ऑक्सीजन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

naitrojanaauksijanflorin
-

O

S
rng rup
rngahin gais, halke nile rng ka drav

Oxygen.jpg
aauksijan ki varnakram rekhaen
sadharan gunadharm
nam, pratik, snkhya aauksijan, O, 8
tatv shreni adhatu
samooh, avart, kaksha 16, 2, p
manak paramanu bhar 15.9994g·mol−1
ilektraaun vinyas 1s2 2s2 2p4
ilektraaun prati shel 2, 6
bhautik gunadharm
avastha gais
ghanatv (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
1.429 g/L
taral ghanatv (galanank par) 1.141 g·cm−3
galanank 54.36 K, -218.79 °C, -361.82 °F
kvathanank 90.20   K, -182.95 °C, -297.31 °F
snkat bindu 154.59 K, 5.043 MPa
snlayan ooshma (O2) 0.444 kilo jool-mol
vashpan ooshma (O2) 6.82 kilo jool-mol
vishisht ooshmiy kshamata (O2) 29.378

jool-mol−1kilo−1

vashp dab
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 61 73 90
paramanvik gunadharm
aauksikaran avastha 2, 1, −1, −2
(nyootral aauksaid)
ilektronegetiviti 3.44 (pailing paimana)
ayanikaran oorjaen
(adhik)
1st: 1313.9 ki.jool•mol−1
2nd: 3388.3 ki.jool•mol−1
3rd: 5300.5 ki.jool•mol−1
sahasnyojak trijya 66±2 pm
vaindair vals trijya 152 pm
vividh gunadharm
kristal snrachana ghaniy
chumbakiy kram parachumbakiy
ooshmiy chalakata (300 K) 26.58x10-3 W·m−1·K−1
dhvani ki gati (gais, 27 °C) 330 m/s
si.e.es pnjikaran snkhya 7782-44-7
samasthanik
samasthanik pra. prachurata arddh ayu ksharan avastha ksharan oorja
(MeV)
ksharan utpad
16O 99.76% 16O 8 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
17O 0.039% 17O 9 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
18O 0.201% 18O 10 nyootraaun ke sath sthir

aauksijan (angrezi:Oxygen) avart sarani ka athavan tatv hai. aauksijan rngahin, svadahin tatha gndharahit gais hai. aauksijan ka pratik chihn O tatha ilektraaunik vinyas 1s2, 2s2, 2p4 hota hai. aauksijan ko avart sarani ke upavarg 6 A men rakha gaya hai. aauksijan ka hindi nam 'jarak' hai aur chihn ja hai.

khoj

aauksijan gais ki khoj sarvapratham svidan ke shile namak vaigyanik ne 1772 men ki thi. aauksijan ki khoj, prapti athava prarnbhik adhyayan men je. pristale aur si.dablyoo. shele ne mahattvapoorn kary kiya hai.[1]

prapti

aauksijan prithvi ke anek padarthon men rahata hai aur vastav men any tatvon ki tulana men isaki matra sabase adhik hai. aauksijan vayumndal men svatntr roop men milata hai aur ayatan ke anusar usaka lagabhag panchavan bhag hai. yaugik roop men pani, khanij tatha chattanon ka yah mahattvapoorn ansh hai. vanaspati tatha praniyon ke pray: sab sharirik padarthon ka aauksijan ek avashyak tatv hai. vayu men qarib 29.29% matra aauksijan ki hoti hai. chandi ko garm karane par yah aauksijan ko avashoshit kar leti hai tatha thanda karane par avashoshit aauksijan nikal jati hai. ise chandi ka udavaman kahate hain.[1]

bhautik gun

  • drav aauksijan halke nile rng ka hota hai.[1]
  • aauksijan ek rngahin, gndhahin gais hai jo vayu se kuchh bhari hoti hai.
  • thanda karane par aauksijan nile rng ke drav men parivartit ho jati hai.
  • aauksijan gais svayn nahin jalati hai, parantu jalane men sahayak hoti hai.
  • aauksijan ki prakriti anuchumbakiy hai.
  • aauksijan ka ghanattv 1.4290 gram prati litar hai (0° sentigred, 750 milimitar dab par) aur vayu ki apeksha yah gais 1.10527 guna bhari hai.[1]
  • aauksijan ka vishisht tap (sthir dab par) 15° sentigred hai tatha sthir ayatan ke vishisht tap se isaka anupat 1.401 hai.[1]
  • aauksijan ke dravikaran men visheshgyon ko vishesh kathinaee huee thi, kyonki isaka krantik (kritikal) tap 118.8° sentigred, dab 49.7 vayumndal tatha ghanattv 0.430 gram/sentimitar3 hai.[1]
  • aauksijan ka kvathanank 183° sentigred tatha thos aauksijan ka dravanank 218.4° sentigred hai. 15° sentigred par snlagn tatha vashpayan ooshmaen kramanusar 3.30 tatha 50.9 kailori prati gram hai.[1]
  • aauksijan pani men thoda ghulanashil hai, jo jaliy praniyon ke shvasan ke lie upayogi hai. kuchh dhatuen jaise- pighali huee chandi athava doosari vastuen jaise- koyala aauksijan ka shoshan badi matra men kar leti hain.[1]

upayog

  • aauksijan ko kritrim shvasan ke roop men prayog karate hain tatha ise pran vayu kahate hain.
  • jivit praniyon ke lie aauksijan ati avashyak hai. ise ve shvasan dvara grahan karate hain.
  • drav aauksijan tatha karban, petroliyam, ityadi ka mishran ati visphotak hai. isalie inaka upayog kadi vastuon (chattan ityadi) ke todane men hota hai.
  • lohe ki moti chaddar katane athava mashin ke toote bhagon ko jodane ke lie aauksijan tatha dahanashil gais ko phunkani se jalaya jata hai. is prakar utpann jvala ka tap bahut adhik hota hai.
  • sadharan aauksijan ke sath haidrojan ya aisitilin jalaee jati hai. isake lie ye gaisen ispat ke belanon men ati snpidit avastha men bikati hain.
  • aauksijan siraka, varnish ityadi banane tatha asadhy rogiyon ke sans lene ke lie bhi upayogi hai.
  • aauksijan dhatuon ko jodane tatha klorin, salfyoorik aml adi ke audyogik nirman men prayog ki jati hai.[1]

rasayanik gun

aauksaid aur daiaauksaid

  • kee prakar ke aauksaidon (jaise para, chandi ityadi ke) athava daiaauksaidon (led, mainganij, beriyam ke) tatha aauksijan vale bahut se lavanon (jaise potaishiyam naitret, kloret, paramainganet tatha daikromet) ko garam karane se aauksijan prapt ho sakata hai. jab kuchh paraauksaid pani ke sath prakriya karate hain tab bhi aauksijan utpann hota hai. at: sodiyam paraauksaid tatha mainganiz daiaauksaid ya choone ke kloraid ka choornit mishran (athava isi prakar ke any mishran bhi) aauksijan utpadan ke lie prayukt hote hain.[1]
  • haipokloraid athava haipobromait (jaise bliching paudar) ke vighatan se ya gndhak ke aml tatha mainganij daiaauksaid ya potaishiyam paramainganet ki kriya se bhi aauksijan milata hai. gaiso ki thodi matra taiyar karane ke lie haidrojan paraauksaid akele athava utprerak ke sath adhik upayukt hai.[1]
  • jab beriyam aauksaid ko tapt kiya jata hai (lagabhag 500° sentigred tak) tab vah hava se aauksijan lekar paraauksaid banata hai. adhik tapakram (lagabhag 800° sentigred) par isake vighatan se aauksijan prapt hota hai tatha pun: upayog ke lie beriyam aauksaid bacha rahata hai. audyogik utpadan ke lie brin vidhi isi kriya par adharit thi.[1]
  • aauksijan prapt karane ke vichar se kuchh any aauksaid bhi (jaise tanba, para adi ke aauksaid) isi prakar upayogi hain. hava se aauksijan alag karane ke lie ab drav hava ka atyadhik upayog hota hai, jisake prabhajit asavan se aauksijan prapt kiya jata hai, pani ke vidyutshleshan (ilektraaulisis) se haidrojan ke utpadan men aauksijan bhi upajat (baipraaudakt) ke roop men milata hai.[1]
  • bahut se tatv aauksijan se sidha snyog karate hain. inamen kuchh (jaise phaausphoras, sodiyam ityadi) to sadharan tap par hi dhire-dhire kriya karate hain, parntu adhikatar, jaise karban, gndhak, loha, maignishiyam ityadi, garam karane par. aauksijan se bhare bartan men ye vastuen dahakati huee avastha men dalate hi jal uthati hain aur jalane se aauksaid banata hai. aauksijan men haidrojan gais jalati hai tatha pani banata hai. yah kriya in donon ke gaisiy mishran men vidyut chinagari se athava utprerak ki upasthiti men bhi hoti hai.[1]

yaugikon ke sath kriya

aauksijan bahut se yaugikon se bhi kriya karata hai. naitrik aauksaid, pheras tatha mainganas haidraauksaid ka aauksikaran sadharan tap par hi hota hai. haidrojan phasphaid, silikan haidraid tatha jink ithail se to kriya men itana tap utpann hota hai ki snpoorn vastuen hi prajvalit ho uthati hain. loha, nikal ityadi mahin roop men rahane par aur led salfaid tatha karban kloraid soory ke prakash men kriya karate hain. in kriyaon men pani ki upasthiti chahe yah sookshm matra men hi kyon n rahe, bahut mahattvapoorn hai.[1]

aauksijan ki pahachan

dahakate hue tinake ke prajvalit hone se aauksijan ki pahachan hoti hai (naitras aauksaid se isako bhinnata naitrik aauksaid ke upayog se jani ja sakati hai). aauksijan ki matra kyoopras kloraid, kshariy payarogailol ke ghol, tanba athava isi prakar ki doosari upayukt vastuon dvara shoshit karane se gyat ki jati hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 “khand 1”, hindi vishvakosh, 1973 (hindi), bharatadiskavari pustakalay: nagari pracharini sabha varanasi, 344-345.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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