उक्रेनी भाषा और साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ukreni bhasha aur sahity ukreni bhasha, ukreni janata ki bhasha hai jo moolat: sovayit sngh ukreni sovayit samajavadi prajatntr men rahati hai. isaka vikas prachin roosi bhasha se hua. yah slevonik bhashaon ki poorvi shakha men he jisamen isake atirikt roosi evn beloroosi bhashaen sammilit hain. is bhasha ke bolanevalon ki snkhya 3 karod 28 lakh se adhik hai. isaki boliyon ke tin mukhy samooh hain-uttari upabhasha, dakshin-pashchimi upabhasha aur dakshin-poorvi upabhasha. adhunik sahityik ukreni ka vikas dakshin-poorvi upabhasha ke adhar par hua. ukreni bhasha rooparachana aur vakyavinyas men roosi bhasha ke nikat hai.

ukreni bhasha ka vikas 12vin sadi se prarnbh hua. is kal se ukreni janata ne anek lokakathaon aur lokagiton ki rachana ki. isi kal men viragathaen, pauranik kathaen evn dharmik rachanaen vikasit hone lagin. pray: in kritiyon ke rachayitaon ke nam agyat hain. 16vin shatabdi se natakon ka bhi vikas hua. 19vin shatabdi ke madhy se ukreni sahity men yatharthavadi dhara vikasit hone lagi. vyngatmak rachanaen ek prasaddhi vyngalekhak skovorota (1722- 1794 ee.) likhane lage. suprasiddh kavi aur gadyakar i.p. kotlarevski (1769-1838 ee.) ne nav ukreni sahity ki sthapana ki. inhonne sahity aur jivan ka dridh snbndh rakha, ukreni sahity ki sabhi shailiyon par bahut prabhav dala tatha adhunik sahityik bhasha ki ninv rakhi.

taras grigoryevich shevchenko (1814-1861 ee.) mahanh‌ krantikari janakavi the. unhonne ukreno sahity men alochanatmak yatharthavad ki sthapana ki. apani kritiyon men ve jar ke viruddh krantikari kisan andolan ki bhavanaen aur vichar prakat karate the. unaki anek kavitaen atynt lokapriy hain. us samay ke prasiddh gadyakaron men panas mirani aur natakakaron men i. karpeko-kariy hain. suprasiddh kavi, natakakar aur gadyakar ke roop men i.y. phranko (1856-1916) vikhyat hain, jinhonne apani bahusnkhyak rachanaon men ukreni janata ke jivan ka vistarapoorn varnan kiya hai. suprasiddh kavayitri lesya ukrainka (1871-1913) aur kavi kotsyoobinski (1864-1913) ne apani kavitaon men ukreni janata ke krantikari sngharsh ka chitran kiya.

aktoobar, sanh‌ 1917 ki mahanh‌ samajavadi kranti ke bad ukreni sahity ka vikas aur bhi adhik hone laga. is kal ke sabase prasiddh kavi pavalo tichina aur maiksim rilaski hain, evn nee pidhi ke kavi goncharenko, pervomaiski adi hain. natak ke kshetr men sabase badi den aleksndr kornaichuk (janm 1905 ee.) ki hai. upanyasakaron aur kahanikaron men natan ribak (janm 1913) evn vadim sobako (janm 1912) sabase adhik vikhyat hain. is kal men ukreni sahity samajavadi yatharthavad ke adhar par vikasit hone laga. gadyakar aur kavi adhunik soviyat ukraina ka aur viratapoorn atit itihas ka chitran karate the.

sanh‌ 1941-45 ke mahanh‌ deshabhaktipoorn yuddh ke bad ukreni sahity men aur bhi adhik ne kavi aur lekhak paida hue. vartaman ukreni kavi, jaise pavalo tichina, maiksim rilaski, mikola vazhan, andrai malishko, sosyoora adi apani kavitaon men majadooron aur kisanon ke jivan ka chitran karate tatha vishvashanti ke lie sngharsh aur vibhinn deshon ki janata ki maitri ki bhavanaen karate hain. ukreni natakakar, jaise kornaichuk, sobako, dmitrenko adi samajik, aitihasik aur vyngatmak natakon ki rachana karate hain. in natakon ka pradarshan soviyat sngh ke bahusnkhyak thiyetaron men kiya jata hai. ukreni gady ka vikas bhi teji se ho raha hai. oles gonchar, natan ribak, petron pnch, stelamah adi apane upanyason aur kahaniyon men soviyat janata ki yuddhakalin bahaduri ka aur samyavadi samaj ke nirman ke lie majadooron, kisanon aur buddhijiviyon ke viratapoorn parishram ka varnan karate hain. ukreni lekhak soviyat sngh ke samajik jivan men sakriy bhag lete hain.[1]

ukreni lekhakon ki anek kritiyan soviyat sngh ki any anek bhashaon tatha videshi bhashaon men anoodit ho rahi hain aur samast soviyat sngh tatha videshon men lokapriy ho gee hain. sath hi soviyat sngh ki any bhashaon ke sahity tatha videshi sahityon ki rachanaen ukreni bhasha men anoodit aur prakashit ho rahi hain. inamen prachin evn arvachin bharatiy sahity ki anek kritiyan bhi sammilit hain.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 51 |
  2. sn.grn.-ukreni sahity ka itihas, khnd 1, 1954, roosi men; soviyat kalin ukreni sahity ka itihas, masko, 1954, roosi men; ukreni sahity ka itihas, do bhag, kiev, 1955-56, ukrani men; adhunik ukreni sahityik bhasha, snpadak : bulasheski, do bhag, kiev, 1951; ukreni-roosi shabdakosh, snpadak : ee.m. kirichenko, bhag 1, kiev, 1953.

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