एतियान बोनो द कौंदिला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

etiyan bono d kaundila (1715-1780 ee.) phransisi darshanik jo moolat: eesaee mahnt tha. usaka didero (Diderot) tatha rooso (Rousseau) adi darshanikon se gahara snpark tha. usane prasiddh phransisi vishvakosh men kuchh lekh aur sat brihath‌ grnth likhe hain. usane spinozavadi paramatatv (savastains), laibanitsavadi atmanu (monad) evn poorvasthapit samy (pri-estaiblishd harmoni), tatha malabranshavadi man:shaktiyon ki dharanaon ka khndan karake, phrans men angreji lokavadi anubhavavad ki sthapana ki. laauk ke mat se sarvatha bhinn usane keval snvedana ko mool man, samast manovasthaon ko snvedana ka hi parivartit roop siddh kiya. sparsh ko bahy tathyatmak vastu ka soochak batakar, usane hamari sabhi prakar ki snvedana ko aisa hi manana, sparsh ke snbndh men padi adat ka parinam tatha upasthit snvedana ka chetana ko poori tarah apane men laga lena hi avadhan ka svaroop bataya aur usi prakar kisi gat snvedana par avadhan ko smriti kaha hai. usane yah bhi kaha ki ek sath do snvedanaon par dhyan dena hi tulana hai. tulana men samanata asamanata dekhi jati hai, yahi bauddhik nirnay hai. poorv tatha vartaman snvedanaon ke sukh du:khatmak angon ki tulana se ichchha, kalpana aur prem, ghrina, asha bhay aur snkalp jaise udvegon ki utpatti hoti hai. mool pravritti pratibhatmak vichar se utpann hokar vicharavihin ho gee adat hoti hai, aur vah n naisargik hoti hai, n anuvnshik. vichar sada bhashyatmak hota hai, isalaye sngyapan bhasha ka ekamatr uddeshy nahin hai. bhasha ka samyikaran vichar men truti aur dosh lata hai, isaliye saty par pahunchane ke liye asabhy bhasha dvara vikas vishleshan hi upayukt vidhi hai.[1]

kaundila ke in vicharon ka lagabhag pachas varsh tak phrans men avirodh prabhav raha. 19vin sadi men jarmani se aee romaintik lahar ne snvedana vad ke sthan par koojai ke adhyatmavad ko mahatv diya. kintu inglaind men, mil, ben, aur spensar adi anubhavavadiyon aurah manovaigyanikon par kaudila ka gahara prabhav bana raha.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 3 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 193 |
  2. sn.grn.-ee. bi. d kaundila : oobr konplit; labi brool : histri aauv maaudarn filasafi in phrans.ra. loon.

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