dandaniy thaharata hai.

islam ke sampraday

islam men do mukhy sampraday- shiya aur sunni milate hain. muhammad sahab ki putri fatima aur damad ali ke beton hasan aur husain ko paigambar ka uttaradhikari manane vale musalaman 'shiya' kahalate hain. doosari or sunni sampraday aisa manane se inkar karata hai.

salam

milane julane ane jane men salam ka rivaj hai. salam karane vala "asslamu alaiqamu" kahata hai jisaka arth hai tum par khuda ki taraf se salamati ho, isaka javab hai. "v alekum assalam" arthath tum par salamati ho.

yahoodi

yahoodi dharm ke mahatma, ibrahim ishaq, daood, suleman ke bhi mananiy mahatma aur rasool hai. apane vnsh ke prati bade abhimani yahoodi log mahatma ke madina (yasribh) ane par pahale kuchh samay tak to musalamanon ke virodhi n the, parantu jab unhonne dekha ki hamari pradhanata ab ghat rahi hai aur muhammad ka prabhav adhik badhata ja raha hai, to vah bhi drohi ho gaye. islam ki shiksha ka bahut-sa bhag yahoodi aur eesaee dharmon se liya gaya hai. donon dharmon ke prati arambh hi se mahatma ki badi shraddha thi. yahan tak ki ‘namaz’ bhi pahale musalaman log unhin pavitr sthan ‘yorushilamh’ ki or munh karake padhate a rahe the. jab yahoodiyon ne shatruta karani shuroo ki to mahatma muhammad ne apane anuyayiyon ko ‘yorushilamh’ se munh hatakar ‘kaba’ ko apana ‘kibla’ (sammukh ka sthan) banane ki agya di. yahoodiyon ke vyavahar ke vishay men kaha gaya hai-

‘yahudiyon men kuchh log eeshvar-vaky (quran) ko sunate hain. phir jo kuchh unhonne jana tha, use badal dete hai aur ise vah janate hain.‘[32]
‘yahoodi vaky ko usake sthan se badal dete hai’.[33]

mahatma aur unake anuyayiyon ka vishvas tha ki yahoodi logon ke granthon men muhammad ke rasool (prerit) hokar ane ki bhavishyavani hai; kintu vah log ise badalakar doosara hi kah dete hai jisamen ki kahin islam ko isase dridh hone men sahayata n mil jay. oopar uddhrit doosare vaky men isi bat ki or snket hai. isake atirikt any akshep bhi yahoodiyon par paye jate hai; jaise-

‘kuchh dhan milane ke liye apane hath se pustak likhakar yah kahane valon ko dhikkar hai ki vah eeshvar ki or se hai.‘[34]
‘koee-koee yahoodi chahate hai ki tumhen (musalamanon ko) path-bhrasht kar den, kintu tumhen maloom nahin ki ve apane sivay doosare ko (aisa) nahin kar sakate. hai granth[35] valo ! tum log sakshi ho, phir kyon nahin eeshvar ke vachanon (quran) par vishvas karate? he granth valo ! janate hue bhi tum kyon saty ko asaty se dhankakar chhipana chahate ho?[36]

quran aur yahoodiyon ke dharm men bahut samanata aur murti-poojakon ke siddhant se ghor virodh hai; to bhi dvesh ke mare yahoodi log musalamanon se moortipoojakon ko bhi achchha batalate the: yatha- ‘vishvasiyon (musalamanon) se yah (nastik) hi adhik sumarg par aroodh hain; is prakar nastikon (qaphiron) ko kahane vale moorti aur shaitan ke vishvasi granth ke kuchh ansh pane valon ko too (muhammad) nahin dekhata?’[37]

mahatma to yahoodiyon ko astik samajh keval musalamanon ke lie hi prayukt hone vale ‘assalamu alaikumh (tumhara mngal ho) vaky ko kahakar pranam karate the; kintu dah ke mare yahoodi usake uttar men ‘assalamu alaikumh’ v ‘alaikumu-ssamu’ (=aur tum par mrityu ho) kaha karate the.

yahoodiyon ke dharmagranthon ko quran ne bhi eeshvariy mana tha. is vishvas se labh uthakar vah musalamanon ko dhokha dete the.

“jisamen tum samajhon ki yah eeshvariy pustak hai, isaliye unamen se kitane jibh lautakar padhate hain aur kahate hai ki yah eeshvar ki or se hai ; kintu n vah eeshvar ki or se hai, n us granth men se. jan-boojh kar eeshvar par vah mithyaropan karate hai.“[38]

jab yahoodiyon se kaha jata hai ki jis prakar tum log ibrahim, moosa adi mahatmaon ko eeshvar-prerit samajhate ho, usi prakar mahatma muhammad ko bhi kyon nahin samajhate? tab ve log kahate the-

eeshvar ne hamase pratigya ki hai ki jab tak koee aisi bali ke sath n aye, jise agni (svayn) khaye ; tab tak kisi par tum log vishvas n karana ki yah eeshvar-presit hai.‘

jisake uttar men phir vahin kaha gaya hai-

‘kah, mujhase pahale kitane prerit chinhon ke sath tum log men aye. yahi tum satyavadi ho, to (tumane) kyon unhen mara?’[39]

shatruta ho jane par yahoodiyon ke char mahatma ke pas a-a kar unaki shiksha aur any vrittanton ka pata laga apane sardaron ko khabar dete the. vahan se yah khabar ‘makka’ vale shatruon ko de di jaya karati thi. inhin char ke vishay men yah vaky hai-

‘pas men aye bhakshy abhoji, un jhoothe dooton ko agya de (ki n aven) athava upekshit kar de. yadi upeksha kare to teri hani nahin kar sakate.‘[40]

ladakapan men ek bar eesaee snnyasi ‘bahera’ se mahatma muhammad ki mulakat ka zikr pahale a chuka hai. yauvanavastha men bhi unhen ek bar us mahapurush ke satsng se labh uthane ka avasar phir prapt hua. aise hi tejasvi, sadachari mahatmaon ke parichay ne unake hriday se eesaee-dharm aur unake anuyayiyon ke prati shraddha utpann kar di. quran men kaha hai-

‘yahoodiyon’ aur ‘kafiron’ (nastikon) men too bahoot se kroo r aur dahavale adamiyon ko payega ; kintu jo apane ko eesaee kahate hain, unamen se bahuton ko too sauhardr aur samipata se yukt payega ; kyonki unamen nirabhimani vidvanh snnyasi hai.[41]

eesaiyon se yon bhi koee arthik chadha-utari n thi jisase ki unaka musalamanon ke sath virodh hota. yadyapi eesaiyon ki prashnsa is prakar likhi gee hai ; kintu isaka arth yah nahin ki unake siddhanton ka khandan quran men nahin kiya gaya hai. eesaee-dharm men eeshvar tin roop men vidyaman mana jata hai-

  1. pita-jo svarg men rahata hai
  2. putr-prabhu eeshu khrisht jinhonne snsar ke hitarth kumari mariyam ke garbh se snsar men avatar liya aur agyaniyon tatha anyayiyon ne unhen sooli pe chadha diya
  3. pavitratma-jo bhaktajanon ke hriday men pravesh kar unake mukh ya sharir dvara trikal ka gyan ya any dharmik rahasyon ko kholata hai.

is vishay men quran ka kahana hai-

“eeshvar tinon men se ek hai, aisa kahane vale zaroor nastik hain. bhagavanh ek hai. us ek ke atirikt aur nahi.“ (6:10:7)

“mariyam-putr yishu pahale preriton ki bhanti ek prerit tha, doosara nahin ; aur usaki mata ek sati, stri thi. donon ahar bhakshan karate the. dekho yuktiyon ko kaise men (eeshvar) varnan karata hoon, kintu vah (eeshvar) vimukh hai.“[42]

munafik

madina ane par jin moortipoojakon ne islam-dharm svikar kiya, unhen ‘ansar’ kaha jata hai; inamen bahut se vnchak musalaman bhi the jinhen ‘munafik’ ka nam diya gaya hai. inhin ke vishay men kaha gaya hai- ‘ham nirnay-din (qayamat) aur bhagavan par vishvas rakhate hain; aisa kahate hue bhi vah vishvasi (musalaman) nahin hain. parameshvar aur musalamanon ko thagate hue vah apane hi ko thagate hain.‘[43]

vishvasiyon (musalamanon) ke pas jab gaye, to kaha ham vishvas rakhate hain; rakshason (nastikon) ke pas nikal jate hain to kahate hain-(musalamanon se) hnsi karate hain, anyatha ham to tumhare sath hain.‘[44] “vah donon ke bich latakate hain, n idhar hain, n udhar ke.“[45] isilie marane par- “nissahay hokar (vah) narak ki agni ke sabase nichale tal men rahenge.“[46]

kafir

us samay ‘arab’ men moortipooja ka bahut adhik prachar tha. quran men sabase adhik zor se isi ka khandan kiya gaya hai. mahatma muhammad ne jab yah suna ki ‘kaba’ mandir ke nirmata hamare poorvaj mahatma ‘ibrahim’ the, jo moortipoojak nahin the, to unhen is apane kam men aur bal-sa prapt hua maloom hone laga. unaki yah ichchha atyant balavati ho gee ki kab ‘kaba’ phir moortirahit hoga. unhonne sachche devata ki pooja ka prachar aur jhoothe devata ki pooja ka khandan apane jivan ka mukhy lakshy rakhakar barabar apane kam ko jari rakha. ‘arab’ ki kashi ‘makka’ men ‘kuraishi’ pandon ka bada zor tha. yah log apane anuyayiyon ko kahate the- ‘vadd’, ‘subaa’, ‘yagoos’, ‘nasr’ apane ishton ko kabhi n chhodana chahiye.[47] ‘quran’ ke upadesh ko vah log kahate the- yah is muhammad ki man-gadhant hai.[48] ‘isako koee videshi sikhata hai.... ham achchhi tarah janate hain, us sikhane vale ki bhasha arabi se bhinn hai aur yah arabi.‘[49] vah log vishvas ke rasool hone ke bare men kahate the- vah log vishvas nahin karate jab tak vah bhoomi se (jal ka) sota n nikal de ya khajoor, angoor adi ka (aisa) bagicha n utpann kar de jisamen ki nahar bahati ho. athava apane kahe anusar akash ko tukade-tukade karake hamare oopar n gira de. ya devadooton ko pratibhoo (jamin) ke taur par n lave. ya achchha mahal (isake lie) ho jay. athava akash par chadh jay. kintu usake chadhane par bhi ham vishvas nahin karenge jab tak ham logon ke padhane layaq koee lekh n laye.“[50]

kafiron ki uktiyan

quran men purane vasoolon ke lie anek chamatkar likhe hai. jaise mahatma moosa ne patthar se barah jal-srot baha diye, apane athiyon ko avargiy bhojan, ‘mann’ aur ‘salava’ diya karate the. ibrahim ke pas to khuda barabar hi aya karate the. mahatma eesa akash par chadh gaye ityadi in baton hi ko vah log bhi kahate the ki yadi tum prabhu-prerit ho to kyon usi prakar ke chamatkar nahin dikhate? aur bhi anek prakar se vah log hnsi udate the. niche kuchh aur addharan unake vyavaharon ka diya jata hai-

“bhojan karata hai, bazar men ghoomata hai, yah kaisa rasool (prabhu-prerit) hai? kyon nahin isake pas devadoot ata jo isake sath (hamen) darata? kyon nahin isake pas kosh (khazana) aur bag hua, jisaka yah upabhog karata?”[51]
“kya ham kisi pagal, daridr, tukaband (kavi) ki bat men padakar apane ishton ko phenk den?”[52]

us samay pashchimi arab ‘hizaj’ men do bade-bade sardar the ; ek makka ke ‘quraish’ vnsh ka sardar, doosara ‘tayaf’ ka samant. mahatma quraish vnsh ke hashim-parivar ke the. yah log utane dhani-mani n the. quraish moortipoojak kahate the.

shariyat

islam men shariyat ka tatpary dharmik vidhishastr se hai. ve qanoon, jo quran sharif tatha hadis ke vivaranon par adharit hote hain tatha islam ke achar-vyavahar ka palan karate hain, shariyat ke antargat ate hain. shariyat ke char pramukh srot hain—

  • quran mazid
  • hadis ya sunnat
  • ijmaa
  • kias

in charon ko islam ki adhar shila bhi mana jata hai.

qayanat, karmaphal, jannat, dozakh

yahan par manushy ke karm aur usake paripak ke sadhan srishti, svarg adi ka varnan kiya jata hai. srishti to usake sirajanahar ka anuman hota hai, jaise kary se usake karan ka. vyavastha ki vichitrata, rachana ki vichitrata, saundary adi gunon ki adhikata se jagath kisi asadharan shilp chaturata se poorn shakti ka banaya hua hai. koee–koee darshanik srishti ko bhramatmak kahakar paramarth men usaki satta ke inkari hote hain, kintu quran aise jagath ke mithya hone ko svikar nahin karata. kaha hai—

akash, prithvi aur jo kuchh unake madhy men hai, in sabako mithya nahin, ek nirdisht uddeshy se utpann kiya gaya hai.[53]

snsar ki tuchchhata ka varnan usaki asthirata ke karan hai. snsar men hi svargadi sthan nity hain, isalie unaka pralobhan satkarmiyon ko sthan–sthan par diya gaya hai. snsar aur snsar ki vastuen eeshvar ki anugrah ki ichchha ka nidarshan (namoona) bhoot hai. isilie bahut jagah eeshvar ki kritgyta ke bhar se namr hone ka upadesh kiya gaya hai.

qayanat

“kyon nahin paramatma par vishvas karate, tum mritak the, phir usane tumhen jilaya, aur phir marata hai, tadanantar jilayega, ant men usake pas hi jaoge. vah jisane tumhen aur jo kuchh prithvi men hai, sabako utpann kiya, phir akash par chadha aur use sat akashon men vibhakt kiya. vah nissandeh sab vastuon ka gyata hai.“[54]

  • punashch -

“vah jisane tumhare lie nakshatron ka nirman kiya ki jisase jngal, samudr aur andhakar men rasta paven.....vah jo akash se jal girata hai. phir usase sari udibhadyaman vastuen nikalin. usase main (prabhu) ne vanaspati nikali, phir usase snyukt phalon ko utpann karata hoon, kitane hi khajoor ki bal men latakate hain, anupam aur sopam angoor, anar aur jaitoon ke udyan. jab vah phalate aur pakate hain to unake phalon ko dakho. isamen hi vishvasi jatiyon ke lie pramanh hain.“[55]

  • aparanch—

“kya too nahin dekhata, parameshvar hi ne jal utara, phir usase anek prakar ke phal aur parvaton men shvet, rakt, ati krishn adi anek varn ki upatyaka utpann huee. kide, pashu aur manushyon men bahut prakar ke varn vale prani hain. is prakar ke gyan vale bhagavan se darate hain. parameshvar nissandeh kshamashil aur balishth hai.“[56] eeshvar ki kripa kataksh dvara manushyon ka koti–koti upakar ho raha hai, isalie usase kritadhn hona thik nahin.

  • quran men varnit jagath ki utpatti, usake do shabdon ke arth se bhali prakar vidit ho sakati hai. vah hai—‘qunu f–yakun’ (ho, phir hota hai). bhagavan ne kaha—ho, phir yah jagath ho jata hai. upadan adi karanon ka koee jhagada nahin hai. sarvashaktiman hone se usane bina upadan karan hi ke jagath bana dala. is prakar asad se sad ki utpatti hi quran pratipadit srishti hai. yahoodi aur eesaee dharm men bhi yahi srishti–vishayak siddhant svikar kiya gaya hai. unake vichar men, yadi doosare prakar se mana jae to eeshvar sarvashaktiman nahin rah sakata. kisi ko sandeh ho ki kya jane abhinn nimittopadanata (vah nimitt aur vahi upadan karan hai) ko svikar karate hon. kintu is bat ko is vaky ne hi spasht kar diya, jisamen kaha hai—‘n vah utpadak hai aur n vah utpann hua hai.‘ yahan upadan karan se jagath utpann karane men bhagavan ki utpadakata ka nishedh hai. n ki bina upadan hi asat se. unaka kahana hai, yadi svayn upadan karan hai to nirvikar nahin rah sakata, yadi use any upadan karan ki apeksha hai to sarvashaktiman nahin rahata. jahan–tahan srishti vishay ko yahan snkshep men uddhrit kiya jata hai.

jannat

manushy ka yah janm sarvapratham aur antim hai. is janm men phalabhog sambhav nahin. marane par punyatma svarg ko, papi nark ko, kisi–kisi ke mat men donon ki samanata vala ‘eraf’ (iaraf) ko jata hai. jaise vahan nandakanan ko saundary ki khan apsaraen alnkrit karati hain, vaise hi yahan bhi ‘jannat’ ke udyan ko shobha–rashi ‘hoor’ anandamay banati hai. ‘quran’ men vishvasiyon (musalamanon) ko unake shubh karm ke phalasvaroop svarg ka atyadhik varnan hai. unamen se thoda–sa yahan par udadhrit kiya jata hai—

  • “shubh karm karane vale vishvasiyon ko shubh–sandesh suna—unake lie udyan (bag) hain, usase niche naharen bahati hain, sare achchhe phal vahan lae ge hain. (svarg vale) un logon ko jaisa ki pahale (kaha gaya tha), vaisa hi yah upahar diya hai. usamen unake lie sundar (striyan hain) aur vah (punyatla log) sarvada vahan ke nivasi honge.“[57]
  • “us din svarg vale kary men asakt snlap karate hain. vah aur unaki striyan chhaya men takiya lagae takhton par baithi hongi, vahan unake lie achchhe phal aur jo kuchh vah chahate hain (vartaman hoga).“[58]

dozakh

uparyukt vakyon se quran–pratipadit svarg ka anuman ho sakata hai. kinhin–kinhin adhunik vyakhyataon ka mat hai ki yah sab vaky–jardan adi nadiyon se susichit ‘yaman’ adi pradeshon par musalamani vijay ke lie bhavishyavani hai, kintu yah mat n prachin bhashyakaron dvara anumodit hai aur n yah sare saman vahan ke lie ghatit hote hain. vah bisavin shatabdi ke anukool ise banana chahate hain, kintu aisi bhavishyavani hi par kahan bisavin shatabdi vishvas karati hai. astu kuchh thode se navin vichar valon ko chhodakar sara islami snsar uparyukt prakar ka hi svarg manata hai. svarg aisi adrisht vastu vastutah kalpana ki sima ke bahar ki hai, usamen eeshvariy adesh hi pramanabhoot hai.

karmakand

roza

"he vishvasiyon (musalamanon) ! poorvajon ke saman tum par bhi kuchh dinon ke lie upavas (rakhane ka vidhan) likha gaya hai, jisase ki tum snyami bano. phir jo koee tumamen se rogi ho ya yatra men ho, to vah badale men ek garib ko bhojan deve. jo khushi se shubh karm karo to vah lamng hai, aur yadi upavas karo to tumhare lie shubh hain, yadi tum janate ho.

ramazan ka mas pavitr hai, jinamen spasht, margapradarshak, manavashikshak (satyasaty) vibhajak, quran utara gayan isalie tumamen se jo koee ramazan mahine ko prapt ho, upavas kare.[59]

namaz

namaz (salath prarthana)—pratyek musalaman ka nity karm hai jisaka n karane vala papabhogi hota hai. kaha hai—

salath aur madhy salath ke lie savadhan raho. namratapoorvak parameshvar ke lie khade ho. yadi khatare men ho to paidal ya savar hi (use poora kar lo) punah jab shant ho.....to prabhu ko smaran karo.[60]

'namaz ka sthan islam men vahi hai jo hindoo dharm men sndhya ya brahm–ygy ka. yadyapi quran men 'pnchagana' ya panch vaqt ki namaz ka varnan kahin par bhi nahin aya hai. vah ek prakar se sarvamany hai. pnchagana namaz hai—

  1. 'salatulphaz' (pratah prarthana) yah ushakal hi men karana padati hai.
  2. 'salatu–jjohan' (madhyahnottar tritiy pahararambhik prarthana)—yah dopahar ke bad tisare pahar ke prarambh men hoti hai.
  3. 'salatulh–asr. (madhyahnottar chaturth pahararambhik prarthana)—yah chauthe pahar ke arambh men hoti hai.
  4. 'malatulh—magrib' (sandhy prarthana)—yah sooryasth ke bad turant hoti hai.
  5. 'salatulh—isha' (ratri prathamayam prarthana)—ratri men pahale pahar ke ant men hoti hai.

kaba

jaise uchch bhav aur eeshvar ke prati prem namaz (=namash) ki uparyukt prarthanaon men varnit hai, pathak us par svayn vichar kar sakate hain. sandhik namaz ka islam men bada man hai. vastutah vah snghashakti ko badhane vala bhi hai. sahasron eshiya, yoorop aur afrika nivasi musalaman jis samay ek hi svar, ek hi bhasha aur ek bhav se prerit ho eeshvar ke charanarvind men apani bhakti pushpajnli arpan karane ke lie ekatr hote hain, to kaisa anandamay drishy hota hai. us samay ki samanata ka kya kahana. ek hi pnkti men daridr aur badashah donon khade hokar bata dete hain ki eeshvar ke samane sab hi barabar hain.

islam ke char dharm–skandhon men 'haj' ya 'kaba' yatra bhi ek hai. 'kaba' arab ka prachin mandir hai. jo makka shahar men hai. vikram ki pratham shatabdi ke arambh men romak itihas lekhak 'dyaudrash salash' likhata hai—

yahan is desh men ek mandir hai, jo arabon ka atyant poojaniy hai.

mahatma muhammad ke janm se prayah 600 varsh poorv hi is mandir ki itani khyati thi ki 'siriya, arak' adi pradeshon se sahasron yatri prativarsh darshanarth vahan par jaya karate the. puranon men bhi shiv ke dvadash jyotirlingon men makka ke mahadev ka nam ata hai. h. jru lh–asvadh (=krishn pashan) in sab vicharon ka kendr pratit hota hai. yah kaba divar men laga hua hai. aj bhi us par chumba dena pratyek 'hazi' (makkayatri) ka kartavy hai. yadyapi quran men isaka vidhan nahin, kintu puran ke saman mananiy 'hadis' granthon men use bhoomak nar bhagavan ka dahina hath kaha gaya hai. yahi makkeshvaranath hai. jo kaba ki sabhi moortiyon ke tode jane par bhi svayn jyon ka tyon vidyaman hai. itana hi nahin, balki inaka jadoo musalamanon par bhi chale bina nahin raha aur vah patthar ko bosa dena apana dharmik kartavy samajhate hain, yadyapi any sthanon par moortipooja ke ghor virodhi hain. is pavitr mandir ke vishay men quran men aya hai—

nissandeh pahala ghar makka men sthapit kiya gaya, jo ki dhany hai tatha gyaniyon ke lie upadesh hai.[61]
mahaprabhu ne manushy ke lie pavitr grih 'kaba' banaya.[62]

qurbani

'quran' ke anusar kal tatha any parvon men 'hajz' vidit hai. islam ki qurbani koee nayi chiz nahin hai. ishton aur devataon ko pashu ka balidan karana bahut purane samay se chala ata hai. vikramaparv ashtam shatabdi men, 'tiglatapesharh' aur 'shalmeshar', 'asur' rajaon ke isht 'sakkath–venath' baveru (babul) nagar ke vishal mandir men baithe bali grahan karate the. 'nargal', 'ashim', 'nimaj', 'tartak', 'adramlesh', 'amlesh', 'nasharash', 'degan' adi dev–samuday vikram se anek shatabdiyan poorv adhunik laghu eshiya ke purane nagaron 'kath', 'drama', 'alit', 'sapharvem' men rahate hue bali grahan karate the. moorti poojak samuday to prayah sara hi is pashubali–kriya men atyant shrriddhalu dekha jata hai. kintu amoorti poojak dharm bhi isase vinchit nahin raha. yahoodiyon ki bhavy vediyan sada pashu–rakt se rnjit rahati rahi hain. unaki shushk aur dagdh baliyan 'baibil' padhane valon ko avidit nahin. islam ne adhikansh yahoodi siddhanton ko jyon ka tyon ya kuchh parivartan ke sath grahan kar liya. bali ka siddhant bhi usi prakar yahoodi dharm se liya gaya hai. yahan par donon ki bali ke vishay men samata dikhane ke lie 'tauret' aur 'quran' donon se kuchh vaky udadhrit kie jate hain—

“That will offer his oblation for all his vows or for all his freewill offerings, which they will offer unto the lord for a burnt offering. Ye shall offer at your own will a male without blemish, of the beeves, of the sheep, or of the goats. Blind or broken or maimed, or having a wen, scurvy or scubbed, ye shall not offer these unto the lord, nor make an offering by fire of them upon the altar unto the lord…Ye shall not offer unto the lord, that which is bruised, or crushed, or broken or cut”[63].

"jab moosa ne apani qaum se kaha ki parameshvar tumako agya deta hai ki ek gau bali chadhao...(vah) bole—apane eeshvar se hamare lie poochh ki hamen batave—vah kaisi ho. kaha—(eeshvar) agya deta hai ki vah gau n vriddha aur n hi byaee ho, donon ke bich ki ho. so jisake lie agya di gee, usake karo. bole—apane eeshvar se poochh, usaka rng kaisa ho. bola—vah (eeshvar) kahata hai, pila chamakila rng jo dekhane vale ko pasand ho. bole—apane eeshvar se poochh, kis prakar ki gay ho. bola—kahata hai, aisi gau nahin, jo ki parishram karane vali, khet jotati ya khet sinchati hai. jo poore ang vali bedag hon."[64]

parda

pahale vaky men to chadar dhankane ka abhipray musalaman jani jane, tatha n satayi jane ke lie kaha gaya hai. doosare vaky men bhi saundary ko dikhane se rokane ka abhipray borabandi lena anyay hai. spasht arth to yah hai ki jaise pashchaty stri samaj men saundary dikhalane ka rog yahan tak lag gaya hai ki jade–pale men bhi, adha vakshasthal nnga hi rakhati hain. kahin vahi bat striyon men n ghusane lage. darasal is prakar ki bimari stri–purush donon samajon men bhi kisi prakar se ana thik nahin hai. kahavat hai ki 'shaitan bhi apane matalab ko siddh karane ke lie shastr ki duhaee deta hai', usi prakar yah musalaman patiyon ka sarasar anyay hai, jo ki quran men likhe parda hi par santosh n kar unhonne striyon ko sat sngin parde men bnd rakha hai. quran ne to vishesh shrrigar adi ke n dikhaee dene ke lie kuchh vishesh angon ko dhankane ke lie kaha, kintu yahan logon ne sare badan ko hi dhankane par bas n ki, oopar se sat talon ke andar bhi unhen band karana uchit samajha. yah keval musalaman purushon ki hi bat nahin, sach kahate hain 'guru to guru hi rah ge, chela chini ho gaya.' hinduon ke purushon ne kabhi n suna hoga ki parda pratha kis chidiya ka nam hai. aj bhi maharashtr, gujarat, karnatak, andhr pradesh, malabar ityadi adhe se adhik bharatavarsh ke hindoo parda ko nahin janate. kintu jis prakar aj angrezi rajy men bahut se angrezon ka khan–pan, rahan–sahan gauravapoorn samajh hinduon ne musalamanon ki is riti ko apanakar usane aur taraqqi ki. pahale–pahal in ritiyon ko dhanikon aur bade adami kahe jane vale logon ne liya, pichhe bade adami banane ki ichchha vale sabhi logon ne apani striyon par is naye dand–vidhan ka prayog arambh kar diya. sharir men komalata ki vriddhi ke lie rajadaraon ko 'asooryapashya' to dekha gaya hai, kintu 'achandrapashya' hone ka saubhagy aj hi prapt hua hai. 'ihaivastn ma viyaushthamh' (donon yahan hi raho, mat alag ho) is vivah–sambandhi vedamntr men spasht vivahit jode ko alag hone ka nishedh kiya hai. is prakar arth (hindoo) dharm vivah sambandh ko akhndaniy manata hai. kintu kee dharm vishesh sthiti men vivah sambandh tyag ya 'talaq' ki anumati dete hain. quran kahata hai— jo apani striyon se (talaq ki) shapath kha lete hain, unake lie char mas ki avadhi hai. (isi bich men) yadi mel kar len to eeshvar kshamashil aur kripalu hai. yadi 'talaq' ka nishchay kar liya, to bhagavan (usaka) sunane vala aur janane vala hai. 'talaq' di gee striyan tin ritukal tak pratiksha karen; unake yogy nahin ki jo eeshvar ne unake udar men utpann kiya, use chhipa rakhen....unake patiyon ko bhi itane din tak unhen phir se le lene ka adhikar hai, yadi sudhar chahen. striyon ko bhi nyayanusar vaisa adhikar hai, kintu purushon ka un par darja hai.[65]

yadyapi yahan par kuchh sharton ke sath talaq ki anumati de di gee hai. kintu to bhi ise achchha nahin mana gaya hai. yah mahatma muhammad ke is vachan se bhi prakat hota hai

moortipooja khandan

manushy jise shubh karm samajhata hai, karata–karata hai aur jise ashubh, use n karane aur n karane dene ka prayatn karata hai. oopar shubh karmon ka varnan kiya ja chuka hai. ashubh karmon men 'quran' moorti–pooja ko bhi pariganit karata hai. atah usake vishay men yahan par kuchh varnan kar dena avashyak pratit hota hai.

vikram se kee shatabdiyon poorv misr, asur, aldan, filistin, midiya, yavan, rom adi deshon men anek devi–devon ki moortiyon ki pooja ki jati hai. arab men bhi aise anek devalay the jinamen makka ka 'kaba' sarvashreshth tha.

'tadad', 'subaa', 'yagoos', 'yook', 'nasr'[66] tatha 'hubl', 'manat', 'ujja' adi kitani hi dev–pratimaon ka nam quran men bhi aya hai. 'kalb', 'hamdan', 'majhaj', 'mudar' aur 'hamayan' jatiyon ke kramashah narakriti 'vadad', ratryakriti 'subaa', sinhakriti 'yagoos', ashvakriti 'yook' aur shyenakriti 'nasr' isht the. 'kaba' ki pradhan dev–pratima 'hubl' ko (akal ke samay varsha karati hai—sunakar) 'amroo' ne siriya ke 'balka' nagar se lakar kaba men sthapit kiya. is samay ke arab nivasiyon men in moortiyon ka bada prabhav tha. jis samay makka–vijay hone par muhammad ne musalamanon ko kaba ki moortiyon ko todane ko kaha, to kisi ki himmat nahin padi. is par svayn ali ne is kam ko kiya.

sadachar

  • quran ke anusar kripanata bhi ek aparadh hai. ek jagah kaha hai—

jo kripanata karate hain aur doosare ko bhi vaisa hi karane ke lie sikhate hain, jo kuchh bhagavan ne apani kripa se diya, use chhipa rakhate hain, aise nastikon ke lie mahayatana taiyar ki gee hai.[67]

  • kintu sath hi apavyayata ke bare men bhi kaha hai—
'allahu la yahibbulmusriphinh'[68] (bhagavan fajul–kharchon par khush nahin rahata).
  • vistar bhay se adhin n likhakar do–tin quran ke achar sambandhi upadesh udadhrit kie jate hain—
  1. "shubh kary kar aur kshama mang le, agyaniyon se upeksha kar."[69]
  2. "jo apane oopar kie ge anyay ka badala leve, usake lie kuchh kahana nahin. kahana to un par hai ja logon par anyay karate hain aur duniya men vyarth (dharmatma hone) ki dhoom machate hain. unhin ke lie ghor yatana hai. jo kshama aur santosh kare, to (usaka) yah (kam) nissandeh atyant sahas ka hai."[70]
  3. "tumhari santan....hamare (eeshvar ke) samip tumhen darja nahin dila sakati hai. han, jo shrriddhalu aur achchha kam karane vale hain, unake lie phal doona hai."[71]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ‘alalh-hubl’
  2. pratyek adhyay men anek ‘rakooa’ aur pratyek ‘rakooa’ men anek ‘ayate’ hoti hain.
  3. 72:2:4
  4. 33:3:1
  5. 33:5:6
  6. kuran noor ki hidayat (hindi) (ech ti em) veb duniya. abhigaman tithi: 23 sitnbar, 2010.
  7. 56 : 3 : 3-5
  8. 53 : 1 : 3-5
  9. 59 : 3 : 4
  10. 2:22:1
  11. 7:13:3
  12. 7:22:5
  13. quran 2:4:9
  14. quran 16:1:2-5
  15. quran 4:7:2
  16. quran 39:6:10
  17. quran 35:5:4
  18. quran 53:3:12
  19. quran 13:1:6
  20. quran 3:13:8
  21. quran 31:3:11
  22. quran 21:4:6
  23. quran 2:34:2
  24. quran 112:1:3
  25. quran 2:32:3) (quran 57:2:1
  26. quran 57:2:8
  27. quran 2:4:5) (quran 20:7:1
  28. quran 17:7:1
  29. quran 20:116
  30. quran 3:18:4
  31. quran 8:6:4
  32. 2:9:4
  33. 4:7:4
  34. 2:9:8
  35. yahan granth valon se yahoodi abhiprerit hain jinhen moosa, daud adi rasoolon dvara ‘tauret’, ‘jaboor’ adi eeshvariy granth mile.
  36. 3:7:6-8
  37. 4:8:1
  38. 3:8:7
  39. yahan ‘jakriya’ adi yahoodiyon ke prerit abhipret hain jo divy pramanon ke sath aye the aur yahoodiyon ne unhen mar dala. 3:15:3
  40. 5:6:8
  41. 6:2:5
  42. 6:10:8
  43. quran 2:2:1,2
  44. quran 2:2:7
  45. quran 3:21:2
  46. quran 3:21:4
  47. quran 71:1:23
  48. quran 11:3:11
  49. quran 16:14:3
  50. quran 17:10:7,10
  51. 25:1:7:8
  52. 37:2:3
  53. 46:1:3, 42:2:9, 45:3:1
  54. quran 2:3:8-9
  55. 6:12:3:5
  56. 35:4:1,2
  57. 2:3:5
  58. 36:4:5-7
  59. 2:23:1-3
  60. 3:32:3-4
  61. 5:13:4
  62. 5:13:4
  63. Leviticus 22: 20-24
  64. 2:8:6-9
  65. 2:28:5-7
  66. 72:2:3
  67. 4:6:4
  68. 7:3:6
  69. 7:24:11
  70. 52:4:12-14
  71. 34:5:1

snbndhit lekh