उदयनाचार्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg udayan ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- udayan (bahuvikalpi)

udayanachary ya 'achary udayan' prachin nyay vaisheshik parampara ke akhiri prabhavashali darshanik mane ja sakate hain. kyonki udayanachary ke bad nyay vaisheshik darshanon ne naya mod apanaya, jisaki parinati navyanyay men huee. lekin udayanachary poore arth men 'prachin naiyayik' nahin mane ja sakate. navyanyay ke vidvanh any prachin naiyayikon ki apeksha udayanachary ke lekhan ka vichar vishesh gaurav ke sath karate hain. gnganath jha jaise adhunik vidvanh to udayanachary ko navyanyay ka snsthapak manate hain, kyonki udayanachary ke lekhan men nyay aur vaisheshik darshan ka jo milan paya jata hai tatha pranali vigyan ke prati jo ati sookshm nishtha payi jati hai, vah navyanyay ki vichar pranali se hi adhik milati hai.

jivan parichay

udayanachary mithila ke nivasi the. unaka janm vartaman samastipur (bihar) ke kariyan gram men hua tha. inake vnshaj aj bhi nivas karate hain. unhonne vad vivad ke prasng men bahut yatra ki hongi, aisa vidvanon ka abhimat hai. udayanachary ki jivani ke bare men bhavishy puran[1] men jo janakari milati hai, vah is prakar se hai-

ek bauddh pndit mithila men aye tatha unhonne raja ko sndesh diya- "ap vedashastr padhakar bhram men phns ge ho. ab mere shastr padhakar bauddh marg ke anuyayi ban jaie. agar ap ke desh men koee vedashastr ka vidvanh ho, to use mere sath shastracharcha karane ke lie bhej dijie. raja ne udayanacharyachary ko kee pnditon ke sath bhej diya. bahut dinon tak charcha chali, lekin jab koee nirnay nahin ho saka, tab bauddh pndit ne udayanachary ko ek mayik prayog ka nimntran diya. ek shilakhnd ka unhonne pani bana diya aur phir us pani ko dubara se shilakhnd banane ki chunauti udayanachary ko di. udayanachary ne chunauti man li tatha pani se phir se shilakhnd bhi bana diya. usake bad udayanachary ne bhi ek bat ka prastav rakha.

do bade talavrikshon par chadhakar donon kood padenge, jo jiega vah jitega. bauddh pndit ne man liya. donon ped se kood pade. udayanachary 'ved praman hai' aisa kahakar kood pade aur bauddh pndit 'ved apraman hai' aisa kahakar koode. bauddh pndit mar gaya aur udayanachary jivit rahe. raja ne vedashastr ka pramany natamastak hokar svikar kar liya, udayanachary ko apana rajaguru bana liya, nastikon ke sab shastr grnth pani men phinkava diye tatha rajy men rahane vale sab nastikon ko saja dekar unhen sakhti se astik bana liya."

puri ki yatra

ek bar udayanachary purushottamapur (puri) men jagannath mndir ge, lekin daravaze charon taraf se bnd the. tab udayanachary jagannath ko bole-

'jagannath surashreshth bhaktyahnkarapoorvakamh.

aishvaryamadamattoasi samavgyay vartase..

upasthiteshu bauddhashu madadhona tab sthiti:..'

"he devashreshth jagannath. agar bhakton ki apake prati ki huee bhakti par garv karate hue ap apane aishvary ki masti se mast ho ge hon, aur meri avgya kar rahe hon, to yah bhi dhyan men rakhon ki jab bauddh ate hain, tab mera astitv mere hath men rahata hai."

udayanachary ke is vachan ke tatkal bad hi bnd daravaze khul ge. thode din bad khud jagannath ne vahan purajiyon ko sapane men darshan die aur kaha ki meri moorti par jo pitambar hai, vah udayanachary ko dijie, kyonki udayanachary mera hi ansh svaroop hai. unhonne meri sthapana ki hai, mera astitv siddh kiya hai, jab ki bauddhon ne mera tiraskar kiya. isake bad jagannath ka prasad lekar udayanachary phir se mithila ae tatha bahut varshon tak shastr ka adhyayan kiya. budhape men kashi akar unhonne pranatyag kiya.

mahan naiyayik

hindoo parampara men udayanachary ke ek mahanh naiyayik mane jane ka doosara karan yah hai ki bharat men bauddh darshan ka khndan karate hue us darshan ka vaicharik prabhav kam karane vale pnditon men udayanachary ek prabhavashali pndit siddh hue. unake grnthon men visheshat: atmatattv vivek men bauddh darshan ki bahut hi tikhi alochana milati hai. udayanachary bauddh darshan ka nirnayak roop men khndan nahin kar paye ya nahin, is bare men matabhed ho sakate hain, lekin unaka bauddh darshan ka khndan sookshm buddhi tatha vad kaushal ka ek namoona hai. udayanachary ke is pauranik vritt men saty tatha dntakatha ki milavat ho sakati hai, lekin bauddhon ke sath udayanachary ne bada prabhavashali sngharsh kiya hoga, yah bat isase spasht hai.

udayanachary ke kal ke bare men vidvanon ke jo anuman hain, ve udayanachary ke kal ko dasavin sadi ke charam pad aur gyaharavin sadi ke uttarardh ke daramyan sthapit karate hain.

udayanachary ke grnth

udayanachary ke nam se sat grnth upalabdh hain. unamen se 'atmatatv vivek' aur 'nyay kusumanjali' svatntr vadagrnth hain. 'lakshanavali' aur 'lakshanamala' sngrahak prakaran grnth hain tatha baki grnth doosare grnthon ki tika matr hain. in grnthon ka parichay is prakar hai-

atmatatvavivek

udayanachary ke is mahattvapoorn grnth ka vishay hai- 'nairatmyavad ka khndan tatha atma ke astitv ki sthapana.' nairatmyavad ka khndan karate samay udayanachary ne bauddhon ko hi apane pradhan pratipaksh ke roop men samane rakha hai. isilie atmatatvavivek ka hi doosara nam 'bauddhadhikar' hai. atmatatvavivek men udayanachary ne bauddhon ki mukhyat: jin char yuktiyon ka khndan karane ka prayas kiya hai, ve is prakar hain-

  1. 'jo bhi sath hai, vah kshanajivi hai.' agar atma hai to vah bhi kshanik hai. isalie naiyayikon ka mana hua nity atma vastavik nahin ho sakata. is yukti ka khndan karate samay udayanachary ne bauddhon ke kshanabhngavad ka khndan prastut kiya hai.
  2. bahy padarth sath nahin hai. isalie mere bahar bhi kisi ki-meri ya doosare kisi ki atma hai, yah nahin ho sakata. atma bahyarth nahin hai. is yukti ke khndan men udayanachary ne bauddhon ke vigyanavad ki kadi alochana ki hai.
  3. gunon ke alava koee dravy nam ki chiz hai hi nahin. isalie kshanik gyan jisaka gun mana ja sakata hai, ho hi nahin sakati.[2] bauddhon ki is yukti ka uttar dete samay udayanachary ne dravy ka astitv siddh karane ka yatn kiya hai.
  4. ham kabhi bhi atma ka anubhav nahin karate hain. isalie atma nahin hai. yah sachamuch bauddhon ki yukti hai, isake bare men sndeh ho sakata hai, kyonki bauddh jab 'anupalabdhi' ki charcha karate hain, tab 'upalabdhi lakshan prapt[3] ki anupalabdhi us chiz ka abhav siddh karane men upayukt hoti hai' aisa manate hain. lekin bauddhon ke matanusar naiyayikon ke dvara atma darshan yogy chiz hi nahin hai. usaka pratyakshaman asnbhav hai, to usaki anupalabdhi ke adhar par usaka abhav siddh hoga, aisa bauddh kahan tak manenge. isalie yah chauthi nairatmyavadi yukti charvakon ke munh men shobha de sakati hai, bauddhon ke nahin.

is chauthi nairatmyavadi yukti ke khndan ke sath-sath udayanachary nyayavaisheshik drishti se atma ka astitv siddh karane ke lie praman bhi prastut karate hain. udayanachary ke matanusar 'main ghat ko janata hoon, is prakar ka jo savikalpak manas pratyaksh hamen hota hai, vah atma ka pratyaksh gyan hi hai. yah atma, jaisa vigyanavadi bauddh manate hain, us prakar ki, kshanik vigyanon ki sntan nahin hai, balki avinashi hai, yah siddh karane ke lie bhi udayanachary ne yuktiyan di hain. 'mainne jis ghat ko dekha, vah main ab is ghat ko chhoo raha hoon.' is prakar ki pratyabhigya men ham donon men 'main' shabdon ka vachy ek hi atma manate hain. vaise hi hamen jo poorvanubhoot vishay ka smaran hota hai, usaki vyakhya ke lie bhi anubhav tatha smaran jise hota hai, vah ek hi atma hai, aisa manana zaroori hai. tatha shubh aur ashubh karmon ka hamen shubh aur ashubh phal milata hai. isaki upapatti dikhane ke lie bhi karm ki ichchha tatha prayatn karane vala aur us karm ka phal bhogane vala ek hi atma manana chahie. yahan dharm aur adharm namak karmajany gunon ki vajah se ham phal bhogate hain, aisa udayanachary manate hain. is atma ka vishisht svaroop siddh karane ke lie, jaise ki atma bhautik, dehasvaroop ya indriyasvaroop nahin hai, yah paramanu ke akar vali nahin hai, balki paramamahath pariman vali (sarvavyapi) hai, udayanachary ne bahut yuktiyan di hain. manas pratyaksh se bhi hamen 'ahamh' shabd vaky atma ka anubhav hota hai. lekin udayanachary ka kahana hai ki atma atm-bhinn padarthon se kis tarah bhinn hai, yah janane se hi ni:shreyas ki prapti ho sakati hai. atma ka yah svaroop nishchit karane ke lie do praman hain- anuman tatha ved. unamen se ved praman isalie hain ki ve aptokt hain. yatharthavakta eeshvar ne unaka nirman kiya hai. yahan udayanachary ne eeshvar ka astitv tatha usaka vishisht svaroop, sarvgy, ekamatr, karunik, yatharthavakta siddh karane ke lie yuktiyan di hain. grnth ke akhiri hisse men udayanachary ne moksh ke svaroop tatha upay ka darshan nyayavaisheshik parampara ke anusar kiya hai.

nairatmyavadi yuktiyon ke khndan ke sath sath udayanachary ne bauddhon ke any kee snbaddh siddhanton ka bhi khndan prastut kiya hai. inamen se pramukh hain: apohavad, chitradvaitavad, shoonyavad, snghatavad.

nyayakusumanjali

udayanachary ka doosara mahattvapoon grnth 'nyayakusumanjali'. is grnth ka vishay hai- 'eeshvar ke astitv ki siddhi'. isamen udayanacharyachary ne pramukh panch nirishvaravadi yuktiyon ka nirdesh karate hue unaka khndan karane ka prayas kiya hai. ve panch yuktiyan is prakar hain-

1. charvak kahate hain ki jis adhar par ham paralok (tatha punarjanm) siddh kar saken, aisi 'adrisht' nam ki chiz koee hai hi nahin, aur adrisht n hone se us adrisht ke anusar karm phal bantane vala eeshvar bhi nahin hai.

is yukti ka ashay is prakar hai. karmasiddhant ke anusar adami jo achchha ya bura karm karata hai, usaka phal usako aur usi ko bhogana padata hai. lekin duniya men ham dekhate hain ki kee achchhe karmon ka achchha phal ya bure karmon ka bura phal turant, is janm men tatha isi lok men nahin mil pata. aisi sthiti men jo karm karane ke bad hi nasht ho gaya, usaka phal doosare janm men ya paralok men prapt karane vala, karm aur phal ko jod dene vala, koee madhyam manana padata hai. is madhyam ko mimansakon ne 'apoorv' tatha naiyayikon ne 'adrisht' kaha hai. agar karm ka phal is duniya men tatha is janm men milata hua nahin dikhata, to aisa manana padega ki adrishtaroop vah phal karmakarta ko zaroor doosare janm men ya paralok men bhogana padega. is prakar adrisht ke adhar par karmavadi paralok ki tatha punarjanm ki siddhi ka prayas karate hain. eeshvaravadi darshanik isi adrisht ke adhar par ya eeshvar ki siddhi ka prayas karate hain. har ek jiv ko usake karm ke anusar arthath tajjany adrisht ke anusar phal dene vala hi eeshvar hai. lekin charvak kahate hain ki hamen adrisht hi mnjoor nahin hai, usake adhar par eeshvar siddhi ki bat to door hi rahi.

is akshep ka uttar dete hue udayanacharyachary karm aur phal men hone vali anadi karyakaran shrinkhala ka samarthan karate hain, tatha usi ke adhar par adrisht ki sthapana karate hain. adrisht ki siddhi karane ke bad usi stabak men udayanachary ne sankhy tatha bauddh darshan ki alochana ki hai. udayanachary ka kahana hai ki sankhy tatha bauddhon ne jo atma ka svaroop mana hai, vah karmasiddhant tatha adrishtatatv se bilkul visngat hai. karmasiddhant ke anusar jo karane vala hai, vahi bhogane vala bhi hona chahie. lekin sankhy ke anusar karane vali prakriti tatha bhogane vala purush paraspar bhinn hai. is prakar karmasiddhant hi agar jhootha ho gaya to snsar ya moksh ki vyakhya kaise ki jaye. agar atma ka svaroop kshanabhngur hai, jaisa ki bauddh kahate hain to phir us kshan ka 'main' doosare kshan ke 'main' se alag hi siddh hua. is sthiti men ek ke kie ka phal doosare ko bhogana padega. isalie atma n keval nity (avinashi) hai, balki vahi karta (ichchha tatha prayatnon ka adhar) tatha bhokta (sukh-du:khadi bhogane vala) hai, is nyay vaisheshik mat ki sthapana udayanachary karate hain.

2. mimansak adi nirishvaravadi darshanik adrisht ko svikar to karate hain, tatha paralok siddhi ke lie 'adrisht' manana avashyak bhi samajhate hain, lekin usake lie eeshvar ko manana avashyak nahin samajhate. unake mat ka khndan karate soomay udayanacharyachary kahate hain ki srishti ki utpatti tatha pralay ki vyakhya eeshvar ko manakar hi sambhav hai, anyatha nahin. srishti ki utpatti manane par hamen vedon ki utpatti bhi manani chahie. aur un vedon ke nirmata eeshvar ko manana padega. 'eeshvar ke sivae doosara hi koee kapil jaisa sarvgy vyakti hoga, jo srishti ke prarambh men hi poorv srishti ke abhyas ke adhar par naye ved ka nirman karega', aisa kahana uchit nahin hai, kyonki aise anek sarvgy vyakti manane ke bajae ek hi sarvgy eeshvar manane men laghav hain, ek prakar ki suvidha hai.

is par mimansak kahenge ki ham srishti ki utpatti tatha pralay manate hi nahin hain. jis maukhik parampara se vedon ka rakshan aj tak hua hai, vah guru parampara aj tak anadi kal se chali a rahi hai, aisa manana uchit hai, isalie ved anadi hain. chaturvarny, dinarat yah sab anadi kal se aise hi chalata a raha hai. is par udayanachary eeshvaravad ka samarthan karate hue kahat hain ki jis prakar har sal soory ka kark rashi men pravesh hote hi varsha ritu ki shuruat hoti hai, usi prakar kabhi n kabhi din-rat ki shuruat huee hogi, tatha jaise adami hamesha jagrit nahin rahata hai, kabhi gahari nindra men lin ho jata hai, usi prakar vishv ka pralay bhi ham manate hain. tatha jaise kisi ped ki utpatti kabhi shakha se ya kabhi bij se hoti hai, vaise hi srishti ke adi men chaturvarny ki utpatti adrisht se huee, bad men janm ke adhar par varn vyavastha chalati rahi, aisa ham kah sakate hain. eeshvar vedotpatti karake ved ko kee maharshiyon ko vidit karata hai aur unase ved parampara shuroo hoti hai tatha dhire dhire yah ved parampara nasht bhi hoti hai. aisa udayanachary manate hain.

3. doosare kee nirishvaravadi manate hain ki pramanon ke adhar par ham eeshvar ka abhav nishchit kar sakate hain. ve apane samarthan men anupalabdhi, anuman adi praman prastut karate hain. is par udayanachary ka kahana hai ki anupalabdhi yani darshanabhav praman kab ho sakata hai. jab jisaka darshanabhav ho, vah darshan ke yogy ho, tabhi. paramanu ya pishach ka abhav ham anupalabdhi ke adhar par nahin nishchit kar sakate. isalie anupalabdhi agar 'yogyanupalabdhi' ho tabhi vah praman kahalati hai. eeshvar hote hue bhi vah darshan ke yogy nahin hai. yahi to hamara kahana hai. isalie yogyanupalabdhi ka yahan koee upayog nahin hai. yahan prashn uthega ki shashashrring (ya bndhyaputr, khapushp) kabhi dikhaee n dene par bhi ham anupalabdhi ke adhar par 'shashashrrin nahin hai' aisa vyavahar kaise kar sakate hain. is par udayanachary ka uttar hai ki anupalabdhi se ham 'shashashrring' ka bodh nahin karate, balki (shash par) shrring ka ya (shrringasnbaddh) shash ka bodh karate hain aur shrring tatha shash donon bhi darshanayogy hain.

"eeshvar nahin hai", aisa ham anuman se bhi siddh nahin kar sakate. anuman men avashyak hai ki paksh[4] sath hi ho aur sadhy ka paksh ke sath sambandh anuman se siddh kiya jaye. 'yahan to eeshvar nahin hai', is pratigya ka uddeshy eeshvar hi paksh hai. agar eeshvar paksh aur isalie yatharth anuman ki sharton ke anusar sath hai, to usaka abhav usi anuman se kaise siddh kiya jaye. isi prakar upaman, shabd ya arthapatti ke dvara bhi eeshvar ka abhav siddh karana asambhav hai, aisa udayanachary ne dikhaya hai.

4. any kee nirishvaravadi eeshvar ke nyayasngat svaroop ke bare men snshay upasthit karate hain. naiyayikon ke anusar eeshvar 'praman'[5] hai, kyonki us eeshvar ko samooche vishv ke bare men prama arthath yatharth gyan hai. yahan pratipakshi kahate hain ki eeshvar is prakar pramayukt hai, aisa ham nahin man sakate, kyonki praman[6] vahi kahalayega, jisase koee nee janakari mile, jisaka pramey pahale agyan ho, janane vale ko naya ho. usi nee janakari ko ham prama kah sakate hain. lekin eeshvar ko jo vishv ka gyan hai, vah is arth men prama kahane ke layaq nahin hai.

nyayasnmat eeshvar to nitygyanavanahai. arthath is eeshvar ko sab pahale se hi gyat hai. usake lie koee pramey 'naya' nahin hai. pratipadiyon ka yah akshep mimansakon ki pramanakalpana par adharit hai.

isaka pratipad karate samay udayanachary ne naiyayikon ki praman kalpana ka vishadikaran kiya hai. praman ka praman kahane ke lie usase agyat vishay ka hi gyan hona chahie, aisa niyam nahin hai, balki praman se hone vala gyan yatharth anubhavaroop hona chahie, yahi niyam hai. eeshvar men prama utpann nahin hoti, phir bhi eeshvar praman[7] hai, yah siddh karane ke lie udayanachary praman (prama sadhan) ka naya lakshan prastut karate hain. jis atma men samavay snbndh se prama hai, vah atma pramata hai, tatha us pramata ke sath anivary roop se juda hua praman hai.

5. is par akshepakarta kahenge ki thik hai, 'eeshvar nahin hai', aisa siddh karane ke lie hamare pas koee praman nahin hai, lekin eeshvar ka astitv siddh karane ke lie apake pas bhi koee praman nahin hai.

udayanachary ke anuman

is akshep ke uttar men panchave stabak men udayanachary kee eeshvarasadhak anuman prastut karate hain tatha un anumanon ka samarthan karate hain. unamen se kuchh anuman is prakar hain-

  • prithvi adi ka koee karta zaroor hai, kyonki prithvi adi utpann hain, jaise ghat. (vah prithvi adi ka karta hi eeshvar hai.)
  • sushtyutpatti ke samay paramanuon se jo dvayanuk ki utpatti huee usake lie zaroor kisi chetan satta ka prayatn karan hai. (vah chetan satta hi eeshvar hai.)
  • vedon ka janak zaroor koee yatharthgyani satta hai. (vahi eeshvar hai).
apekshakartaon ke anusar

apekshakartaon ke anusar in anumanon men jo karta ya chetan atma siddh kiya jata hai, vah shariradhari hona chahie, kyonki jinake udaharan in anumanon men prastut kie ja sakate hain, ve sab laukik karta tatha chetan atma shariradhari hi dikhaee dete hain, tatha sharir ki sahayata se hi ve ghatadi ke karta ban sakate hain. lekin udayanachary ke anusar nirishvaravadiyon ko yah akshep karane ka hak nahin hai, kyonki ve eeshvar ka astitv manate hi nahin hain. is prakar nirishvaravadiyon ka virodhi tark niradhar sabit hota hai. udayanachary ke matanusar eeshvar ko shariradhari manane ki apatti naiyayikon par lagoo nahin hoti.

eeshvarasiddhi ke lie di huee yuktiyon ke bavajood udayanachary ne 'nyayakusumanjali' men any vishayon ki bhi prasnganusar charcha ki hai. jaise upaman, praman men karan kyay tatha phal kya hai. arthapatti anuman men kaise antarbhoot hoti hai, anupalabdhi ko svatntr praman manane ki kyon zaroorat hoti hai, tatha vedon men grnthit vidhivakyon ka arth kaise lagana chahie.

udayanachary ke any tatv

kiranavali

prashastavad ke padarth dharm sngrah par udayanachary ne jo bhashy likha usaka nam kiranavali hai. kiranavali men bhi udayanachary ne anek ne mudde grnthit kie hain. isamen praman snkhya ki charcha karate samay udayanachary ne vaisheshik mat ka hi samarthan kiya hai aur upaman aur shabd ka anuman men hi antarbhav karane ka sujhav diya hai. lekin usi udayanachary ne nyayakusumanjali tatha any grnthon men upaman tatha shabd ka svatntr praman ke roop men sthan svikrit kiya hai aur nyay ki bhoomika apana li hai. isalie is bare men udayanachary ka niji mat nyay ke anukool hi lagata hai.

nyayaparishuddhi

yah grnth vachaspatimishr ke nyayavartik tatpary tika par likhi huee tika hai. yah poornaroop se upalabdh nahin hai. akar men bahut bada tatha samajhane men kathin hai.

nyayaparishisht

gautam pranit nyayasootr ke akhiri hisse men jati aur nigrah sthan ke bare men jo sootr ae hain, unaka vivaran udayanacharyachary ne is grnth men kiya hai.

lakshanavali

vaisheshik darshan men ane vale padarthon ke tatha unake upaprakaron ke lakshan udayanachary ne isamen prastut kie hain. avyapti, ativyapti adi doshon ko door rakhate hue bariki ke sath lakshan banane ka prayatn, jo bad men navyanyay ka ek lakshy ban gaya, udayanachary ne isamen kiya hai.

lakshanamala

isaka karta udayanachary hi tha ya shivadity, usake bare men vidvanon men matabhed hain. gautam pranit nyayasootron men jin solah padarthon ka varnan hua hai, unake lakshan is grnth men grnthit hain. sath-sath vaisheshikon ke padarthon ke lakshan bhi isamen samavisht hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

gokhale, daau. pi.pi. vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 70.

  1. parishisht, tisara adhyay
  2. nyay ke anusar gyan atma ka gun hai.
  3. yani darshan yogy chij
  4. jo pray: 'pratigya' ka uddeshy banata hai.
  5. arthath pramata, prama ka adhar
  6. =prama ka sadhan
  7. =pramata

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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