उर्दू साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

urdoo sahity urdoo bhasha ki rachanaen kahalati hain. ise farasi-arabi lipi men likha jata hai. kuchh apavadon ko chhodakar yah sahity musalaman lekhakon dvara likha gaya, jinhonne bharatiy upamahadvip ke jivan se apani vishay-vastu ko liya.

udgam

15vin shatabdi men urdoo sahity ne dakkan men shuruat ki aur yah tin shatabdiyon tak phala-phoola. mugal shasakon ne farasi lekhan ko protsahan diya. urdoo ko sabase pahale darabari snrakshan dakshin bharat ke golakunda (vartaman haidarabad) aur bijapur men mila, isalie ise dakkhani kaha gaya. is bhasha men maujood prachinatam kriti kadamarav padamarav ek kavyatmak vivaran hai, jise nizami (1421-1434) ne likha aur isake alava vajahi (mrityu-1631) dvara rachit sabaras (1655) roopak hai, jo unaki maut ke kafi bad men prakashit huee.

vikas

urdoo sahity, dakkan (madhy bharat) men golakunda aur bijapur ke qutubashahi aur adilashahi rajaon ke darabar aur usake asapas 16vin shatabdi men vikasit hona shuroo hua. 17vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men aurngabad urdoo sahityik gatividhiyon ka kendr ban gaya. dilli v aurngabad ke bich sahityik evn abhijaty gatividhiyon badhin aur arnbhik 18vin shatabdi men vali aurngabadi ki pratibha ki zaroorat thi, jisase dilli v dakkan ke bich ka bhashaee antar pata ja sake aur dilli ke shayaron ko urdoo lekhan ko gnbhirata se lene ke lie razi kiya ja sake. 18vin shatabdi men shayaron ke dilli se lakhanoo jane ke karan lakhanoo urdoo kavy ka mahattvapoorn kendr ban gaya, halanki dilli ne apana sthan banae rakha.

svarnim kal

18vin aur 19vin shatabdi ko shastriy urdoo sahity ka svarnim kal mana jata hai. is kal ke mahanh lekhakon men- mir taqi mir (mrityu- 1810), sauda (mrityu-1781), khvaja mir dard (mrityu-1784), insha (mrityu-1817), mushafi (mrityu-1824), nasikh (mrityu-1838), atish (mrityu-1847), momin (mrityu-1852), zauk (mrityu-1854) aur galib (mrityu- 1869) shamil hain. sabhi varnanatmak aur kathatmak udeshyon ke lie masanavi shaili ko pasnd kiya jata tha, kyonki isamen bahut svatntrata thi (keval pratyek sher ki paktiyon ka qafiya milana chahie tha). dakkan men sabhi pramukh shayaron ne kam se kam ek lnbi masanavi likhi, lekin unaki boli se aparichay ke karan unhen utani prashnsa nahin mili. at: adhik prasiddh masanaviyan dilli v lakhanoo ke bad ke shayaron, jaise mir, mir hasan, daya shnkar nasim aur mirza zauq ne likhin. varnanatmak masanaviyon ke vishay, dainik jivan ki ghatanaon se badashahon ki shikar yatraon tak aur prakriti ki vibhinn rituon ke rngon se atmakathatmak nibndhon tak vistrit the. kathatmak masanaviyan apekshakrit lnbi hoti hain aur unamen hazaron sher hote hain. dakkan men bahut se shayaron ne farasi masanaviyon ke snkshipt roopantaran likhe, lekin bahut se any rachanakaron ne mool rachanaen likhin, jinamen bharatiy aur sath hi farasi v arabi roomaniyat thi.
in masanaviyon men farasi v arabi kavitaon se prerit nayakon ke namon ke alava baqi sab kuchh sthaniy tha, kudarati nazare, shahari jivan, juloos, parnparaen, riti-rivaj, samajik mooly aur pabndiya, yahan tak ki logon ke roop-rng bhi poori tarah bharatiy the, halanki ve mukhyat: musalaman aur samnti the. apani lnbaee ke bavajood in rachanaon ko bahut lokapriyata mili aur kam se kam uttari bharat men inhen sarvajanik sthanon par aksar usi tarah padha jata tha, jaise kathavachak kathaen sunate hain. masanavi shaili ka kuchh hindi soofi kaviyon ne bhi upayog kiya. ek any shaili marsiya hai, jisaka arth shokagit hai, lekin urdoo sahity men amataur par isaka arth husain (muhammad ke pote) ke parivar v rishtedaron ke kashton par shokagit aur iraq ke karbala men unaki qurbani hai. ye shokagit aur any vilap git sarvajanik janasamooh men padhe jate hain, khasakar muharram ke mahine men. dakkan aur dilli men bahut se marsie likhe ge, lekin yah lakhanoo tha, jahan shiya muslim vishisht varg aur shahi snrakshan men marsie ko viragatha kavy ki gati aur vistar mila.

nazir akabarabadi

ek kavi aise bhi hain, jinhen unake sathi kaviyon dvara shastriy farasi-arabi parnparaon ko n manane vala kaha ja sakata hai. 18vin shatabdi ke uttarardh aur arnbhik 19vin shatabdi men likhane vale nazir akabarabadi (mrityu-1830) ek aise behatarin shayar the, jinhonne am aur sahityik bhasha men chhoti nazmen (vibhinn shailiyon men) likhana chuna. unake vishay bhi aisi hi udarata pradarshit karate hain. unaki rachanaon men vibhinn vishayon, jaise lokapriy tyoharon, rituon, jivan ki nissarata, shrringarik annd v amod-pramod, nachate bhaloo aur knjoos vyapariyon par kavitaen hain. unaki sookshm varnan ki maharat kisi bhi ghatana ko fauran jivnt kar deti hai. apane samay ke abhijaty kaviyon aur sahityik itihasakaron dvara nazarandaz kie ge nazir ko sarvashreshth shayaron men se ek ke roop men samman v manyata milati chali gee hai.

mir anis evn mirza dabir

19vin sadi ke do mahanh rachanakar the, mir anis aur mirza dabir, jinhonne milakar musadda (chhah pnktiyon ka chhnd, jisamen 'a' aur 'b' qafiyon tha) ko marsie ki shaili ke roop men sthapit kiya aur isamen kee ne vishay v varnan jode, isase yah shaili sadharan shol rachanaon se kahin adhik vistrit huee. marsiya men lakhanoo ke anis (mrityu-1874) aur dabir (mrityu-1871) ka koee sani nahin.

mirza galib

akhiri mugal badashah bahadur shah jafar ke samakalin galib ko shastriy rachanakaron men antim aur shuruati adhunik rachanakaron men pahala mana jata hai. unaki rachanaon ne adhunik pady ke manak gadhe, unake bad sar saiyad ahamad khan (mrityu-1898), husain azad (mrityu-1910), hali (mrityu-1914) aur shibali (mrityu-1914) ae. 19vin sadi ke akhir men tilism-e-hosharooba (1881-1917) jaisi vishal kathaon ne chhoti gadyatmak kahaniyon, jaise mir amman dvara likhit bago-bahar (1802) aur rajab ali beg suroor dvara likhit fasana-e-ajayab (1831) ko sthab diya. urdoo upanyas ki shuruat nazir ahamad (mrityu-1912), ratananath sarashar (mrityu-1902) aur muhammad hadi roosava (mrityu-1931) ki rachanaon se huee. qasida aisi kavitaen thin, jo kisi udeshy se likhi jati thin, yah udeshy badashahon aur kulinon ki tarif se bhautik labh aur khuda, paignbar muhammad ya any pavitr sastiyon ki tarif se parabhautik labh tha. ye gunagan adhikatar khase lnbe hain aur atyadhik alnkrit aur atishyoktipoorn hain, inamen shayar bahut se qafiyon ka istemal, aur jahan tak ho sake snbaddh vishay-vastuon ki khojakar apane kaushal ka pradarshan karane ki pratisparddha karate dikhate hain. apani shaili aur bhasha ke karan ve koshakaron ke lie vishesh mahattv ke hain. dakkan men likhe ge qasidon par adhik shodh nahin hua hai, lekin uttari bharat men bahut se kaviyon ko is shaili men unaki upalabdhiyon ke lie samman prapt hai. 18vin sadi men sauda aur insha, 19vin sadi men zauk aur galib inamen shamil hain. hajoo (vyaktigat ya kativaen) utani hi lnbi, lekin kam alnkrit aur adhik shikshaprad hain. ve 18vin se madhy 19vin sadi ke bich ke kal ki naitikata par upayogi janakari deti hain aur tatkalin samaj ki samasyaon ka spasht chitran karati hain. ye rachanaen kisi vishesh mitar ya chhnd pranali tak simit nahin hai. is shaili ke ek prasiddh rachanakar sauda hain.

adhunik kal

vastav men urdoo gady 19vin sadi ke dilli kaaulej v kalakatta ke fort viliyam kaaulej men farasi dastanon ke anuvad aur bad men aligadh andolan ke lekhakon ke sath shuroo hua. adhunik urdoo upanyas ki shurooat premachnd (mrityu-1936) se huee, jinake 'godan' ko shastriy rachana mana jata hai. any prasiddh adhunik galp lekhan men sadat hasan mnto (mrityu-1955) ki 'ladyu kathaen', kurratulain haidar ka upanyas 'ag ka dariya' (1960), abdulla husain ka 'udas nasalin' (1963) rajindar sinh bedi ka 'ek chadar maili si' (1962) aur intizar husain ka 'basti' (1979) shamil hain. allama iqabal (mrityu-1838?) ko 20vin shatabdi ke shreshthatam urdoo shayaron men se ek mana jata hai. any mashahoor sahityik hastiyon men en.em. rashid (mrityu-1982), miraji (mrityu-1949) josh malihabadi (mrityu-1982), firaq gorakhapuri (mrityu-1982), faiz ahamad faiz (mrityu-1984), makhdoom muhiuddin (mrityu-1969) aur akhtar-ul-eeman (1996) shamil hain.


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