उद्योतकर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

udyotakar ek darshanik hai. prachin nyay darshan ke vikas men jin naiyayikon ke nam agragany hain, unamen udyotakar ek hain. udyotakar dinnag tatha prashastavad ke pashchath hue, yah nishchit hai. dharmakirti se udyotakar ka kya snbndh tha, is bare me vidvanon men matabhed hain. kee vidvanon ne[1] aisa mana hai ki udyotakar dharmakirti ke pashchath hue. lekin nyayavartik men jo bauddhon ke bahut sare tarkashastr vishayak sndarbh ate hain, ve dinanag tatha vasubndhu se hi lie hue hain. aisa koee bhi nahin, jisaka dharmakirti se hi liya jana siddh ho sake. isalie adhikatar vidvanon ka yahi kahana hai ki dharmakirti ke mat se udyotakar parichit nahin the. snbhavat: dharmakirti udyotakar ke pashchath hi hue. subndhukrit 'vasavadatta' namak akhyayika men 'nyayasthitimiv udyotakarasvaroopamh' is nirdash se spasht hai ki udyotakar subndhu se pahale hue the. is tatha doosare pramanon ke adhar par nyayavartik samay satavin sadi ka poorvardh mana ja sakata hai.

any nam

udyotakar ka any do namon se bhi ullekh hua hai. vachaspati mishr ne nyayavartikatatpary tika men udyotakar ka nirdesh bharadvaj nam se kiya hai. gnganath jha ka mat hai ki 'udyotakar' nam udyotakar ke bharadvaj kulotpann hone ke karan hai. udyotakar ko pashupatachary bhi kaha gaya hai. shayad is nam ke pichhe yah karan hai ki udyotakar shaiv sampraday ke achary the.

bauddh tarkashastr

udyotakar ke samane ek pramukh prashn bauddh tarkashastr ke khndan ka tha. isalie udyotakar ke nyayavartik men tarkashastr vishayak bauddhamaton ke bahut nirdesh ate hain. dinnag, vasubndhu jaise bauddh acharyon ke jo snskrit grnth aj lupt hain, unamen se kuchh avataran hamen nyayavartik men milate hain. isalie nyayavartik prachin bauddh tarkashastr ki janakari ke lie bhi upayukt siddh hota hai. lekin udyotakar ne bauddh tarkashastr ki alochana karate samay jo tarika apanaya hai, usase anek adhunik vidvanh asntusht hain. is asntosh ka karan yah hai ki udyotakar bauddhon ki alochana karate samay nirday vaitndik pratipakshi ke roop men dikhaee dete hain. kabhi-kabhi udyotakar ki yuktiyan shabdik virodhamatr lagati hain, unamen gnbhirata nahin hai. isase gyat hota hai ki bauddh tarkashastr ka prabhav us samay itani adhik ho gaya tha ki udyotakar jaise naiyayik usase vichalit ho ge aur jo bhi tarika ve apana sakate the, use tarike se bauddhon ka khndan karana udyotakar jaison ne apana pratham kartavy samajha.

udyotakar ke grnth

udyotakar ka nyayavartik namak grnth hi upalabdh hai. nyayavartik men hi udyotakar ne apane hetvabhasavartik namak grnth ka bhi ullekh kiya hai lekin vah grnth ab upalabdh nahin hai. nyayavartik vatsyayan bhashy ke oopar ki huee tika hai. usamen anek jagah nyayabhashy men milane vale maton ko ek or rakhate hue nyayasootr ki alag vyakhyaen di gee hain. vartik ka lakshan hai-

'uktanukt durooktanan chinta yatr prasajyate. tn grnthn vartikn prahurvartikgya manishin:..'

tadanusar yahan vatsyayan ke mat men kuchh badhaya gaya hai, kuchh duruktiyan bhi bataee gee hain. isalie udyotakar ka nyayavartik sachche arth men vartik hai. lekin is vartik ko doosari drishti se bhi dekha ja sakata hai. yadyapi nyayavartik men kabhi-kabhi nyayabhashy se bhinn mat bhi milate hain tathapi kahin bhi nyayabhashy men prakatit mat ka udyotakar ne spasht virodh nahin kiya hai. udyotakar ne nyayasootron ki vyakhya apane dhng se karate hue nyay men kuchh naye vicharon ko pravisht kiya hai tatha nyayadarshan ka vikas kiya hai. nyayadarshan ke itihas ki yah visheshata lagati hai ki usaka vikas nyayasootron ke galat vyakhya ke dvara hua hai. bauddh darshan ke uday se nyayadarshan ko badi chunautiyon ka samana karana pada. use naye vichar apanane pade. lekin paramparavadi hone ke karan koee bhi naiyayik paramparagat nyayasootr ki upeksha nahin kar sakata tha, jisase bauddh nyay ka pratirodh karane vale naye vichar nyayadarshan ke paramparagat vichar hi mane jate. udyotakar ne yahi tarika apanaya. udyotakar ne nyayasootr ki nee vyakhya ki, bauddhon ke bhi thode bahut vichar tatha paribhashik shabd apanakar unhen nyay ki paratparagat vichar paddhati men sthan diya.

dinnag ke anusar

udaharan ke roop men ham bauddhon ke hetu trairoopy siddhant ko le sakate hain. dinnag ke anusar sadh-hetu hone ke lie usamen tin roopon ka hota zaroori hai-

  1. pakshasatv- hetu ko paksh men hona chahie (paksh vah adhar hai, jisamen sadhy ka hona siddh kiya jana hai).
  2. sapakshasatv- hetu ko sapaksh men bhi hona chahie (sapaksh aisa adhar hai, jisamen sadhy nishchit roop se maujood ho).
  3. vipakshavyavrittatv- hetu ko vipaksh men bilkul nahin hona chahie.

udyotakar ke siddhant

is hetu trairoopy-siddhant ka mahattv janate hue tatha is siddhant ki paribhasha ko apanate hue, us paribhasha ko nyayadarshan men pravisht karate hue bhi udyotakar ne us paksh ke khndan ki kadi alochana ki. unhonne yah spasht kiya ki aisa hetu bhi ho sakata hai, jisamen ukt tinon roop maujood n hon. udyotakar ne anuman ke aise udaharan bhi diye, jinamen hetu ke pakshasatv tatha sapakshasatv vale do roop hain, lekin vipakshavyavrittatv vala roop nahin hai hetu ke pakshasatv tatha vipakshavyavrittatv vale do roop hain, lekin sapakshasatv vala roop nahin hai.

in do anumanon ko udyotakar ne kramash: 'anvayi' aur 'vyatireki anuman' gautam pranit nyayadarshan men hai. udyotakar ne gautam ke anuman ke vargikaran men hi anvayi tatha vyatireki anuman ko sthan diya 'trividhamiti anvayi, vyatireki, anvayavyatireki cheti'.[2] aisa karate samay gautam ke anuman vishayak prastut sootr ka vatsyayan ne jo arth lagaya tha, use udyotakar ne upekshit kiya aur yadyapi anvayi tatha vyatireki anuman ka vichar mool nyayasootr men kahin nahin dikhata hai tathapi udyotakar ne jab in anumanon ka vichar kiya, tab nyayadarshan men un par badi charcha huee aur akhir men kevalanvayi, keval vyatireki tatha anvayavyatireki in tin prakaron men anuman ka tatha hetu ka vargikaran nyayadarshan men sarvasnmat ho gaya.

shadvidhasannikarsh ka siddhant

doosare bhi aise kee siddhant hain, jo pahali bar udyotakar ke nyayavartik men dikhaee dete hain aur bad men nyayadarshan men svikrit kiye ge. gautam ke pratyaksh lakshan men jo 'indriyarthasannikarshajanayn' yah pad hai, usaki vyakhya karate hue udyotakar ne shadvidhasannikarsh ka siddhant prastut kiya. bad men pratyaksh ka laukik tatha alaukik pratyay men jo vargikaran kiya gaya, udyotakar men yadyapi nahin milata hai tathapi us vargikaran ke bad bhi shadvidhasannikarsh ka siddhant jyon ka tyon laukik pratyaksh ke vargikaran men samavisht kiya gaya. is siddhant ke anusar laukik pratyaksh men indriy tatha arth (vishay) men hone vala snbndh chh: prakar ka ho sakata hai. dravy ke pratyaksh men us gun tatha tatha jati ke sath ghranadi indriy ka snyukt samavay namak snnnikarsh hota hai, dravy men hone vale gun men jo jati hoti hai, usake pratyaksh men us jati ke sath indriy ka snyuktasamavet samavay sannikarsh hota hai. shabd ke pratyaksh men shabd ke sath shrotrendriy ka samavay snbndh hota hai, shabdagat jati ke pratyaksh men jati ke sath shrotrendriy ka samavet samavay sannikarsh hota hai tatha samavay aur abhav ke pratyaksh men visheshyavisheshanabhav nam ka sannikarsh karan roop men hota hai. is sannikarsh siddhant men ham dekhate hain ki nyayadarshan ki gyanamimansa ke spashtikaran ke lie naiyayik vaisheshikon ke sattashastr ki sahayata le rahe the aur dhire dhire nyayadarshan men vaisheshik vichar ka prabhav badhata ja raha tha.

anuman tatha anumati ka siddhant

tisara isi tarah ka siddhant jo pahali bar nyayavartik men dikhaee deta hai aur jo bad men nyayadarshan ke siddhant ke roop men svikrit kiya gaya, vah siddhant anuman ke svaroop ke bare men hai. nyayavartik men pahali bar ham dekhate hain ki anuman tatha anumati men spasht bhed kiya gaya hai, tatha anuman ko anumiti ka karan mana gaya hai. ham dekhate hain ki gautam ke nyayadarshan men praman aur prama men spasht bhed kahin nahin dikhaya gaya hai. pramanon ke lakshan banate hue kahin kahin gautam ne jo lakshan bataya hai, vah prama ke bare men sahi nikalata hai. pratyaksh praman ke gautam krit lakshan men ham 'gyanamh' yah bhi lakshan bhed pate hain, jisase soochit hota hai ki gautam vahan pratyaksh praman ka[3] lakshan nahin kar rahe hain, balki pratyaksh prama ka hi lakshan kar rahe hain. usi prakar anuman tatha upaman ke bhi gautamakrit lakshan vastut: anumiti tatha upamiti ke lakshan pratit hote hain.[4] gautam ke bad dhire dhire praman aur prama men bhed dikhana zaroori ho gaya. vastut: anuman kya hai, inaki charcha karate hue udyotakar ne tin baton ka vichar kiya hai :

  1. lingadarshan
  2. lingalingisnbndhasmaranh
  3. lingaparamarsh[5]

udyotakar ke anuman

jab koee adami parvat par dhuna dekhakar vahan agni ke hone ka anuman karata hai, tab usaki prakriya udyotakar ke anusar is prakar hai- pahale vah adami parvat par dhuna dekhata hai (lingadarshan) usake turant bad use smaran hota hai ki jahan jahan mainne dhoom ko dekha vahan vahan agni ko bhi dekha (snbndhasmaran). isake turant bad usaki samajh men ata hai ki kis prakar agni se sambaddh dhoom hi yahan parvat par maujood hai (lingaparamarsh) aur tadanntar yah anumiti hoti hai ki parvat par agni hai. udyotakar samajhate hain ki pahale tinon gyan anumiti ke anivary poorvavarti hain, isalie udyotakar ke anusar in tinon ke anumiti ka karan yani anuman samajhane men koee kathinaee nahin hai. lekin in tinon men agar pradhanagaunabhav ka vichar karana hai to pradhan roop men ling paramarsh ko hi anuman samajhana chahie, lingadarshan ya snbndhasmaran ko nahin. isaka karan batate hue udyotakar kahate hain ki lingaparamarsh ke turant bad anumiti hati hai, lekin lingadarshan ya snbndhasmriti ke turant bad anumiti nahin hoti hai. udyotakar ke is vivechan men anek mudde spasht hote hain. yahan udyotakar ne praman tatha prama karan tatha phal men zaroor bhed dikhaya hai, lekin karan ki spasht kalpana udyotakar ke man men bhi nahin thi, yah bhi yahan par dikhata hai. bad men karan, vyapar aur phal in tinon men bhed tatha paraspar snbndh spasht kiya gaya aur anuman men vyaptigyan ko karan, paramarsh ko vyapar ta anumiti ko phal mana gaya. udyotakar ne 'pradhanaroop se karan' ki jo kalpana yahan prastut ki hai, usamen karan ki 'phalayogavyavachchhinnamn karanamh'[6] yah jo doosari kalpana bad men prastut ki gee, usaki jhalak milati hai, kyonki isi kalpana ke anusar lingaparamarsh ko karan mana ja sakata hai.

udyotakar ke is anuman vichar ke bal par kee vidvanon ne aisa tark kiya hai ki yahan udyotakar ne vyapti ki kalpana sarvapratham prastut ki hai. lekin nyayavartik ke parishilan se to yah pratit hota hai ki udyotakar ne jo lingalingisnbndh bataya hai, vah anubhoot vishv men dikhaee dene vala snbndh hai, samooche vishv men hone vala sarvatrik snbndh nahin hai. lingalingisnbndhasmriti ka jo akar udyotakar ne bataya hai, vah is prakar hai- 'yatr dhoomamadrakshn tatragnimadrakshamh',[7] jisaka arth hai 'jahan mainne dhoom dekha, vahan mainne agni dekhi.' yah akar sarvatrik (sarvopnsarohan) vyapti ka nahin ho sakata. sarvatrik vyapti ka akar 'jahan jahan dhoom hai, vahan vahan agni hai' aisa hona chahie. yahan ham dekhate hain ki dinanag ne jo anubhootavishv men-sapaksh tatha vipaksh men-prakatit lingalingisnbndh ki kalpana prastut ki thi vahi udyotakar ne bhi thodi bahut parivartan karake apanaee hai.

hetuchakr se tulana

udyotakar ka aur ek mahattvapoorn yogadan hetvabhas ke vishayon men hai. dinanag ne hetutrairupy ka jo siddhant sthapit kiya tha, usi ke adhar par hetuon tatha hetvabhason ke vargikaran ka ek dhancha dinanag ne prastut kiya tha. (is vargikaran ko dinanag ne 'hetuchakr' nam diya tha). udyotakar ne yadyapi ek taraf dinanag ke hetutrairupy ke siddhant ka khndan karane ka prayas kiya, tathapi doosari taraph hetvabhason ka varnan karate samay udyotakar ne dinanag ke hi hetu chakr ka anukaran tatha vistar kiya. hetvabhas vargikaran ka vikas karate samay udyotakar ne kaha hai ki hetvabhas vaise to anaginat hain, phir bhi udyotakar ne bahut vargikaran tatvon ka vichar karate hue do hazar battis hetvabhason ki ginati ki hai. vaise in hetvabhason ke vargikaran ke moolatatv snkhya men thode hi hain, lekin inhin tatvon ke bhinn bhinn prakar se yog hone par hetvabhason ke bhinn bhinn upaprakaron ka pariganan ho sakata hai. udyotakar ke is vargikaran ko poornat: svikar bad men kisi naiyayik ne kiya, aisa nahin najar ata hai, lekin udyotakar ne jo visheshanasiddh, vishleshyasiddh, sndigdhavisheshan, sndigdhavisheshy, vyadhikaranasiddh, anyathasiddh jaise hetvabhason ke mool prakar banae, unaka vichar antaravarti naiyayikon ne bhi kiya. unamen se anyathasiddh vishesh mahattv rakhata hai, kyonki bad men isi ka vikasit roop 'aprayojak', 'sopadhik' tatha 'vyapyatvasiddh' nam ke hetvabhas men dikh padata hai.

udyotakar ka yukti pradarshan

bauddhon ke keval tarkashastr par hi udyotakar ne khndanastr chalaya hai, aisi bat nahin hai, balki bauddhon ke sattashastr ka, visheshat: unake anatmavad ka khndan karane ka udyotakar ne bharasak prayas kiya hai.[8] udyotakar ne jo yuktiyan pradarshit ki hain, ve is prakar hain-

  • 'atma nahin hai, kyonki usaka janm hi nahin hua, jaise shashashrring'. yah atma ka astitv khndit karane ke lie bauddhon ki yukti hai. inamen anek asngatiyan hain.
  1. atma nahin hai, aisa kahane men vyaghat hai. kyonki atma shabd ka uchcharan karane se hi atma ka astitv soochit hota hai aur phir 'nahin hai' kahane se usi ka nishedh kiya gaya hai.
  2. jab kisi ka abhav bataya jata hai, tab vah kisi desh vishesh ko ya kal vishesh ko lekar bataya ja sakata hai. lekin desh vishesh men ya kal vishesh men atma ka abhav nahin siddh kiya ja sakata hai.
  3. koee shabd nirarthak nahin hai, isalie atma shabd ka arth hai hi.
  4. bauddhon ke pramanik grnthon men bhi atma ka astitv svikrit kiya gaya hai. isalie bauddhon ka anatmavad apane hi agam se badhit hota hai.[9]
  5. jo vastut: hai usi ko janmarahit kaha ja sakata hai. isalie atma agar janmarahit hai to usake hone men koee shnka nahin ho sakati.
  6. bauddhon ke uparyukt anuman men shashashrring ka diya hua drishtant bhi asngat hai, kyonki shash ya shrring asath nahin hai aur shnsh aur shrring men snbndh bhi snbhav hai. shnshashrring ka nishedh vastut: shash aur shrring men aropit karyakaranabhav ka nishedh hai.
  • atma nahin hai, kyonki usaki upalabdhi nahin hoti. aisa agar bauddh kahen to vah bhi galat hai. kyonki harek ko 'main' ke anubhav men atma ka pratyaksh gyan hota hai.
  • koee bauddh 'jine vala sharir atma se rahit hai, kyonki vah sath hai' aisa tark karate hue atma ke bajae sharir ko paksh banate hain. lekin vahan bhi atma shabd ka prayog karake usi ke arth ka sarvatrik nishedh karane se virodh ata hai.
  • atma ka astitv siddh karane ke lie is tarah ke tark die ja sakate hain-
  1. atma shabd ka vishay roop, vedana adi shabdon ke vishayon se atirikt hai, kyonki roop adi shabdon se 'atma' shabd bhinn hai, jaise ghat shabd.
  2. chakshu adi indriy kisi doosare ke lie (atma ke lie) hote hain, kyonki ve sndhanaroop hain, jaise shayan, asan adi sndhanaroop hote hue, kisi doosare ke lie (adami ke lie) kam ate hain.[10]

udyotakar ke dvara prastut ye yuktiyan usake uttaravarti naiyayikon ko bauddhon ki alochana karane men bahut upayukt siddh huee. aisa nyayadarshan ke itihas ke parishilan se prakat hota hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

gokhale, daau. pi.pi. vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 80.

  1. jaise ki vidyabhooshan ne
  2. nyayavartik 1.1.5
  3. jo ki indriyasvaroop, achetan hai, gyanasvaroop nahin hai
  4. (sirph shabd ka gautamakrit lakshan shabd praman ka hi hai, shabdabodh ka nahin.)
  5. nyayavartik 9.9.5
  6. phal se avyavahitapoorv hone vala karan
  7. nyayavartik 1.1.5
  8. nyayavartik 3.1.1
  9. jaise sarvabhisamayasootr men pnchaskndhon ko bhar, tatha pudgal ko atma ka bharahar bataya gaya hai. atma ko n manan ki drishti mithya batayi gee hai.
  10. yah doosara anuman bahut prachin hai, jisaka udyotakar ne upayog kiya hai.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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