ऑटिज़्म  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aautizm
aautizm se grasit vyakti
vivaran aautizm ek mastishk vikar hai. aautizm spektram vikar (eesadi) samajik vikritiyon, snvad men pareshani, pratibndhit, vyavahar ka doharav aur vyavahar ka stiriyotaip paitarn dvara pahachane jane vala tntrika vikas snbndhi jatil vikar hai.
any nam atmavimoh, svalinata
prakar e.es.di. ke tin prakar hain- aautistik vikar, esparjar sindrom aur vyapak vikasatmak vikar.
itihas pahali bar sanh 1938 men viyana yoonivarsiti ke haauspital men karyarat hains esparajar ne aautizm shabd ka istemal kiya tha. esparajar un dinon aautizm sprektram (e.es.di.) ke ek prakar par khoj kar rahe the . bad men 1943 men jaaun hapakin haauspital ke kaaunar liyo ne sarvapratham 'aautizm' ko apani riport men varnit kiya tha. kaaunar ne gyarah bachchon men paee gee ek jaisi vyavaharik samanataon par adharit riport taiyar ki thi.[1]
prabhav varsh 2010 tak duniya ki lagabhag 7 karod abadi aautizm se prabhavit hai. vishv men aautizm se prabhaviton ki snkhya eds, madhumeh aur kainsar se pidit rogiyon ki mili-juli snkhya se bhi adhik hone ki sambhavana hai.
snbndhit lekh vishv aautizm jagarookata divas, projeriya, alzaimar
any janakari aautizm ki shighr ki gee pahachan, manorog visheshgy se tunrat paramarsh hi isaka sabase pahala ilaz hai. agar mata-pita isake shuruati lakshanon ke adhar par isaki pahachan kar saken to bachche ko kisi manochikitsak ko dikhaen.

aautizm (angrezi: Autism) ya atmavimoh / svalinata, ek manasik rog hai. yah mastishk ke vikas ke dauran hone vala ek vikar hai jisake lakshan janm se ya balyavastha (pratham tin varshon men) men hi nazar ane lagate hain aur vyakti ki samajik kushalata aur snpreshan kshamata par viparit prabhav dalata hai. jin bachchon men yah rog hota hai unaka vikas any bachchon se asamany hota hai, sath hi isaki vajah se unake nyoorosistam par viparit prabhav padata hai. isase prabhavit vyakti, simit aur doharav yukt vyavahar karata hai. jaise- ek hi kam ko bar-bar doharana. yah jivanaparynt bana rahane vala vikar hai. aautizmagrast vyakti snvedanon ke prati asamany vyavahar darshate hain, kyonki unake ek ya adhik snvedan prabhavit hote hain. in sab samasyaon ka prabhav vyakti ke vyavahar men dikhaee deta hai. jaise- vyaktiyon, vastuon aur ghatanaon se asamany tariqe se judana. aautizm ka vistrit dayara hai. isake lakshanon ki gnbhirata sikhane aur samajik anukoolata ke kshetr men sadharan kami se lekar gnbhir kshati tak ho sakati hai, kyonki ek ya anek samasyaen aur atyadhik asamany vyavahar sthiti ko gnbhir bana sakata hai. aautizm ke sath any samasya bhi ho sakati hai, jaise- manasik vikalangata, mirgi, bolane v sunane men kathinaee adi. yah bahut kam hone vali samasya nahin hai, balki vikas snbndhi vikaron men isaka tisara sthan hai. yah amir ya garib kisi bhi tabake men paee ja sakati hai.[2]

itihas

aautizm ko hindi men svalinata, svaparayanata athava svat: prem kahate hain. jaisa ki nam se hi spasht hai, 'aautizm' yani svalinata se grasit vyakti bahari duniya se bekhabar apane ap men hi lin rahata hai. sunane ke lie kan svasth hai, dekhane ke lie ankhen thik hain phir bhi vah apane as pas ke vatavaran se anajan rahata hai. pahali bar sanh 1938 men viyana yoonivarsiti ke haauspital men karyarat hains esparajar ne aautizm shabd ka istemal kiya tha. esparajar un dinon aautizm sprektram (e.es.di.) ke ek prakar par khoj kar rahe the . bad men 1943 men jaaun hapakin haauspital ke kaaunar liyo ne sarvapratham 'aautizm' ko apani riport men varnit kiya tha. kaaunar ne gyarah bachchon men paee gee ek jaisi vyavaharik samanataon par adharit riport taiyar ki thi.[1]

aautizm spektram disaaurdar (ASD)

aautizm se prabhavit vyakti, simit aur doharav yukt vyavahar karata hai. jaise- ek hi kam ko bar-bar doharana. yah sab bachche ke tin sal hone se pahale hi shuroo ho jata hai. in lakshanon ke halke (kam prabhavi) ko aautizm spektram disaaurdar (ASD) kahate hain. jaise- esparjar sindrom tatha isake gnbhir roop ko aautizm (aautistik disaaurdar) kahate hain. aautizm ka ek mazaboot anuvnshik adhar hota hai, halanki aautizm ki anuvnshiki jatil hai aur yah spasht nahin hai ki aautizm spektram disaaurdar ka karan bahujin snvad (multigene interactions) hai ya durlabh utparivartan (myooteshan). aautizm se grasit bachche am bachchon ke muqabale kam snlagn suraksha ka pradarshan karate hain (jaise am bachche mata pita ki maujoodagi men surakshit mahasoos karate hain) yadyapi yah lakshan uchch mastishk vikas vale ya jinaka e es di kam hota hai vale bachchon men gayab ho jata hai. ASD se grasit bade bachche aur vayask cheharon aur bhavanaon ko pahachanane ke parikshan men bahut bura pradarshan karate hain. ASD se pidit logon ke gusse aur hinsa ke bare men kafi kisse hain lekin vaigyanik adhyayan bahut kam hain. yah simit ankade batate hain ki aautizm ke shikar mnd buddhi bachche hi aksar akramak ya ugr hote hain.

eesadi ke prakar

aautistik vikar

"klasik" aautizm bhi kaha jata hai. yah aautizm ka sabase samany prakar hota hai. aautizm vikar se pidit rogi ko bhasha men vyavadhan, samajik aur snchar men chunautiyon tatha asamany vyavahar evn aruchiyan ho sakati hai. is vikar se pidit bahut sare vyaktiyon men bauddhik vikalangata bhi ho sakati hai.

esparjar sindrom

esparjar sindrom se pidit vyakti men aautistik vikar ke halke lakshan vikasit hote hain. unhen samajik chunautiyan aur asamany vyavahar tatha aruchiyan bhi ho sakati hain. halanki, amataur par yah bhasha ya bauddhik vikalangata ke sath hone vali samasya nahin hai.

vyapak vikasatmak vikar

is vikar ko "asamany aautizm" kaha jata hai. aautistik vikar ya espargar sindrom se pidit vyakti ke lakshan alag-alag hote hain, arthath yah lakshan sabhi men ek saman bilkul nahin hote hain. pididi-enoes ke sath ka nidan kiya ja sakata hai. amataur par pididi-enoes se pidit vyaktiyon men aautistik vikar se pidit vyaktiyon ki tulana men kam aur madhyam lakshan prakat hote hain. yah lakshan keval samajik aur snchar chunautiyon ka karan ban sakate hain.

aautizm ka prabhav

varsh 2010 tak duniya ki lagabhag 7 karod abadi aautizm se prabhavit hai. vishv men aautizm se prabhaviton ki snkhya eds, madhumeh aur kainsar se pidit rogiyon ki mili-juli snkhya se bhi adhik hone ki sambhavana hai. yahan tak ki isase prabhavit hone vale vyaktiyon ki snkhya daun sindrom ki apeksha adhik hai. vishv bhar men prati 10,000 men se 20 vyakti isase prabhavit hote hain aur isase prabhavit vyaktiyon men se 80 pratishat mariz purush aur matr 20 pratishat mahilaen hain. isaka matalab aautizm ki samasya ladakiyon ki apeksha ladakon men 4 se 5 guna zyada hai. jisaka anupat 1:4.3 hai. purushon men aautizm adhik hone ka koee thos karan ab tak samane nahin aya hai. yah samasya vishvabhar men sabhi vargon ke logon men paee jati hai. bharat men aautizm se grast vyaktiyon ki snkhya lagabhag 1 karod 70 lakh (taqariban 1.5 miliyan) hai. varsh 1980 se ab tak kie ge vibhinn sarvekshanon ke aaunkadon par nazar dalen to gyat hoga ki is bich aautizm samasya men ashcharyajanak dhng se badhottari huee hai. sambhavat: isaka karan logon men isake prati badhati jagarookata, dayagnosis ke tarikon men badalav tatha sambandhit sevaon ki sulabhata rahi hai.[1]

aautizm ke lakshan

aautizm ke lakshan

aautizm paravesiv devalapamental disardar (pi.di.di.) ke panch prakaron men se ek hai. aautizm ko keval ek lakshan ke adhar par pahachana nahin ja sakata, balki lakshanon ke paitarn ke adhar par hi aautizm ki pahachan ki ja sakati hai. samajik kushalata v snpreshan ka abhav, kisi kary ko bar-bar doharane ki pravritti tatha simit rujhan isake pramukh lakshan hain. ek am adami ke lie aautizm ki pahachan karana kafi mushkil hai. isake mool men do karan ho sakate hain. ek to atistik vyakti ki sharirik snrachana men pratyaksh taur par koee kabhi nahin hoti. any samany vyaktiyon jaisi hi hoti hai. doosare bachche ki tin varsh ki umr men hi aautizm ke lakshan dikhaee dete hain, isase pahale nahin. gaur karane vali bat yah hai ki aautizm se pidit do bachchon ke lakshan saman nahin hote hain. jahan kuchh bachchon men yah bimari samany roop men hoti hai, to kuchh men isaka prabhav zyada dekhane ko milata hai. aautizm mastishk ke kee bhagon ko prabhavit karata hai, par isake karanon ko dhng se nahin samajha jata. amataur par mata pita apane bachche ke jivan ke pahale do varshon men hi isake lakshanon ko bhanp lete hain. aautizm ko ek lakshan ke bajay ek vishisht lakshanon ke samooh dvara behatar samajha ja sakata hai. mukhy lakshanon men shamil hain-

samajik snpark men asamarthata

aautizm se grast vyakti paraspar snbndh sthapit nahin kar pate hain tatha samajik vyavahar men asamarth hone ke sath hi doosare logon ke mntavyon ko samajhane men bhi asamarth hote hain is karan log aksar inhen gnbhirata se nahin lete. samajik asamarthatayen bachapan se shuroo hokar vayask hone tak chalati hain. aautistik bachche samajik gatividhiyon ke prati udasin hote hain, vo logo ki or na dekhate hain, na muskurate hain aur zyadatar apana nam pukare jane par bhi koee pratikriya nahin karate hain. aautistik shishuon ka vyavahar to aur chaunkane vala hota hai, vo ankh nahin milate hain aur apani bat kahane ke liye vo aksar doosare vyakti ka hath chhoote aur hilate hain. tin se panch sal ke bachche amataur par samajik samajh nahin pradarshit karate hain, bulane par ekadam se pratikiya nahin dete, bhavanaon ke prati asnvedanashil, mook vyavahari aur doosaron ke sath mud jate hain. isake bavajood vo apani prathamik dekhabhal karane vale vyakti se jude hote hain. aautizm se grasit bachche am bachchon ke muqabale kam snlagn suraksha ka pradarshan karate hain (jaise am bachche mata pita ki maujoodagi men surakshit mahasoos karate hain). am dharana ke viparit, atistik bachche akele rahana pasnd nahin karate. dost banana aur dosti banae rakhana atistik bachche ke liye aksar mushkil sabit hota hai. inake liye mitron ki snkhya nahin balki dosti ki gunavatta mayane rakhati hai.

batachit karane men asamarthata

aautizm prabhavit bachchon ki sabase badi samasya bhashagat hoti hai. aise bachchon men mastishk men ae snnayu vikar ke karan snpreshan ki dikoding n ho pane ke karan bolane men dikkat ka samana karana padata hai. lagabhag 50% bachchon men bhasha ka vikas nahin ho pata hai. ek tihaee se lekar adhe aautistik vyaktiyon men apane dainik jivan ki zarooraton ko poora karane ke layaq bhasha bodh tatha bolane ki kshamata vikasit nahin ho pati. snchar men kamiyan jivan ke pahale varsh men hi drishtigochar ho jati hain jiname shamil hai, der se bolana, asamany bhav, mnd pratikriya aur apane palak ke sath huye vartalap men samnjasy ka nitant abhav. doosare aur tisare sal men, aautistik bachche kam bolate hain, sath hi unaka shabd snchay aur shabd snyojan bhi vistrit nahin hota. unake bhav aksar unake bole shabdon se mel nahin khate. atistik bachchon men anurodh karane ya anubhavon ko bantane ki snbhavana kam hoti hai, aur unamen bas doosaron ki baten ko doharane ki snbhavana adhik hoti hai.

simit shauq aur doharav yukt vyavahar
  1. ve ek hi kriya, vyavahar ko doharate hain. jaise- hath hilana, sharir hilana aur bina matalab ki avazen karana adi. jise stiriyotaeepi kahate hai yah ek nirarthak pratikriya hai.
  2. pratibndhit vyavahar dhyan, shauq ya gatividhi ko simit rakhane se snbndhit hai, jaise ek hi tivi karyakram ko bar bar dekhana.
  3. badhyakari vyavahar ka uddeshy niyamon ka palan karana hota hai, jaise ki vastuon ko ek nishchit tarah ki vyavastha men rakhana.
  4. anushthanik vyavahar ke pradarshan men shamil hain dainik gatividhiyon ko har bar ek hi tarah se karana, jaise- ek sa khana, ek si poshak adi. yah samanata ke sath nikatata se juda hai aur ek svatntr satyapan donon ke snyojan ki salah deta hai.
  5. samanata ka arth parivartan ka pratirodh hai, udaharan ke lie, pharnichar ke sthanantaran se inkar.
  6. atmaghat (svayn ko chot pahunchana) se abhipray hai ki koee bhi aisi kriya jisase vyakti khud ko ahat kar sakata ho, jaise- khud ko kat lena. dominik et al ke anusar lagabhag ASD se prabhavit 30% bachche svayn ko chot pahncha sakate hain.
  7. ve prakash, dhvani, sparsh aur dard jaise snvedanon ke prati asamany pratikriya darshate hain. udaharan ke taur par vah prakash men apani ankhon ko bnd kar lete hain, kuchh vishesh dhvaniyan hone par vah apane kanon ko bnd kar lete hain.
khelane ka unaka apana asamany tariqa

aautizm se pidit bachche alag tariqe ke khel khelate hain, jaise kee karon ko kramabaddh karane ka khel. ye bachche khilaune ko am bachchon ki tulana men adhik ghumate hain. aise bachche samooh men rahana pasnd nahin karate, unaki apani alag hi duniya hoti hai. vah bina kisi bat ke rone aur chillane lagate hain. is tarah ke bachche apane gusse, hatasha adi ka ijahar bol kar nahin kar pate. karyatmak snbhashan ke lie snyukt dhyan avashyak hota hai aur is snyukt dhyan men kami, ASD shishuon ko anyon se alag karata hai.[3]

balyavastha men aautizm ko kaise pahachane

balyavastha men samany bachchon evn aautistik bachchon men kuchh pramukh antar hote hain jinake adhar par is avastha ki pahachan ki ja sakati hai jaise:-

  1. samany bachche man ka chehara dekhate hain aur usake hav-bhav samajhane ki koshish karate hain parantu aautizm se grasit bachche kisi se nazar milane se katarate hain.
  2. samany bachche avazen sunane ke bad khush ho jate hain parantu aautistik bachche avazon par dhyan nahin dete.
  3. samany bachche dhire-dhire bhasha gyan men vriddhi karate hain parantu aautistik bachche bolane ke kuchh samay bad achanak hi bolana bnd kar dete hain tatha ajib avazen nikalate hain.
  4. samany bachche man ke door hone par ya anajane logon se milane par pareshan ho jate hain parantu aautistik bachche kisi ke ane-jane par pareshan nahin hote.
  5. aautistik bachche takaliph ke prati koee kriya nahin karate aur bachane ki bhi koshish nahin karate.
  6. samany bachche qaribi logon ko pahachanate hain tatha unake milane par muskurate hain lekin aautistik bachche koshish karane par bhi kisi se bat nahin karate vo apane hi duniya men khoye rahate hain.
  7. aautistik bachche ek hi vastu ya kary men magn rahate hain tatha ajib kriyaon ko bar-bar duharate hain. jaise- age-pichhe hilana, hath ko hilate rahana.
  8. aautistik bachche any bachchon ki tarah kalpanik khel nahin khel pate vah khelane ke bajay khilaunon ko soonghate ya chatate hain.
  9. aautistik bachche badalav ko bardast nahin kar pate evn apane kriyakalapon ko niyamanusar hi karana chahate hain.
  10. aautistik bachche bahut chnchal ya bahut sust hote hain.
  11. in bachchon men kuchh vishesh baten hoti hai jaise- ek indri ka atitivr hona.

kab karen visheshgy se snpark

yahan kuchh aise snket die ja rahe hain, jinake dikhaee dene par bachche men aautizm hone ki snbhavana ho sakati hai. aisi sthiti men shighr se shighr visheshgy se snpark kiya jana chahie.

  • yadi bachcha logon se snbndh sthapit nahin karata ho. adhikanshatah aisi sthiti janm bad se hi pahachani ja sakati hai, jaise samajik muskan vilnb se dena athava bilakul n dena, uthane ke lie hath age n badhana, bhavanatmak lagav ka abhav.
  • bhasha ke vikas men vilnb ya adhoora vikas, bilakul nahin bolana ya suni huee bat ko bar-bar doharana.
  • snvedanon ki spasht kriyahinata, jaise- vatavaran ki vastuon, ghatanaon adi ko bilakul bhi dekhana-sunana nahin, alp athava adhik pratikriya (dhvani, prakash, sparsh, dard ke prati).
  • man men asamany bhav ya bhavahinata, jaise- khatare ki sthiti men bhay ka abhav, sadharan-si bat par aniyntrit pratikriya, bina karan ya aniyntrit dhng se hnsana ya rona.
  • ghnton tak ek hi kriya-vyavahar doharate rahana, jisaka koee spasht karan n ho, jaise ankhon ke samane bar-bar hath le jana, ankhon ka bhengapan, nirarthak avazen karana, ankhon ke samane vastuon ko latakana ya ghumana, sharir ko hilate rahana adi.
  • samany tariqe se khel nahin pana, khilaunon se n khelakar any vastuon se asamany tariqe se khelana.
  • kriyaon evn vyavahar ko doharate rahane ke svabhav ke karan vatavaran men kisi bhi prakar ka parivartan pasnd nahin karana aur usaka virodh karana. jaise- sone ka samay, bhojan ka prakar, pharnichar ki jamavat, ane-jane ka rasta, dinacharya adi men unaki jo adat ya pasnd hoti hain, usase alag kuchh karane par usaka virodh karana.

aautizm aur bhrantiyan

  • ye bachche alpabuddhi vale hon, aisa zaroori nahin hai. aisa dekha gaya hai ki kuchh bachchon ka bauddhik star samany bachchon jaisa ya unase bhi adhik hota hai. kuchh aautistik bachche to bahut kalatmak gun vale bhi hote hain. choonki ye bachche samaj men many tarikon ko sikhane men asamarth hote hain aur zyadatar in bachchon men bhasha snbndhi dosh hote hain, isalie inaka abhivyakti ka tarika samany bachchon se hatakar hota hai.
  • in bachchon ko samaj men sahabhagita se rahane, khelane, uthane-baithane ki bahut zyada avashyakata hai. atah inase bhagane ki bajay ham sabako milakar inhen apanana chahie. ham jitana in bachchon se baten karenge, utana hi ye samaj se judenge. yadi ham apane samany bachchon ko inase door n le jakar, inaka tiraskar n karake samany bachchon ko in bachchon ki samasyaon se avagat karaen to ham samany bachchon ke man men in bachchon ke prati samman evn sahayog ki bhavana to jaga hi sakate hain, sath hi samany bachchon ko aautistik bachchon ke samasyatmak vyavahar ko apanane se bhi rok sakate hain.
  • ye bachche akramak nahin hote. inaka vyavahar evn apani bat ko prakat karane ka tarika kuchh alag hota hai. unake anokhe tarikon ko dekhakar aksar hamen galataphahami ho jati hai. 1 ya 2 pratishat mamalon men bachche ke akramak hone ki snbhavana ho sakati hai yadi aautizm ke sath-sath bachche ko kee badi samasya bhi ho to. isake lie hamen aise bachchon ke sath baten karate samay savadhan rahane ki avashyakata hai, unase bhagane ki nahin.
  • yah sochana ki ye bachche kuchh nahin kar sakate, bilakul galat hai. choonki in bachchon men bauddhik kshamata alag-alag hoti hai, isalie ye sabhi prakar ke kshetron men age badh sakate hain. inako sirf sahi margadarshan ki avashyakata hoti hai. ye bachche kisi ek kshetr men bahut achchha pradarshan kar sakate hain jaise sngit, nrity ya kalatmak kaushal men.
  • aautizm ek avastha hai, n ki bimari. isake prabhavon ko davaiyon se kuchh had tak niyntran men rakha ja sakata hai, lekin aautizm ko khatm nahin kiya ja sakata. yah avastha janmajat bhi ho sakati hai aur janm ke kuchh salon bad bhi ho sakati hai.
  • yah avastha jivanaparynt vyakti men rahati hai. bachche ke bade ho jane ya shadi kar dene se isamen apane ap koee kami nahin ati. han, sahi samay par sahi margadarshan men isake prabhavon par niyntran paya ja sakata hai. [4]

aautizm hone ke karan

aautizm hone ki koee ek vajah nahin khoji ja saki hai. yah samasya vnshanugat hai, halanki kaun-sa jin is samasya ka karak hai? agyat hai. anushodhon ke anusar aautizm hone ke kee karan ho sakate hai. jaise-

  1. mastishk ki gatividhiyon men asamanyata hona.
  2. mastishk ke rasayanon men asamanyata hona.
  3. janm se pahale bachche ka vikas samany roop se n ho pana.[5]

durlabh mamalon men, aautizm ko un karakon se bhi joda gaya hai jo janm snbndhi doshon ke liye uttaradayi hai. any prastavit karanon men, bachapan ke tike, vivadaspad hain aur isake koee vaigyanik saboot bhi nahin hai.

aautizm ka ilaz

aautizm ki shighr ki gee pahachan, manorog visheshgy se tunrat paramarsh hi isaka sabase pahala ilaz hai. agar mata-pita isake shuruati lakshanon ke adhar par isaki pahachan kar saken to bachche ko kisi manochikitsak ko dikhaen. jitani jaldi ap bachche ka ilaz shuroo karava denge, utani zyada is bat ki snbhavana hai ki bachcha svasth ho sake. aautizm ek ajivan rahane vali avastha hai jisake poorn ilaz ke lie yahan-vahan bhatak kar samay barabad na kare balki isake bare men janakari jutaen tatha manovaigyanik ya manochikitsak se snpark karen. aautizm ek prakar ki vikas sambandhi bimari hai jise poori tarah se thik nahin kiya ja sakata lekin sahi prashikshan v paramarsh se rogi ko bahut kuchh sikhaya ja sakata hai jo use roz ke kamon men usaki dekh-rekh men madad karata hai tatha shuruati sngyanatmak ya vyavahari hastakshep, bachchon ko svayn ki dekhabhal, samajik aur batachit kaushal ke vikas men sahayata kar sakate hain. bahut kam atistik bachche hi vayask hone par atmanirbhar hone men saphal ho pate hain. ajakal ek atmavimohi snskriti vikasit ho gayi hai, jisamen kuchh logon ko ilaz par vishvas hai aur kuchh logon ke liye aautizm ek vikar hone ke bajay ek sthiti hai. aautizm se grasit 70% vyaktiyon men manasik mndata payi jati hai jisake karan vah ek samany jivan jine men poori tarah samarth nahin ho pate parantu agar manasik mndata adhik n ho to aautizm se grasit vyakti bahut kuchh sikh pata hai. kabhi-kabhi bachchon men aisi kabiliyat bhi dekhi jati hai jo samany vyaktiyon ke samajh aur pahunch se door hoti hai.

vibhinn theraipi

aautizm se prabhavit bachche / vyakti ke jivan men gunatmak sudhar lana tatha use atm nirbhar banana hi ilaz ka mukhy dhyey hona chahie. isake lie shighr hastakshep yani arli intaravenshan ke zariye samasya ki shighr atishighr pahachan kar usaka nidan karana hoga. biheviyaral ainelisis, strakchard tiching sistam, devalapamental maaudal, spich laingvej theraipi, samajik dakshata thairepi evn akyoopeshanal theraipi ki madad se aautizm se prabhavit bachche ke jivan ko kafi had tak sudhar kar use samaj ki mukhy dhara se joda ja sakata hai. vibhinn theraipi, eksapart ka manana hai ki aautizm se prabhavit bachchon ko theraipi dena keval theraipist ka hi dayitv nahin hai, apitu mata pita ki sakriy bhagidari hi aise bachchon ke punarvas men sahayak hoti hai. strakchard tiching program ke tahat thiraipist dvara diye ge theraipi plan ko agar bachche ke mata pita ya abhibhavak ghar par bhi usi kram se doharaen to ashatit parinam arjit kiye ja sakate hain.

neshanal rihebliteshan kaunsil ke anusar spich thairepi tabhi labhakari hogi jab bachapan se hi spich thairepi ka prarnbh, usaki svabhavik snpreshan kala ko badhava mile, bachche dvara snpreshan kala sikh lene ke pashchath sikhe gaye gyan ka samanyikaran ho. sath hi bachche ke bhashagath athava vyavaharagat samasya ko door kar gunatmak sudhar lane ke bade lakshy tay kar lie jaen. phir un bade lakshyon men ek lakshy ko chunakar use chhote-chhote padav men nirdharit kar dena chahie. tatpashchath thiraipist ki madad se yojanabadhd tarike se vanchhit parinam prapt hone tak theraipi jari rakhani chahie. theraipi dete vaqt kuchh baton ka dhyan rakhana atyavashyak hai. theraipi ke dauran jab bachcha asha ke anuroop kary kar leta hai to usaka utsahavardhan karane ke uddeshy se turant use koee tokan, taauphi ya shabashi avashy dena chahie. doosari bat bachche ko spich theraipi dete vaqt tichar evn bachche ka anupat 1:1 hona chahie. kyonki kee bar dekhane men ata hai ki aautizm se prabhavit bachche ko any samasyaon jaise badhirata andhatv, serebral palasi (pramastishk pakshapat) ya phir manasik mndata jaise ek ya ek se adhik samasyaon se bhi joojhana padata hai. aise men aautizm ke sath judi any samasyaon ko bhi dhyan men rakhakar spich theraipi diya jana chahie. sikhane ki yah prakriya dirgh kalik hai. snyam, samarpan v satat prayas par hi saphalata ka daromadar tika hai. aautizm se prabhavit bachchon men manasik mndata se grasit bachchon ke ulat inaka aee.kyoo. leval amataur par samany ya usase adhik hi hota hai. aise bachche nrity, kala, sngit athava takanik ke kshetr men kafi kushal bhi ho sakate hain.[1]

aautizm ko indivijual vith dishebiliti ejukeshan ekt (aee.di.ee.e.) ke antargat liya gaya hai. is adhiniyam men aautizm prabhaviton ki shighr pahachan, parikshan tatha spich theraipi ki sevaen sammilit hain. aee.di.ee.e. adhiniyam 21 varsh tak ke aautizm prabhaviton ke shiksha hetu margadarshi ki bhoomika ka nirvahan karata hai v sath hi unaka hit snrakshan bhi. dilli sthit rihaibiliteshan kaunsil aauph indiya (ar.si.aee.) aautizm sahit any vikalangataon se grasit vyaktiyon ke punarvas evn snrakshan kary ka dayitv nibhati hai.

aautizm se grasit bachchon ko madad

aautizm se grasit bachchon ko nimnalikhit tarikon se madad ki ja sakati hai-

  1. sharir par davav banane ke lie badi gend ka istemal karana.
  2. sunane ki atishakti kam karane ke lie kan par thodi der ke lie halaki malish karana.
  3. khel-khel men ne shabdon ka prayog karen.
  4. khilaunon ke sath khelane ka sahi tarika dikhaen.
  5. bari-bari se khelane ki adat dalen.
  6. dhire-dhire khel men logon ki snkhya ko badhate jaen.
  7. chhote-chhote vakyon men bat karen.
  8. sadharan vakyon ka prayog karen.
  9. rojamarra men istemal hone vale shabdon ko jodakar bolana sikhaen.
  10. pahale samajhana phir bolana sikhaen.
  11. yadi bachcha bol pa raha hai to use shabashi de aur bar-bar bolane ke lie prerit karen.
  12. bachchon ko apani zarooraton ko bolane ka mauqa den.
  13. yadi bachcha bilkul bol nahin pae to use tasvir ki taraph ishara karake apani zarooraton ke bare men bolana sikhayen.
  14. bachchon ko ghar ke alava any logon se niyamit roop se milane ka mauqa den.
  15. bachche ko tanav mukt sthanon jaise park adi men le jae
  16. any logon ko bachchon se bat karane ke lie prerit karen.
  17. yadi bachcha koee ek vyavahar bar-bar karata hai to use rokane ke lie use kisi doosare kam men vyast rakhen.
  18. galat vyavahar doharane par bachchon se kuchh aisa karavaen jo use pasnd na ho.
  19. yadi bachcha kuchh der galat vyavahar n kare to use tunrat protsahit karen.
  20. protsahan ke lie rng-birngi, chamakili tatha dhyan khinchane vali chijon ka istemal karen.
  21. bachchon ko apani shakti ko istemal karane ke lie use sharirik khel ke lie protsahit karen.
  22. agar pareshani zyada ho to manochikitsak dvara di gee davaon ka prayog karen.[5]

vishv aautizm jagarookata divas

vishv aautizm jagarookata divas (World Autism Awareness Day) har sal 2 aprail ko poore vishv bhar men manaya jata hai. jisaka makasad hai, logon ko aautizm ke bare men jagarook karana. aautizm ek aisi ajivan rahane vali jatil vikasatmak asamarthata hai, jisase aj bharat men lagabhag 20 lakh log prabhavit hain.

aautizm se jude shodh aur prayog

aj kee risarch institayoot dvara aautizm ke karanon v nidan par nirantar shodh kary jari hai. ye shodh aautizm prabhaviton ke lie kitane labhakari hain bhavishy men tay hoga.

sirf 15 minat men pahachana jaega aautizm

lndan ke kings kaaulej ke vaigyanikon ki ek tim ne yuvaon men aautizm ki pahachan karane ke lie bren skain ka tariqa dhoondha hai, jo matr 15 minat men hi is bimari ki pahachan kar lega. halanki abhi tak aautizm ki pahachan karane ke lie pidit vyakti ke parivar valon aur doston se li gee vyaktigat janakariyon ko hi adhar banaya jata hai. sabase badi bat hai ki is skain ki pramanikata 90 pratishat se bhi zyada hogi. apane is prayog men kings kaaulej ke manochikitsa snsthan ke vaigyanikon ne pahale emaraee skainar ke zariye mastishk ke kuchh bhagon ka chitr liya. isake bad ek bhinn prakar ki imejing takanik ke sahayog se in skain kie hue chitron ko triayami (thridi) chitron men punarnirmit kiya gaya, jisake akar, prakar aur banavat ka knpyootar ke zariye ankalan kiya gaya. in jatil prakriyaon ke dvara aautizm spektram disaaurdar ko spasht kiya gaya. halanki is bare men alochakon ka kahana hai ki is prakriya ko upayog men lane ke lie visheshgyon ke samooh ki zaroorat hogi, jo prapt janakari ki vyakhya kar usaki pahachan kar saken.

5 minat men bren skain se pata chalega aautizm ka

bachchon ko hone vali bimari aautizm ka pata amataur par kafi der bad chalata hai. isaki vajah se ilaz ka zyada asar nahin ho pata. lekin vaaushingatan yoonivarsiti aauf medisin ke vaigyanikon ne mastishk ki skaining ki ek aisi vidhi khoj nikali hai jisase bachchon ke dimag ki paripakvata ka pata lagaya ja sakata hai. vaigyanikon ka dava hai ki is vidhi se bachchon ki mastishk ki vikritiyon (atenshan dephishit) aur aautizm snbndhi gadabadiyon ka samay rahate pata lagaya ja sakega. panch minat ki avadhi vali skaining men emaraee ankadon ka ganitiy roop men transaphar karana shamil hai. yah n keval mastishk ki snrachana ki tasviren, balki vibhinn kshetron ke sath milakar kam karane ke isake tariqon ko bhi zahir karata hai. vaaushingatan yoonivarsiti aauf medisin men mukhy anusndhanakarta bredale shlegar ne kaha ki yah vidhi aautizm pidit bachchon tatha samany bachchon ki tntrikaon ke vikas ke snbndh men janakari degi. is vidhi se balyavastha men hi mastishk ki tarngon ki skaining kar janch ki ja sakati hai. shodhakartaon ke anusar, aautizm spektram disaaurdar se pidit bachche aprabhavit bachchon ki tulana men avaz ko 11 miliseknd bad pahachan pate hain. yahi deri bren skain men pakadi ja sakati hai.

peshab ke parikshan se aautizm ka pata lagaen

lndan inpiriyal kaaulej (aeesi) ke prophesar jarmi nikolas ka kahana hai ki aautizm rogi ki samajik kushalata par aghat pahunchata hai. aautizm sharir ke kee angon ko prabhavit karata hai. ise asani se dekha bhi ja sakata hai ki yah kis tarah snbndhit rogi ke metabolijm aur sahas ko kaise thes pahunchata hai. nikolas ne bataya ki aise to aautizm kee angon ko prabhavit karata hai, par isaka sidha asar manav ki samajik kushalata aur samajh par hota hai. any vyaktiyon se vartalap karane tatha unaki samajhadari ko bhi samajhane men pareshani ati hai. unhonne bataya ki adhyayan men yah paya gaya ki yoorin test se aautizm ka pahale pata lagaya ja sakata hai. nikolas ne apane adhyayan ke bare men bataya ki vartaman men bachchon men aautizm ko ankane ki prakriya kafi lnbi hai. isake lie samajik vartalap, sochan ki kshamata adi-adi kee prakar ke test kie jate hain. isake bad aautizm ka pata lagaya jata hai, par yoorin test ke jarie ise pahale hi anka ja sakata hai.

unhonne bataya ki vartaman men 18 mahine se kam umr ke bachchon men aautizm ka pata lagaya jana kafi mushkil ka kam hai. shodhakartaon ne tin se nau varsh ke bachchon ko tin varg men bantakar apana shodh kiya. in sabhi bachchon ka yoorin test kiya gaya. inamen 39 bachche aise the, jinaka pahale hi aautizm ka nidan kar diya gaya, 28 aise bachche the, jo aautizm se grasit the aur 34 aise bachche the, jo aautizm ke kabhi bhi shikar nahin hue.

jenetik misapholding aur aautizm men hai gahara snbndh

vaigyanikon ne aautizm spektram disaaurdar (eesadi) yani svalinata se snbndhi mastishk men pae jane vale ek mukhy protin men jenetik misapholding ki pahachan ki hai. kailiphorniya vishvavidyalay ke shodhakartaon ke netritv men vaigyanikon ke ek antararashtriy dal ne paya ki nyooroligin-3 namak protin men anuvanshik parivartan ki vajah se jenetik misapholding ho jati hai aur doosari any visngatiyan a jati hain. shodhakartaon ke mutabik jenetik misapholding ki vajah se tntrikaon ke bich asamany snchar hota hai. aautizm ke marizon men is protin men anuvanshik parivartan paya gaya hai. yah shodh ‘bayolajikal kemistri’ men prakashit hua hai.

apane men lin rahane ke pichhe diene zimmedar

patrika ‘nechar’ men prakashit ek adhyayan ke mutabik jo bachche svalin hote hain, unake diene men durlabh prakar ka utparivartan hota hai. vaigyanikon ke mutabik aise bachchon ke mata-pita ke diene samany hote hain aur isalie koee samasya nahin hoti lekin ve diene ke kuchh hisse ki adhikata aur kuchh ki kami ke sath janm lete hain. vaigyanikon ko ummid hai ki ek din unaka adhyayan sadharan diene test men madad karega, jisase pahale hi bachchon ke is gun ko pahachana ja sakega. lekin yah kee bar aautizm (svalinata) vale pratyek bachche ki pahachan nahin bhi kar paega kyonki isake lie any karak bhi zimmedar hain. adhyayan batata hai ki apane ap men lin rahane vale bachchon men anuvanshik utparivartan qarib 20 pratishat samany hote hain.

chin men daaulphin se aautizm pidit bachchon ka ilaz

chin ke ek samudri manornjan park ne char daaulphin kharidi lekin inhen manornjan ki drishti se nahin balki aautizm (svalinata) se pidit bachchon ke ilaz ke lie kharida gaya. samachar ejensi shinhua ke mutabik liyaoning prant ke phushahun shahar ke ‘raauyal oshan varld’ men janavaron ki dekh-rekh karane vale chen rujun ne bataya ki in daaulphin ko japan se 738,000 daaular men kharida gaya hai. ek mahine ke anukoolan aur prashikshan ke bad yuva marizon ke ilaz ke lie inaka istemal shuroo kar diya gaya hai. chen kahate hain ki, " ‘raauyal oshan varld’ 2007 se hi aautizm pidit bachchon ka ilaz kar raha hai. jab hamare pas chikitsakon ke roop men tin daaulphinen thin tab ham 2 se 10 varsh umr tak ke 20 se zyada bachchon ka ilaz kar lete the." unhonne bataya ki pratyek bachcha mahine men kam se kam 12 bar park men ata hai aur ilaz ke tahat daaulphin ke sath khelata hai. is ilaz ka asar is par nirbhar karata hai ki bachche ne daaulphin ke sath kitana samay bitaya. pahale bachchon ka ilaz ni:shulk kiya jata tha lekin is ilaz ki mang badhane ke sath ab isake lie pratyek parivar se prati mah 2000 yuan lie jate hain. garib parivaron se kam shulk liya jata hai. chin ke shainadong aur guangadong sahit any pranton ke samudri parko men bhi daaulphin ilaz hota hai.

aautizm ke ilaz men madadagar ho sakati hain sangabard

lndan men hue ek ne adhyayan se pata chala hai ki ek nanhin sangabard svalinata sahit any visngatiyon ko door karane men madadagar ho sakati hai. aauksaphord vishvavidyalay ke adhyayanakarta kris ponting ka manan hai, "gana sikhana har prakar ke sikhane ka ek utkrisht pratiman hai." yah nanhin si chidiya manushy ke sikhane aur smriti ki prakriya ko samajhane men mahattvapoorn ho sakati hai. sangabard ke nar bachchon manav shishuon ki tarah hi apane pita ke gane ki nakal sikhane se pahale tutalahat ke sath bolana shuroo karate hain. is chidiya ke sikhane ki yah prakriya manushyon men svalinata, sadame, hakalahat aur parakinsns jaise vikaron ko samajhane men sahayak ho sakati hai.

bachchon ki avaz se pakad men aega ‘aautizm’

aautizm ka jald pata lagane aur isake ilaz ka marg prashast karane ka dava karate hue vaigyanikon ne pahali svachalit svar vishleshan vyavastha vikasit ki hai. is paddhati men bachchon ki avaz ka vishleshan kar unamen rog ko shuruati avastha men pakadana snbhav hoga. vaigyanikon ne laingvej inavaryanament enalisis (lena) upakaran ka vikas kiya hai. unhonne kaha ki aautizm se pidit bachche apane ham umr svasth bachchon ki tulana men alag prakar se uchcharan karate hain. yah upakaran bachchon ki avaz ko pakad leta hai. is mashin men pahale se any bachchon ki avazen darj hoti hai. pahale yah mashin din bhar bachchon ke avaz ko rikard karati hai aur snbndhit ankade ek vishesh knpyootar men darj karati hai jo any bachchon ki dhvaniyon se isaki tulana karata hai.

aautizm ke shikar log alingan se kyon bachate hain

vaigyanikon ne mastishk men kuchh aise saboot dhoondhe hain jinase yah pata chal sakega ki aautizm se jude nazuk eks sindrom se grasit log apane mata pita se bhi gale milana kyon napasnd karate hain. narthavestarn yoonivarsiti ke phenabarg skool aauph medisin ke shodhakartaon ne dava kiya hai ki unhonne nazuk eks sindrom vali chuhiya ke mastishk men snvedi korteks ke vikas men deri ka pata lagaya hai. nyooron jarnal men unhonne apani is kamayabi ke bare men bataya hai ki unaka adhyayan is bat ki vyakhya karane men madad kar sakata hai ki isase grasit log sharirik snpark ko lekar atynt snvedanashil kyon hote hain. gauratalab hai ki nazuk eks sindrom eks kromojom men jin se paida hota hai, jo nazuk eks manasik mndata yani ephemarapi nam ke protin banata hai.

navajat men piliya hone par aautizm ka bhi khatara

jin navajat shishuon ko piliya hota hai unhen age chalakar aautizm bimari ho sakati hai. yah bat ek adhyayan men samane aee hai. denamark ki arahas yoonivarsiti ke shodhakartaon ne 1994 se 2004 ke bich desh men janme bachchon ke bare men adhyayan kiya. unhonne paya ki jin bachchon ka piliya ke lie ilaz kiya gaya tha unamen se 2.37 phisadi bachche bad men aautizm ke shikar hue. jabaki jin bachchon ko piliya nahin tha unamen se keval 1.4 pratishat bachchon ko aautizm ki shikayat huee. shodhakartaon ka manana hai ki piliya ke dauran jama hua zaharila bilirubin dimag ki koshikaon ko kshatigrast kar deta hai.

soshal netavarking se aautizm

soshal netavarking se jahan vishv ek chhote ganv men tabdil ho gaya hai vahin isase logon ka samay bhi katata hai. lekin yahi soshal netavarking agar lat men tabdil ho jae to ghatak sabit ho sakati hai. yahan tak ki soshal netavarking se aautizm ka khatara ho sakata hai. mairilaind vishvavidyalay ke shodhakartaon ne 200 chhatron par kie ge adhyayan ke dauran yah paya hai ki soshal netavarking vebasait par zyada samay bitane vale yuva nakaratmak vyavahar ke shikar ho jate hain. agar ek din ke lie bhi ve in vebasaiton se door rahe to ve atyadhik unmatt ho uthate hain, unamen vyagrata aur ghabarahat hone lagati hai. thik yahi lakshan drag aur alkohal ke adi logon men bhi vyasan se door rahane par paya jata hai. in natijon ke adhar par logon ka dhyan ek bar phir soshal netavarking vebasait ke khataron ki taraph dilaya gaya hai. is shodh se judi nyoorosaintist soosan grinaphild ne bataya ki 2009 men kuchh aisi khabaren aee thi ki soshal netavarking vebasait hamare sharir aur dimag ko buri tarah prabhavit karati hai aur hamari ekagrata ki kshamata ko kafi kam kar deti hai. isake alava isase pratirodhak kshamata bhi kafi kamazor ho jati hai aur aautizm nam ke manorog ke hone ki snbhavana badh jati hai. unaka kahana hai ki soshal netavarking sait ki lat hamare yuvaon men mastishk ke vikasit hone ki prakriya ko bigad deti hai. isake alava melajol ke lie soshal saits par zyada vaqt bitane vale yuvaon ka svasthy amane-samane snpark karane vale yuvaon ki tulana men zyada kharab hota hai. lekin is stadi ke adhar par abhi tak vaigyanikon ne koee thos ray nahin banaee hai.

yog se ‘aautizm’ ka ilaz sambhav

aaustreliya men atmavimoh (aautizm) ki samasya se nipatane ke lie yog ka istemal badh raha hai. is prachin bharatiy vigyan ki upayogita men vishvas rakhane vale visheshgy ka manana hai ki yog ki badaulat aautizm ke shikar bachchon ki manasik sakriyata men badalav laya ja sakata hai. ek gair-labhakari sngathan ‘yoga in kamyuniti’ (vaeeaeetisi) bhi is uddeshy se yog ka istemal kar raha hai. is sngathan ke mutabik bachchon ki manasik, sharirik aur bhavanatmak sehat ko sudhar kar atmavimoh yani aautizm se nipata ja sakata hai. yog ko yah sngathan in tinon tarah ki sehat ke lie upayogi manata hai. sidani sthit yoonivarsiti aauph teknolaauji dvara prakashit ek jarnal presinkt ke mutabik yah sngathan yog ki upayogita ki vaigyanik pushti kar chuka hai.

hal hi men 33 varshiy syoo vhait aur 28 varshiya keti spiyars ne is sngathan ki sthapana ki. astreliya men vaikalpik ilaz padghatiyon ki badhati upayogita se logon ko yog ki or mudane ki prerana mili hai. is sngathan ke yog stoodiyo men har roz momabatti jalaee jati hai aur phoolon aur khushaboo se yog kaksh ke mahaul ko khushanuma banaya jata hai. phir is khushanuma mahaul men bachchon se yog karavaya jata hai. spiyars ne kaha, “yah yog kendr manasik shanti ki talash kar rahe logon ke lie behad upayukt jagah hai. log jab yahan vibhinn mudraon ko ajama lete hain, tab unaki manasik aur sharirik tajagi dekhate hi banati hai. khasakar bachchon ke lie yog ko adhik upayogi mana ja raha hai. yahan kee chhatr aautizm ke ilaz men yog ki upayogita ka adhyayan bhi kar rahe hain.” soory namaskar jaisi yog mudraon ka khas taur par adhyayan kiya ja raha hai. vaise bachapan men atmavimoh ka shikar rahe yuvakon par bhi yog ka utsahavardhak asar dekha ja raha hai.

kuchh any shodh
  • bi.em.si. pidiyatriks ki rirpot ke mutabik presharaijd aksijan chaimbar men atistik bachchon ko din men do bar, char haphte tak rakhane se 80 pratishat bachchon men sudhar ke lakshan dikhaee die. unaki atikriyashilata (haipar ektiviti), tunak mizaji, evn bolane ki kshamata ka vikas hua. samajha jata hai ki mastishk men aksijan ka star badhane se bachchon ko fayada hua hoga. phlorida, intaraneshanal chaild devalapament rirpot ne is par shodh kie jane ki zaroorat hai.
  • japan ke ek shodhakarta ke anusar kam umr men pita banane vale purushon ke bachchon ki tulana men adhik umr men pita banane vale purushon ke bachchon ko svalinata yani aautizm ka khatara badh jata hai.
  • sngit bhi atistik bachchon men madadagar sabit ho sakata hai. evarstan men narthavestarn yoonivarsiti ki prayogashala men kie ge shodh ke anusar vadyayantr bajane se brenastem (mastishk ka nichala hissa) men svachalit prakriya par asar padata hai. kee varsho ka sngit prashikshan dhvaniyon se bhasha aur bhavanaon ko vyakt karane men bhi sudhar ho sakata hai.[1]

aautizm par bani filmen aur ti. vi. program

  • koee mil gaya
  • tare zamin par
  • maee nem iz khan
  • anjali

samachar

aautizm ke ilaz ki jagi nee ummiden

shukravar, 9 sitnbar, 2011

pahali bar ek badi khoj men vaigyanikon ko aautizm se jude do alag alag jaivik tanav ka pata chala hai jinake bare men unaka dava hai ki isase bimari ke prabhavi ilaz ka vikas ho sakega. in khojon ki tulana 1960 ke dashak men huee kainsar ke vibhinn prakaron ki khojon se ki ja rahi hai aur inase ummid jagi hai ki inase aautizm grast bachchon ke snpark, samajikaran aur any samasyaon ko zyada asani aur jaldi se nipata ja sakega. kailiphorniya vishvavidyalay ke devis maind instityoot ke anusndhanakartaon ne do se dhaee sal ke umr ke qarib 350 shishuon ke dimagi vikas, anuvashink banavat aur asapas ke vatavaran ka adhyayan kiya. adhyayan ke mutabik shishuon ke ek samooh-jinamen sabhi ladake the-ke dimag bade pae ge aur 18 mahine ke hone ke bad zyadatar men aautizm ke lakshan pae ge jabaki ek any samooh men pratiraksha pranali ko sahi kam karate nahin paya gaya.

samachar ko vibhinn sroton par padhen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 arora, shrimati rajabala. aautizm: shighr hastakshep zaroori (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) gvaliyar taims. abhigaman tithi: 5 disnbar, 2010.
  2. janen kya hai aautizm? (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) veb duniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 19 faravari, 2011.
  3. aautizm (atmavimoh) (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 5 disnbar, 2010.
  4. aautizm aur bhrantiyan (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) veb duniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 19 faravari, 2011.
  5. 5.0 5.1 aautizm hone ke kya karan hai? (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) aautizm. abhigaman tithi: 19 faravari, 2011.

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