एक व्यक्तित्व  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mukhaprishth par chayanit ek vyaktitv ke lekhon ki soochi

je. ar. di. tata
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        jahangir ratanaji dadabhaee tata adhunik bharat ki buniyad rakhane vali audyogik hastiyon men sarvopari the. inhonne hi bharat ki pahali vanijyik viman seva 'tata eyaralains' shuroo ki thi, jo age chalakar bharat ki rashtriy viman seva 'eyar indiya' ban gee. is karan je. ar. di. tata ko 'bharat ke nagarik uddayan ka pita' bhi kaha jata hai. je. ar. di. tata, bharat ke pahale laisens prapt payalat the. je. ar. di. tata ko frans ke sarvochh‍ch nagarikata puraskar 'lijan aauph d aaunar' evn bharat sarakar ke sarvochh‍ch alnkaran 'bharat ratn' se samh‍manit kiya ja chuka hai. inhonne 'tata instityoot aauf soshal sainsej', 'tata instityoot aauf fndamental risarch' aur 'neshanal sentar faaur parafarming arts' ki sh‍thapana ki. ... aur padhen

ar. ke. lakshman
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        ar. ke. lakshman ko bharat ke ek pramukh vyng-chitrakar ke roop men prasiddhi prapt hai. apane kartoonon ke zarie ar. ke. lakshman ne ek am adami ko ek vyapak sthan diya aur usake jivan ki mayoosi, andhere, ujale, khushi aur gam ko shabdon aur rekhaon ki madad se samaj ke samane rakha. lakshman ke bade bhaee ar. ke. narayan ek kathakar tatha upanyasakar the, jinaki rachanaen 'gaid' tatha 'malagudi dez' ne prasiddhi ki oonchaiyon ko chhua tha. ek kartoonist ke roop men prasiddhi prapt karane ke sath hi lakshman ne mahattvapoorn lekhan bhi kiya. unaki atmakatha 'tanal tu taim' unaki lekhan kshamata ka praman samane lati hai. ar. ke. lakshman ke kartoonon men ek am adami ko prastut karati ek chhavi jitani sadagi bhari hai, utani hi paini bhi hoti hai. ar. ke. lakshman ko unake mahattvapoorn yogadan ke lie padm bhooshan, padm vibhooshan, reman megsese puraskar adi samman v puraskar prapt ho chuke hain. ... aur padhen

abulakalam azad
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        maulana abulakalam azad ek muslim vidvan, svatntrata senani evn varishth rajanitik neta the. unhonne hindoo-muslim ekata ka samarthan kiya aur sanpradayikata par adharit desh ke vibhajan ka virodh kiya. svatntr bharat men vah bharat sarakar ke pahale shiksha mntri the. unhen 'maulana azad' ke nam se jana jata hai. sngit natak akadami (1953), sahity akadami (1954) aur lalit kala akadami (1954) ki sthapana men aham bhoomika thi. varsh 1992 men maranoparant inhen bharat ratn se sammanit kiya gaya. ek insan ke roop men maulana mahanh the, unhonne hamesha sadagi ka jivan pasnd kiya. unamen kathinaiyon se joojhane ke lie apar sahas aur ek snt jaisi manavata thi. unaki mrityu ke samay unake pas koee snpatti nahin thi aur n hi koee baink khata tha. vah apane varishth sathi 'khan abdulagaffar khan' aur apane kanishth 'ashafaq ulla khan' ke sath rahe. ... aur padhen

si. di. deshamukh
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        si. di. deshamukh british shasan ke adhin aee.si.es. adhikari aur bharatiy rizarv baink ke tisare gavarnar the. inaka janm maharashtr ke rayagadh zile men 14 janavari, 1896 ee. ko hua. inake pita dvarakanath deshamukh ek sammanit vakil aur man bhagirathi baee ek dharmik mahila thi. deshamukh ne 1912 men bnbee vishvavidyalay se maitrik ki pariksha pratham shreni men pas ki. sath hi inhonne snskrit ki jagannath shnkar set chhatravritti bhi hasil ki. 1917 men inhonne kainbrij vishvavidyalay se nechural sains se, vanaspati shastr, rasayan shastr tatha bhoogarbh shastr lekar, grejueshan pas kiya. apane vibhinn yogadanon ke lie inhen kalakatta vishvavidyalay dvara 'daauktar aauf sains' (1957), reman maigsese puraskar (1959), bharat sarakar dvara padm vibhooshan (1975) se sammanit kiya gaya. ... aur padhen

khashaba jadhav
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        khashaba jadhav bharat ke prasiddh kushti khiladi the. ve pahale bharatiy khiladi the, jinhonne san 1952 men helasinki olampik men desh ke lie kushti ki vyaktigat spardha men sabase pahale kansy padak jita tha. vaise to 1952 ke helasinki olampik men bharatiy haauki tim ne phir se svarn padak hasil kiya tha, lekin charcha sone se adhik us kansy padak ki hoti hai, jise pahalavan khashaba jadhav ne jita tha. khashaba ko "paauket dayanamo" ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. munbee pulis ke lie khashaba jadhav ne 25 sal tak sevaen din, lekin unake sahakarmi is bat ko kabhi nahin jan sake ki ve olampik chainpiyan hain. pulis vibhag men khel kota khashaba ke olampik men padak jitane ke bad hi shuroo hua. aj bhi logon ki bharti khel kota se hoti hai, lekin yah khashaba jadhav ki hi den hai. ... aur padhen

nazir akabarabadi
nazir akabarabadi

        nazir akabarabadi urdoo men nazm likhane vale pahale kavi mane jate hain. samaj ki har chhoti-badi khoobi ko nazir sahab ne kavita men tabdil kar diya. kakadi, jalebi aur til ke laddoo jaisi vastuon par likhi gee kavitaon ko alochak kavita manane se inakar karate rahe. bad men nazir sahab ki 'utkrisht shayari' ko pahachana gaya aur aj ve urdoo sahity ke shikhar par virajaman chand namon ke sath baizzat gine jate hain. lagabhag sau varsh ki ayu pane par bhi is shayar ko jite ji utani khyati nahin prapt huee jitani ki unhen aj mil rahi hai. nazir ki shayari se pata chalata hai ki unhonne jivan-roopi pustak ka adhyayan bahut achchhi tarah kiya hai. bhasha ke kshetr men bhi ve udar hain, unhonne apani shayari men jan-snskriti ka, jisamen hindoo snskriti bhi shamil hai, digdarshan karaya hai aur hindi ke shabdon se parahez nahin kiya hai. unaki shaili sidhi asar dalane vali hai aur alnkaron se mukt hai. shayad isilie ve bahut lokapriy bhi hue. ... aur padhen

pandurng vaman kane
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        pandurng vaman kane snskrit ke ek vidvanh evn prachyavidya visharad the. pandurng vaman kane ka sabase bada yogadan unaka vipul sahity hai, jisaki rachana men unhonne apana mahattvapoorn jivan lagaya. ve apane mahanh grnthon- 'sahityashastr' aur 'dharmashastr' par 1906 ee. se kary kar rahe the. inamen 'dharmashastr ka itihas' sabase mahattvapoorn aur prasiddh hai. panch bhagon men prakashit bade akar ke 6500 prishthon ka yah grnth, bharatiy dharmashastr ka vishvakosh hai. isamen eesvi poorv 600 se lekar 1800 ee. tak ki bharat ki vibhinn dharmik pravrittiyon ka pramanik vivechan prastut kiya gaya hai. hindoo vidhi aur achar vichar snbndhi pandurng vaman kane ka kul prakashit sahity 20,000 prishthon se adhik ka hai. daau. pandurng vaman kane ki mahanh upalabdhiyon ke lie bharat sarakar dvara sanh 1963 men unhen 'bharat ratn' se sammanit kiya gaya. ... aur padhen

bismillah khan
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        ustad bismillah khan 'bharat ratn' se sammanit prakhyat shahanaee vadak the. san 1969 men 'eshiyaee sngit sammelan' ke 'rostam puraskar' se sammanit bismillah khan ne shahanaee ko bharat ke bahar ek vishisht pahachan dilavane men mukhy yogadan diya. 1947 men azadi ki poorv sndhya par jab lal qile par desh ka jhnda tirnga phahara raha tha, tab bismillah khan ki shahanaee bhi vahan azadi ka sndesh bant rahi thi. bismilla khan ne 'bajari', 'chaiti' aur 'jhoola' jaisi lokadhunon men baje ko apani tapasya aur riyaz se khoob snvara aur klasikal mausiqi men shahanaee ko sammanajanak sthan dilaya. ... aur padhen

lala lajapat ray
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        lala lajapat ray ko bharat ke mahanh krantikariyon men gina jata hai. ajivan british rajashakti ka samana karate hue apane pranon ki paravah n karane vale lala lajapat ray ko 'pnjab kesari' bhi kaha jata hai. lalaji bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke garam dal ke pramukh neta tatha poore pnjab ke pratinidhi the. unhen 'pnjab ke sher' ki upadhi bhi mili thi. unhonne qanoon ki shiksha prapt kar hisar men vakalat prarambh ki thi, kintu bad men svami dayannd ke sampark men ane ke karan ve ary samaj ke prabal samarthak ban gaye. yahin se unamen ugr rashtriyata ki bhavana jagrit huee. lalaji ne bhagavan shrikrishn, ashok, shivaji, svami dayannd sarasvati, pandit gurudatt vidyarthi, metsini aur gairibaldi ki snkshipt jivaniyan bhi likhin. 'neshanal ejukeshan', 'anahaippi indiya' aur 'd stori aauf maee dipordeshan' unaki any mahattvapoorn rachanaen hain. ... aur padhen

kavi pradip
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        kavi pradip ka mool nam 'ramachndr narayan dvivedi' tha. kavi sammelanon men sooryakant tripathi 'nirala' jaise mahanh sahityakar ko prabhavit kar sakane ki kshamata ramachndr dvivedi men thi. unhin ke ashirvad se ramachndr 'pradip' kahalane lage. kavi pradip 'ai mere vatan ke logon' sarikhe deshabhakti giton ke lie jane jate hain. unhonne 1962 ke 'bharat-chin yuddh' ke dauran shahid hue sainikon ki shraddhanjali men ye git likha tha. lata mngeshakar dvara gae is git ka tatkalin pradhanamntri pndit javaharalal neharoo ki upasthiti men 26 janavari, 1963 ko dilli ke ramalila maidan se sidha prasaran kiya gaya tha. kavi pradip apani rachanaen gakar hi sunate the aur unaki madhur avaz ka sadupayog anek sngit nirdeshakon ne alag-alag samay par kiya. ... aur padhen

gajanan madhav 'muktibodh'
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        gajanan madhav 'muktibodh' ki prasiddhi pragatishil kavi ke roop men hai. muktibodh hindi sahity ki svatntryottar pragatishil kavyadhara ke shirsh vyaktitv the. unhen pragatishil kavita aur nayi kavita ke bich ka ek setu bhi mana jata hai. muktibodh hindi snsar ki ek ghatana ban ge. kuchh aisi ghatana jisaki or se ankhen moond lena asambhav tha. unaka ekanishth sngharsh, unaki atoot sachchaee, unaka poora jivan, sabhi ek sath hamari bhavanaon ke kendriy mnch par samane ae aur sabhi ne unake kavi hone ko nee drishti se dekha. kaisa jivan tha vah aur aise usaka ant kyon hua. aur vah samuchit khyati se ab tak vnchit kyon rahe? ... aur padhen

jayashnkar prasad
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        jayashnkar prasad hindi naty jagath aur katha sahity men ek vishisht sthan rakhate hain. bhavana-pradhan kahani likhane valon men jayashnkar prasad anupam the. kavita, natak, kahani, upanyas sabhi kshetron men prasad ji ek navin 'skool' aur navin jivan-darshan ki sthapana karane men saphal hue. ve 'chhayavad' ke snsthapakon aur unnayakon men se ek hain. kaha jata hai ki nau varsh ki avastha men hi jayashnkar prasad ne 'kaladhar' upanam se brajabhasha men ek savaiya likhakar apane guru rasamayasiddh ko dikhaya tha. ... aur padhen

ramadhari sinh 'dinakar'
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        ramadhari sinh 'dinakar' hindi ke prasiddh kavi, lekhak evn nibndhakar hain. 'dinakar' adhunik yug ke shreshth vir ras ke kavi ke roop men sthapit hain. 'dinakar' padm bhooshan ke atirikt apani gady rachana 'snskriti ke char adhyay' ke liye sahity akadami puraskar tatha kavy-natak urvashi ke liye gyanapith puraskar se sammanit hain. 'dinakar' bharat ki pratham snsad men rajyasabha ke sadasy bhi chune gaye. 12 varsh tak snsad sadasy rahane ke bad inhen 'bhagalapur vishvavidyalay' ka kulapati niyukt kiya gaya lekin agale hi varsh bharat sarakar ne inhen apana 'hindi salahakar' niyukt kiya. ... aur padhen

sooradas
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        sooradas hindi sahity ke bhaktikal men krishn bhakti ke bhakt kaviyon men agrani hai. mahakavi sooradas ji vatsaly ras ke samrat mane jate hain. unhonne shrringar aur shant rason ka bhi bada marmasparshi varnan kiya hai. sooradas ji ke janmandh hone ke vishay men bhi matabhed hain. agara ke samip googhat par unaki bhent vallabhachary se huee aur ve unake shishy ban ge. vallabhachary ne unako pushtimarg men diksha de kar krishnalila ke pad gane ka adesh diya. sooradas ji ashtachhap kaviyon men ek the. sooradas ki sarvasammat pramanik rachana 'soorasagar' hai. ... aur padhen

saradar patel
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        saradar vallabhabhaee patel bharat ke svadhinata sngram ke dauran 'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' ke pramukh netaon men se ve ek the. bharat ki svatntrata ke bad pahale tin varsh ve up pradhanamntri, grih mntri, soochana mntri aur rajy mntri rahe the. kushal kootaniti aur zaroorat padane par sainy hastakshep dvara unhonne adhikansh riyasaton ko tirnge ke tale lane men saphalata prapt ki. nitigat dridhata ke lie rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ne unhen 'saradar' aur 'lauh purush' ki upadhi di. saradar patel ko maranoparant varsh 1991 men bharat ka sarvochch nagarik samman 'bharat ratn' diya gaya. saradar patel ke aitihasik karyon men somanath mndir ka punarniman, gandhi smarak nidhi ki sthapana, kamala neharoo aspatal ki rooparekha adi kary sadaiv smaraniy rahenge. ... aur padhen

abdul kalam
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        avul pakir jainullabdin abdul kalam bharat ke poorv rashtrapati, prasiddh vaigyanik aur abhiynta ke roop men vikhyat hain. inhen misail main ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. chamatkarik pratibha ke dhani abdul kalam ka vyaktitv itana unnat hai ki vah sabhi dharm, jati evn sampradayon ke vyakti nazar ate hain. yah ek aise svikary bharatiy hain, jo sabhi ke lie 'ek mahanh adarsh' ban chuke hain. ye bharat ke vishisht vaigyanik hain, jinhen 30 vishvavidyalayon aur snsthanon se daauktaret ki manad upadhi ke atirikt bharat ke nagarik samman ke roop men padm bhooshan, padm vibhooshan evn bharat ratn se sammanit kiya ja chuka hai. ... aur padhen

devakinandan khatri
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        devakinandan khatri hindi ke pratham tilismi lekhak the. unhonne 'chandrakanta ', 'chndrakanta sntati', 'kajar ki kothari', 'narendr-mohini', 'kusum kumari', 'virendr vir', 'gupt gonda', 'katora bhar' aur 'bhootanath' jaisi rachanaen kin. hindi bhasha ke prachar-prasar men unake upanyas 'chandrakanta' ka bahut bada yogadan raha hai. is upanyas ka rasasvadan karane ke lie kee gair-hindibhashiyon ne hindi bhasha sikhi. baboo devakinandan khatri ne 'tilism', 'aiyyar' aur 'aiyyari' jaise shabdon ko hindibhashiyon ke bich lokapriy bana diya. ... aur padhen

tulasidas
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        gosvami tulasidas hindi sahity ke akash ke param nakshatr, bhaktikal ki sagun dhara ki ramabhakti shakha ke pratinidhi kavi hai. tulasidas ek sath kavi, bhakt tatha samaj sudharak tinon roopon men many hai. shriram ko samarpit vishvavikhyat granth shriramacharitamanas ko samast uttar bharat men bade bhaktibhav se padha jata hai. apani patni 'ratnavali' se atyadhik prem ke karan tulasidas ko ratnavali ki phatakar "laj n aee apako daure aehu nath" sunani padi jisase inaka jivan hi parivartit ho gaya. ... aur padhen

sumitranndan pnt
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        sumitranndan pnt hindi sahity men chhayavadi yug ke char stnbhon men se ek hain. sumitranndan pnt aise sahityakaron men gine jate hain jinaka prakriti chitran samakalin kaviyon men sabase behatarin tha. hindi sahity ke ‘viliyam vardsavarth’ kahe jane vale is kavi ne mahanayak amitabh bachchan ko ‘amitabh’ nam diya tha. adhi sadi se bhi adhik lnbe unake rachanakal men adhunik hindi kavita ka ek poora yug samaya hua hai. ... aur padhen

subhash chndr bos
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        subhash chndr bos ke atirikt bharat ke itihas men aisa koee vyaktitv nahin hua, jo ek sath mahanh senapati, vir sainik, rajaniti ka adbhut khiladi aur antarrashtriy khyati prapt purushon, netaon ke samakaksh sadhikar baithakar kootaniti tatha charcha karane vala ho. gandhiji ne bhi unaki desh ki azadi ke prati ladane ki bhavana dekhakar hi unhen 'deshabhakton ka deshabhakt' kaha tha. netaji us samay bharatiyata ki pahachan hi ban ge the aur bharatiy yuvak aj bhi unase prerana grahan karate hain. ve bharat ki amooly nidhi the. 'jayahind' ka nara aur abhivadan unhin ki den hai. ... aur padhen

svami vivekanand
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        svami vivekanand ek yuva snnyasi ke roop men bharatiy snskriti ki sugandh videshon men bikharane vale sahity, darshan aur itihas ke prakand vidvanh the. vivekanand ji ka mool nam 'narendranath datt' tha. inhonne hindoo dharm ko gatishil tatha vyavaharik banaya aur sudridh sabhyata ke nirman ke lie adhunik manav se pashchimi vigyan v bhautikavad ko bharat ki adhyatmik snskriti se jodane ka agrah kiya. bharat men svami vivekanand ke janm divas ko rashtriy yuva divas ke roop men manaya jata hai. ... aur padhen

maharana pratap
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        ‌‌‌‌‌‌‌maharana pratap ki virata aur svarth-tyag ka vrittant mevad ke itihas men atyant gauravamay samajha jata hai. vah tithi dhany hai, jab mevad ki shaury-bhoomi par mevad-mukut mani rana pratap ka janm hua. inhonne pratigya ki thi ki vah 'mata ke pavitr doodh ko kabhi kalnkit nahin karenge' aur is pratigya ka palan inhonne poori tarah se kiya. maharana pratap praja ke hriday par shasan karane vale raja the. maharana pratap ne ek pratishthit kul ke man-samman aur usaki upadhi ko prapt kiya. maharana pratap ki jaynti vikrami samvath kalandar ke anusar prativarsh jyeshth, shukl paksh tritiya ko manaee jati hai. ... aur padhen

miranbaee
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        miranbaee athava mirabaee hindoo adhyatmik kavayitri thin, jinake shrikrishn ke prati samarpit bhajan uttar bharat men bahut lokapriy hain. mira ka sambandh ek rajapoot parivar se tha. ek sadhu dvara bachapan men unhen krishn ki moorti die jane ke sath hi unaki ajanm krishnabhakti ki shuruat huee, jinaki vah divy premi ke roop men aradhana karati thin. ... aur padhen

harivnsh ray bachchan
harivnsh ray bachchan

        harivnsh ray bachchan ke kavy ki vilakshanata unaki lokapriyata hai. yah ni:snkoch kaha ja sakata hai ki aj bhi hindi ke hi nahin, sare bharat ke sarvadhik lokapriy kaviyon men 'bachchan' ka sthan surakshit hai. hindi men 'halavad' ke janak 'bachchan' ki mukhy kritiyan 'madhushala', 'madhubala' aur 'madhukalash' ne hindi kavy par amit chhap chhodi. harivnsh ray bachchan ke putr amitabh bachchan bharatiy sinema jagath ke prasiddh sitare hain. ... aur padhen

nazir akabarabadi
nazir akabarabadi

        nazir akabarabadi urdoo men nazm likhane vale pahale kavi mane jate hain. samaj ki har chhoti-badi khoobi ko nazir sahab ne kavita men tabdil kar diya. kakadi, jalebi aur til ke laddoo jaisi vastuon par likhi gee kavitaon ko alochak kavita manane se inkar karate rahe. bad men nazir sahab ki 'utkrisht shayari' ko pahachana gaya aur aj ve urdoo sahity ke shikhar par virajaman chand namon ke sath baizzat gine jate hain. ... aur padhen

rahul sankrityayan
rahul sankrityayan
  • rahul sankrityayan ko hindi yatra sahity ka janak mana jata hai. ve ek pratishthit bahubhashavid the aur 20vin sadi ke poorvarddh men unhonne yatra vritant tatha vishv-darshan ke kshetr men sahityik yogadan kie.
  • sanh 1930 ee. men lnka men bauddh hone par unaka nam 'rahul' pada. bauddh hone ke poorv rahul ji 'damodar svami' ke nam se bhi pukare jate the.
  • "kamar bandh lo bhavi ghumakkadon, snsar tumhare svagat ke lie bekarar hai" -rahul sankrityayan ... aur padhen
mahadevi varma
mahadevi varma
kabir
kabir
  • kabiradas hindi sahity ke bhakti kal ke ikalaute aise kavi hain, jo ajivan samaj aur logon ke bich vyapt adnbaron par kutharaghat karate rahe.
  • hazari prasad dvivedi ke anusar, "bhasha par kabir ka zabaradast adhikar tha. ve vani ke diktetar the. jis bat ko unhonne jis roop men prakat karana chaha hai, use usi roop men kahalava liya- ban gaya hai to sidhe–sidhe, nahin darera dekar." ... aur padhen
galib
mirza galib
  • mirza asadulla beg khan jinhen sari duniya 'mirza galib' ke nam se janati hai, urdoo-farasi ke prakhyat kavi rahe hain.
  • galib sada kiraye ke makanon men rahe, apana makan n banava sake. ve aisa makan zyada pasnd karate the, jisamen baithakakhana aur ant:pur alag-alag hon aur unake daravaze bhi alag hon, jisase yar-dost bejhijhak a-ja saken.
  • “hain aur bhi duniya men sukhanavar bahut achchhe
kahate hain ki galib ka hai andaze-bayan aur” ... aur padhen
satyajit ray
satyajit ray
sarojini nayadoo
sarojini nayadoo
  • sarojini nayadoo suprasiddh kavayitri aur bharat ke rashtriy netaon men se ek thin.
  • sarojini nayadoo ka janm 13 faravari, sanh 1879 ko haidarabad men hua tha. shri aghoranath chattopadhyay aur varadasundari ki ath sntanon men vah sabase badi thin.
  • sarojini nayadoo bahubhashavid thin. vah kshetranusar apana bhashan angrezi, hindi, bangla ya gujarati bhasha men deti thin.
  • 13 varsh ki ayu men sarojini nayadoo ne 1300 padon ki 'jhil ki rani' namak lnbi kavita aur lagabhag 2000 pnktiyon ka ek vistrit natak likhakar angrezi bhasha par apana adhikar siddh kar diya tha.
  • sarojini nayadoo ko visheshat: 'bharat kokila', 'rashtriy neta' aur 'nari mukti andolan ki samarthak' ke roop men sadaiv yad kiya jata rahega.
  • 2 march sanh 1949 ko mrityu ke samay sarojini nayadoo uttar pradesh ke rajyapal pad par thin. .... aur padhen
munshi premachnd
premachnd
  • bharat ke upanyas samrat munshi premachnd ke yug ka vistar sanh 1880 se 1936 tak hai. yah kalakhand bharat ke itihas men bahut mahattv ka hai.
  • premachnd ka vastavik nam dhanapat ray shrivastav tha. ve ek saphal lekhak, deshabhakt nagarik, kushal vakta, zimmedar snpadak aur snvedanashil rachanakar the.
  • premachnd ka janm varanasi se lagabhag char mil door, lamahi nam ke ganv men 31 julaee, 1880 ko hua. premachnd ke pitaji munshi ajayab lal aur mata anandi devi thin.
  • premachnd ka kul daridr kayasthon ka tha, jinake pas qarib chh: bighe zamin thi aur jinaka parivar bada tha. premachnd ke pitamah, munshi gurusahay lal, patavari the.
  • premachnd ne kul 15 upanyas, 300 se kuchh adhik kahaniyan, 3 natak, 10 anuvad, 7 bal-pustaken tatha hazaron prishthon ke lekh, sampadakiy, bhashan, bhoomika, patr adi ki rachana ki hai.
  • antim dinon ke ek varsh ko chhodakar, unaka poora samay varanasi aur lakhanoo men guzara, jahan unhonne anek patr-patrikaon ka snpadan kiya aur 8 aktoobar, 1936 ko jalodar rog se unaka dehavasan ho gaya . .... aur padhen
chhatrapati shivaji maharaj
shivaji
  • shivaji maharaj ka poora nam shivaji raje bhonsale tha. shahaji bhonsale ki pahali patni jijabaee ne shivaji ko 19 faravari, 1630 ko maharashtr ke shivaneri durg men janm diya.
  • shahaji bhonsale ne shivaji ke janm ke uparant hi apani patni ko tyag diya tha. isaliye unaka bachapan bahut upekshit raha aur ve sauteli man ke karan bahut dinon tak pita ke snrakshan se vnchit rahe.
  • balak shivaji ka lalan-palan unake sthaniy snrakshak dadaji konadev tatha jijabaee ke samarth guru ramadas ki dekharekh men hua.
  • shivaji ka vivah saibaeen nimbalakar ke sath sanh 1641 men bngalaur men hua tha. shivaji ke do putr sambhaji raje bhonsale, rajaram chhatrapati aur chh: putriyan thin.
  • ye bharat men maratha samrajy ke snsthapak the. senanayak ke roop men shivaji ki mahanata nirvivad rahi hai. shivaji ne bhoo-rajasv evn prashasan ke kshetr men anek qadam uthae. shivaji ne anek qilon ka nirman aur punaruddhar karavaya. shivaji ke nirdeshanusar sanh 1679 ee. men annaji datton ne ek vistrit bhoo-sarvekshan karavaya jisake parinamasvaroop ek naya rajasv nirdharan hua.
  • maikale dvara 'shivaji mahan' kahe jane vale shivaji ki 1680 men kuchh samay bimar rahane ke bad apani rajadhani pahadi durg rajagadh men 3 apral ko mrityu ho gee. .... aur padhen
bharat ke pratham pradhanamntri javaharalal neharoo
javaharalal neharoo
  • neharoo ji ka janm ilahabad men 14 navambar 1889 ee॰ ko hua.
  • neharoo ji pn॰ motilal neharoo aur shrimati svaroop rani ke ekamatr putr the.
  • neharoo ji shiksha ke lie inglaind ke hairo skool ke bad vah kenbrij ke triniti kaaulej ge, jahan unhonne tin varsh tak adhyayan karake prakriti vigyan men snatak upadhi prapt ki.
  • march 1916 men neharoo ji ka vivah kamala kaul ke sath hua, jo dilli men base kashmiri parivar ki thin.
  • unaki akeli sntan indira priyadarshini thin, jo vivahoparant indira gandhi, nam se bharat ki pratham mahila pradhanamntri banin.
  • 1916 ee॰ ke lakhanoo adhiveshan men ve sarvapratham mahatma gandhi ke sampark men aye. gandhi ji unase 20 sal bade the. donon men se kisi ne bhi arnbh men ek-doosare ko bahut prabhavit nahin kiya.
  • 1928 ee॰ men ve bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke mahamntri bane aur 1929 ke lahaur adhiveshan ke bad neharoo ji desh ke buddhijiviyon aur yuvaon ke neta ke roop men ubhare.
  • pndit neharoo ek mahanh rajanitigy aur prabhavashali vakta hi nahin, khyatilabdh lekhak bhi the. unaki atmakatha 1936 ee॰ men prakashit huee aur snsar ke sabhi deshon men usaka adar hua.
  • 27 mee, 1964 ko dilli men dil ka daura pad jane ke karan neharoo ji mrityu huee. .... aur padhen
rashtrapita mohan das karamachnd gandhi
mahatma gandhi
  • mahatma gandhi ka janm 2 aktoobar 1869 ee. ko gujarat ke porabndar namak sthan men hua tha.
  • inake pita ka nam karamachnd gandhi tha. mohanadas ki mata ka nam putalibaee tha jo karamachnd gandhi ji ki chauthi patni thin.
  • mohanadas ek ausat vidyarthi the. ek satrant-pariksha men unake parinam men angrezi men achchha, ankaganit men thik-thak bhoogol men kharab, chal-chalan bahut achchha, likhavat kharab ki tippani ki gee thi.
  • gandhi ji ka sndesh bahut saral tha. "angrezon ki bndooqon ne nahin, balki bharatavasiyon ki apani kamiyon ne bharat ko gulam banaya hua hai".
  • mahath‍ma gandhi ne bharatiy sh‍vatntrata ke lie 'asahayog andolan', 'savinay avgya andolan', 'dandi yatra' tatha 'bharat chhodo andolan' jaise abhiyan jari rakhe.
  • gandhi ji ke athak prayason se ant men bharat ko 15 agash‍t 1947 ko sh‍vatntrata mili.
  • 30 janavari 1948 ki sham ko ek yuva hindoo kattarapnthi nathooram godse ne goli marakar unaki hatya kar di thi. .... aur padhen
chndrashekhar venkat raman
chndrashekhar venkat raman
  • chndrashekhar venkat raman ka janm tiruchirapalli shahar men 7 navambar 1888 ko hua tha .
  • inake pita chndrashekhar ayyar aur man parvati ammal thin.
  • venkataraman briten ke pratishthit kaimbrij yoonivarsiti ki 'em॰ ar॰ si॰ leboretriz aauf myalookular bayoloji' ke strakacharal stadiz vibhag ke pramukh vaigyanik the.
  • 'raman prabhav' ki khoj 28 faravari 1928 ko huee thi. is mahanh khoj ki yad men 28 faravari ka din ham 'rashtriy vigyan divas' ke roop men manate hain. is mahanh khoj 'raman prabhav' ke liye 1930 men shri raman ko 'bhautiki ka nobel puraskar' pradan kiya gaya aur raman bhautik vigyan men nobel puraskar prapt karane vale eshiya ke pahale vyakti bane.
  • daau.raman ka desh-videsh ki prakhyat vaigyanik snsthaon ne samman kiya. bharat sarakar ne 'bharat ratn' ki sarvochch upadhi dekar sammanit kiya.
  • soviyat roos ne unhen 1958 men 'lenin puraskar' pradan kiya.
  • 21 navambar 1970 ko 82 varsh ki ayu men vaigyanik daau. raman ki mrityu huee. .... aur padhen

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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