उड़िया भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

udiya bhasha udisa rajy ki mukhy bhasha hai, jisane bharatiy snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi men manyata prapt ki hai. is bhasha ki tin pramukh boliyan hain–

  • snbalapuri (pashchimi udiya),
  • desiya (dakshini udiya) aur
  • kataki (tatiy udiya).

inamen se antim boli manak hai aur vidyalay star par shiksha ke madhyam ke roop men isaka upayog hota hai. odisa ki bhasha aur jati donon hi artho men 'udiya' ka prayog hota hai, kintu vastav men thik roop 'odiya' hona chahie. isaki vyutpatti ka vikasakram kuchh vidvanh‌ is prakar manate hain : odravishay, odravish, odish, adisha ya odisha. sabase pahale bharat ke natyashastr men udravibhasha ka ullekh milata hai-

'shabarabhirachandal sachaladravidodraja:. hina vanecharanan ch vibhasha natake smrita:.'[1]

bhasha ki utpatti

bhashatatvik drishti se udiya bhasha men ary, dravid aur mundari bhashaon ke snmishrit roopon ka pata chalata hai, kintu aj ki udiya bhasha ka mukhy adhar bharatiy aryabhasha hai. sath hi sath isamen snthali, mundari, shabari, adi mundari varg ki bhashaon ke aur auranv, kuee (kndhi) telugu adi dravid varg ki bhashaon ke lakshan bhi pae jate hain. udiya bharatiy bhasha parivar ke poorv samooh se sambaddh hai aur isaki utpatti arddh magadhi prakrit se huee hai. kaha jata hai ki 10vin shatabdi men yah alag bhasha ke roop men ubhari. isake bad ki sadiyon men yah mukhyatah dravid bhashaon, arabi, farasi aur angrezi ke sampark men aee. tamil, telugu, marathi, farasi, arabi, turki, french, purtagali, angrezi aur snskrit ke grihit shabdon se isaki shabdavali samriddh huee.

svaroop

snskrit se grihit shabd do svaroopon men hain–tatsam[2] aur tadbhav (mool svaroop se alag). udiya bhasha men samas hota hai, lekin snskrit ke viparit isamen lop[3] nahin hota. samas ka upayog udiya ke bole jane vale svaroop ke bajay likhit svaroop men adhik hota hai. anaupacharik shaili men shabdik dvayak[4] adhik prayukt hote hain, jabaki punardvigunit (akshar ya shabd ki punaravritti) bhasha ke sabhi svaroopon men hote hain. udiya men chhah shuddh svar, nau snyukt svar, 28 vynjan[5] aur char upasvar hain. is bhasha men shabdon ka ant vynjanon se nahin hota.

vynjan

udiya bhasha ke vynjanon men ekavachan aur bahuvachan; uttam, madhyam tatha any purush; aur pulling v striling k vibhed hai. vakyon men karta–karm–kriya ka kram hota hai. is bhasha men tristariy kal pranali hai aur samapika kriya ke purush aur vachan ka nirdharan karta ke anuroop hota hai tatha isamen sammanasoochak chihn bhi hote hain. isamen samuchchayabodhak aur yaugik kriyaen bhi hoti hain. mukhy kriya–bhav nishchayarth, agyarth prashnavachak aur snbhavy kriyarth hain.

visheshataen

udiya bhasha ka itihas kuchh bahuvachan chihn aur parasargon ke lop ko darshata hai. angrezi ke sath sampark ke phalasvaroop udiya bhasha men asakshatkathan, sambandhasoochak upavaky aur karmavachy vaky–vinyas jaisi kuchh vyakaraniy visheshataen shamil ho geen. lekin ab bhi yah poorn nahin hain. nibandh, samachar, riporting aur vishleshan jaisi prabandh shaili ka samavesh angrezi se hua. vidvat bhashan aur lekhan par aj bhi snskritanishthata qayam hai.

chhand

is bhasha men sabase pahala chhand aur gady sambhavatah kramashah 10vin aur 13vin shatabdi ke hain. pahali kavyashastriy kriti ki rachana 15vin shatabdi men huee, jabaki sahityik gady ne 18vin shatabdi men roop lena shuroo kiya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 59 |
  2. mool svaroop ke nikat
  3. kisi svar ya akshar ka uchcharan ke samay lop
  4. ek hi arth vale vibhinn shabd
  5. tin moordhany–jinaka uchcharan taloo par jihva ke mude hue shirsh ke sparsh se hota hai

snbndhit lekh