ओडिशा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

India-flag.gif
odisha
Orissa-map.jpg
nam kaling, utkal, utkalarat, udr, odr, odrabish
rajadhani bhuvaneshvar
rajabhasha(en) udiya bhasha
sthapana 1 apral, 1936
janasnkhya 3,68,04,660 [1]
· ghanatv 236 [2] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 1,55,707 varg kimi
bhaugolik nirdeshank 20°09′N 85°30′E
tapaman 25° C (ausat)
· grishm 35-40° C (adhikatam)
· sharad 3-4° C (nyoonatam)
varsha 150 semi mimi
zile 30 [2]
sabase bada nagar bhuvaneshvar
mukhy paryatan sthal konark, puri, lingaraj mandir, soory mndir konark
ling anupat 1000:972 ♂/♀
saksharata 63.08%
· stri 50.51%
· purush 71.35%
rajyapal es. si. jamir
mukhyamntri navin patanayak
vidhanasabha sadasy 147
lokasabha kshetr 21
rajyasabha sadasy 10
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Orissa-Logo-new.jpg

odisha bharat ka ek prant hai jo bharat ke poorvi tat par basa hai. odisha uttar men jharakhand, uttar poorv men pashchim bngal dakshin men andhr pradesh aur pashchim men chhattisagadh se ghira hai tatha poorv men bngal ki khadi hai. bhaugolik lihaz se isake uttar men chhota nagapur ka pathar hai jo apekshakat kam upajaoo hai lekin dakshin men mahanadi, brahmani, kalindi aur vaitarani nadiyon ka upajaoo maidan hai. yah poora kshetr mukhy roop se chaval utpadak kshetr hai.

itihas

odisha rajy prachin samay men 'kaling' ke nam se vikhyat tha. eesa poorv tisari shatabdi (261 ee.poo.) men maury samrat ashok ne kaling vijay karane ke lie ek shaktishali sena bheji thi, jisaka kaling ke nivasiyon ne jamakar samana kiya. samrat ashok ne kaling to jita, parantu yuddh ke bhishan snhar se samrat ka man men vitrishna paida ho gee aur ashok ki mrityu ke bad kaling phir se svadhin ho gaya. eesa poorv doosari shatabdi men kharavel raja ke adhin kaling ek shaktishali samrajy ban gaya. kharavel ki mrityu ke bad odisha ki khyati lupt ho gee. chauthi shatabdi men vijay par nikale samudragupt ne odisha par akraman kiya aur is pradesh ke panch rajaon ko parajit kiya. sanh 610 men odisha par shashank naresh ka adhikar ho gaya. shashank ke nidhan ke bad harshavardhan ne odisha par vijay prapt ki.

odisha uchch nyayalay, katak
Orissa High Court, Cuttack

satavin shatabdi men odisha par gng vnsh ka shasan raha. sanh 795 men mahashivagupt yajati dvitiy ne odisha ka shasan bhar snbhala aur odisha ke itihas ka sabase gauravashali adhyay shuroo hua. unhonne kaling, kanagoda, utkal aur koshal ko milakar kharavel ki bhanti vishal samrajy ki ninv rakhi. gng vnsh ke shasakon ke samay men odisha rajy ki bahut unnati huee. is rajavnsh ke shasak raja narasinh dev ne konark ka vishv bhar men prasiddh soory mndir banavaya tha. 16 vin shatabdi ke lagabhag madhy se 1592 tak odisha panch muslim rajaon dvara shasit raha. sanh 1592 men akabar ne odisha ko apane adhin kar apane shasan men shamil kar liya. mugalon ke patan ke pashchath odisha par marathon ka adhikar raha. sanh 1803 men british raj se pahale odisha maratha shasakon ke adhin raha. 1 aprail sanh 1936 ko odisha ko svatntr prant banaya gaya. svatntrata ke bad odisha tatha isake asapas ki riyasaton ne bharat sarakar ko apani satta saunp di. riyasaton (gavarnar ke adhin pranton) ke vilay snbndhi adesh 1949 ke antargat janavari 1949 men odisha ki sabhi riyasaton ka odisha rajy men sampoorn vilay ho gaya. odisha ke kaling, utkal aur udr jaise kee prachin nam hain, parantu yah pradesh mukhyat: bhagavan jagannath ki bhoomi ke lie prasiddh hai. bhagavan jagannath odisha ke samajik, sanskritik aur dharmik jivan se bahut gahare jude hue hain. vibhinn samay men odisha ke logon par jain, eesaee aur islam dharmo ka prabhav pada.

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men yogadan

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men udisa ke anek svatntrata senaniyon ne yogadan diya hai jisamen se pramukh hain- subhash chndr bos · gopabndhu das · hare krishn mehatab · jagabndhu bakhshi ·

bhoogol

udisa rajy 17.780 aur aur 22.730 akshansh aur 81.37 poorv aur 81.53 poorv deshantar ke bich padata hai. bhaugolik roop se yah rajy uttar-poorv men pashchim bngal, uttar men jharakhnd, pashchim men chhattisagadh aur dakshin men andhr pradesh aur poorv men bngal ki khadi se ghira hua hai. rajy ka tatiy kshetr lagabhag 450 kilomitar tak hai aur is kshetr men yah 155, 707 vargakilomitar tak age badh gaya hai. yah bharat ke kul 4.87 % kshetr ke barabar hai. rajy ko samanyat: char bhaugolik kshetron men banta ja sakata hai. ye hain -

mahanadi, odisha
Mahanadi, Orissa
  1. uttari pathar,
  2. madhy nadi thala,
  3. poorvi pahadiyan aur
  4. tatavarti maidan.

jalavayu

odisha ushnakatibndhiy ardr-shushq (ushnakatibndhiy savana ghas ke maidan) jalavayu pradesh men sthit hai. katak men ausat tapaman lagabhag 26° se. rahata hai. janavari sabase sard mahina hai, jisamen ausat tapaman 20° se. rahata hai, lekin mee, jo sabase garm mahina hai, men ausat tapaman 33° se. tak badh jata hai. oonchaee par sthit pahadiyan grishm ritu ki garmi se rahat deti hain, jo madhy bhoobhag ke besin men khas taur par asahm ho jati hain. varsha dasin-pashchim maaunasoon (joon se aktoobar) ke mahinon men hoti hai. rajy men ausat varshik varsha lagabhag 1,800 mimi hai, jo poorvi ghat men aur bhi adhik hoti hai. chilka jhil ke tatiy ilaqe sabase shushk hain, jahan ausat varsha 939 mimi hai.

arthavyavastha

krishi

odisha ki arthavyavastha men krishi ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika hai. odisha ki lagabhag 80pratishat janasnkhya krishi kary men lagi hai, halanki yahan ki adhikansh bhoomi anupajaoo ya ek se adhik varshik fasal ke lie anupayukt hai. odisha men lagabhag 40 lakh khet hain, jinaka ausat akar 1.5 hekteyar hai, lekin prati vyakti krishi kshetr 0.2 hekteyar se bhi kam hai. rajy ke kul kshetraphal ke lagabhag 45 pratishat bhag men khet hai. isake 80 pratishat bhag men chaval ugaya jata hai. any mahattvapoorn fasalen tilahan, dalahan, joot, ganna aur nariyal hai. soory ke prakash ki upalabdhata men kami, madhyam gunavatta vali mitti, urvarakon ka nyoonatam upayog aur manasooni varsha ke samay v matra men vividhata hone ke karan yahan upaj kam hoti hai aur isaki ginati desh ke garib rajyon men hoti hai.

choonki bahut se gramin lagatar sal bhar rozagar nahin prapt kar pate, isalie krishi- kary men lage bahut se parivar gair krishi karyon men bhi snlagn hai. janasnkhya vriddhi ke karan prati vyakti krishi bhoomi ki upalabdhata kam hoti ja rahi hai. bhoo- adhigrihan par sima lagane ke prayas adhikanshat: saphal nahin rahe. halanki rajy dvara adhigrihit kuchh bhoomi svaichchhik taur par bhootapoorv kashtakaron ko de di gee hai.

chaval odisha ki mukhy fasal hai. 2004 - 2005 men 65.37 lakh mi. tan chaval ka utpadan hua. ganne ki kheti bhi kisan karate hain. uchch fasal utpadan praudyogiki, samanvit poshak prabndhan aur kit prabndhan ko apanakar krishi ka vistar kiya ja raha hai. alag -alag phalon ki 12.5 lakh aur kajoo ki 10 lakh tatha sabjiyon ki 2.5 lakh kalamen kisanon men vitarit ki gee hain. rajy men pyaj ki fasal ko badhava dene ke lie achchhi kism ki pyaj ke 300 kvintal bij bante ge hain jinase 7,500 ekad zamin pyaj ugayi jaegi. rashtriy bagavani mishan ke antargat gulab, guladaoodi aur gende ke phoolon ki 2,625 pradarshaniyan ki geen. kisanon ko dhan ka nyoonatam samarthan mooly dilane ke lie odisha rajy nagarik apoorti nigam li. (pi e si), markaphed, naphed adi ejensiyon ke dvara 20 lakh mi. tan chaval kharidane ka lakshy banaya hai. sookhe ki ashnka se grast kshetron men laghu jalashay lie 13 lakh hekteyar kshetr men 2,413 laghu jalashay vikasit karane ka lakshy hai.

sinchaee aur bijali

badi, mnjholi aur chhoti pariyojanaon aur jal dohan pariyojanaon se sichanee kshamata ko badhane ka prayas kiya gaya hai-

  • varsh 2004 - 2005 tak 2,696 lakh hekteyar bhoomi ki sinchaee ki vyavastha poorn ki ja chuki hai.
  • 2005-06 ke satr men 12,685 hekteyar sinchaee ki chhah sinchaee pariyojanaon ko chihnit kiya gaya hai jisamen se char yojanaen lakshy prapt kar chuki hain.
  • 2005 - 2006 men odisha lipht sinchaee nigam ne 'bijoo krishak vikas yojana' ke antargat 500 lipht sinchaee paint banaye hain aur 1,200 hekteyar ki sinchaee kshamata prapt ki hai.
  • 2004 - 2005 men rajy men bijali ki kul utpadan kshamata 4,845.34 megavat thi tatha kul sroton se prapt bijali kshamata 1,995.82 megavat thi.
  • march 2005 tak rajy ke kul 46,989 ganvon men se 37,744 ganvon men bijali pahuncha di gee hai.

udyog

udyog protsahan evn nivesh nigam li., audyogik vikas nigam limited aur odisha rajy ilektraauniks vikas nigam ye tin pramukh ejensiyan rajy ke udyogon ko arthik sahayata pradan karati hai. ispat, elyoominiyam, telashodhan, urvarak adi vishal udyog lag rahe hain. rajy sarakar laghu, gramin aur kutir udyogon ko protsahit karane ke lie chhoot dekar vittiy madad de rahi hai. 2004 - 2005 varsh men 83,075 laghu udyog ikaee sthapit ki gayi.

soory mndir, konark
Sun Temple, Konark

audyogik vikas karane ke lie rozagar ke avasar aur arthik vikas dar ko badhane ke lie odisha udyog (suvidha) adhiniyam, 2004 ko lagoo kiya hai jisase nivesh prastavon ke kam samay men nibatara aur nirikshan kary ho sake. nivesh ko sahi disha men prayog karane ke lie dhanchagat suvidha men sudhar ko prathamikata di gee hai. soochana praudyogiki men dhanchagat vikas karane ke lie bhuvaneshvar men ek niryat snvarddhan audyogik park sthapit kiya gaya hai. rajy men laghu aur madhyam udyogon ko badhane ke lie 2005 - 2006 men 2,255 laghu udyog sthapit kie gaye, in yojanaon men 123.23 karod rupaye ka nivesh kiya gaya aur lagabhag 10,308 vyaktiyon ko kam mila.

shramikon aur unake parivar ke sadasyon ko sarakari aspatalon men svasthy suvidhaen di gee hain. udyogon men lage bal mazadooron ko mukt kiya gaya aur aupacharik shiksha aur vyavasayik prashikshan ke lie rashtriy bal shramik pariyojana ke antargat pravesh diya gaya. rajy bhar men 18 zilon men 18 balashramik pariyojanaen kriyanvit hain. lagabhag 33,843 bal shramikon ko rashtriy bal shramik pariyojana dvara snchalit skoolon men pravesh dilaya gaya hai aur 64,885 bal shramikon ko skooli shiksha ke madhyam se mukhyadhara men jodane ka prayas kiya gaya. shramikon ko diya jane vala nyoonatam vetan badhaya gaya.

odisha ke audyogik snsadhan ullekhaniy hain. kromait, mainganiz ayask aur dolomait ke utpadan men odisha bharat ke sabhi rajyon se age hai. yah uchch gunavatta ke lauh- ayask ke utpadan men bhi agrani hai. dhenkanal ke bhitari zile men sthit mahattvapoorn talachar ki khanon se prapt koyala rajy ke pragalan v urvarak utpadan ke lie oorja upalabdh karata hai. stil, alauh pragalan aur urvarak udyog rajy ke bhitar bhagon men kendrit hain, jabaki adhikansh dhalaeeghar, rel karyashalaen, kanch nirman aur kagaz ki milen katak ke asapas mahanadi ke delta ke nikat sthit hai. jisaka upayog upamahadvip ki sarvadhik mahattvakankshi bahuuddeshiy pariyojana, hirakud bandh v machhakud jalavidyut pariyojana dvara kiya ja raha hai. ye donon bahut si any chhoti ikaiyon ke sath samooche nichale besin ko badh niyntran, sinchaee aur bijali upalabdh karate hai.

khanij

bade udyog mukhyat: khanij adharit hain, jinamen raurakela sthit ispat v urvarak snyntr, jodo v rayagada men lauh mainganiz snyatr, raj gangapur v belapahad men apavartak utpadan kar rahe karakhane, chaudvar (naya nam tangi chaudvar) men rephrijaretar nirman snyntr aur rajagangapur men ek siment karakhana shamil hain. rayagada v chaudvar men chini v kagaz ki tatha brajarajanagar men kagaz ki badi milen hain; any udyogon men vastr, kanch ailuminiyam dhatupind v kebal aur bhari mashin upakaran shamil hain.

ret kala, puri

soochana praudyogiki

soochana praudyogik men rajy men sntosh janak pragati ho rahi hai. bhuvaneshvar ki inphositi men vikas kendr kholane ka prayas chal raha hai. odisha sarakar aur neshanal instityoot aauph gavarnens tatha neshanal inpharmetiks sentar ne snyukt roop ek paradarshi aur kushal pranali shuroo ki hai. rajy mukhyalay ko zila mukhyalayon, sab divijan mukhyalayon, blak mukhyalayon se jodane ke lie ee-gavarnens par adharit kshetr netavark se joda ja raha hai. udiya bhasha ko knpyootar men lane ke lie ‘bharatiy bhashaon ke lie praudyogiki vikas’ karyakram ke antargat udiya bhasha ka paikej taiyar kiya ja raha hai.

matsy palan aur pashu snsadhan vikas

rajy ki krishi niti men adhunik vaigyanik takaniki ka prayog karate hue, doodh, machhali aur mans utpadan ke vikas ko vishesh roop se vikasit karane ka prayas karake kul dugdh utpadan 36 lakh litar pratidin arthath 3 lakh litar se adhik tak pahuncha diya gaya hai. deyari utpadan ke vikas ke lie odisha dugdh phedareshanamen rajy ke sabhi 30 zilon ko sammilit gaya hai. phedareshan ne dugdh snrakshan ko badhakar 2.70 lakh litar pratidin tak kar diya hai. ‘staip’ karyakram ke tahat phedareshan dvara 17 zilon men ‘mahila deyari pariyojana’ chal rahi hai. rajy men 837 mahila deyari sahakari samitiyan hain, jinamen 60,287 mahilaen karyarat hain.

sanskritik jivan

odisha ki samriddh kalatmak virasat hai aur isane bharatiy kala evn vastushilp ke sarvashreshth udaharanon ka srijan kiya hai. bhittichitron patthar v lakadi par naqqashi dev chitr (patt chitrakala ke nam se vikhyat) aur tadapatron par chitrakari ke madhyam se kalatmak parnparaen aj bhi qayam hain. hastashilp kalakar chandi men behad mahin jali ki kataee ki alnkrit shilp kala ke lie vikhyat hain.

odisi nrity, odisha
Odissi Dance, Orissa
nrity

janajatiy ilakon men kee prakar ke lokanrity hai. madal v bansuri ka sngit ganvo men am hai. odisha ka shastriy nrity odisa 700 varshon se bhi adhik samay se astitv men hai. moolat: yah eeshvar ke lie kiya jane vala mndir nrity tha. nrity ke prakar, gati, mudraen aur bhav-bhngimaen bade mndiron ki divaron par, visheshakar konark men shilp v ubhari huee naqqasi ke roop men ankit hain, is nrity ke adhunik pravartakon ne ise rajy ke bahar bhi lokapriy banaya hai. mayoorabhnj aur sarayakela pradeshon ka chhoo nrity (mukhaute pahane kalakaron dvara kiya jane vala nrity) odisha ki snskriti ki ek any dharohar hai. 1952 men katak men kala vikas kendr ki sthapana ki gee, jisamen nrity v sngit ke protsahan ke lie ek chhah varshiy avadhi ka shikshan pathayakram hai. neshanal myoojik esosieshan (rashtriy sngit samiti) bhi is uddeshy ke lie hai. katak men any prasiddh nrity v sngit kendr hai: utkal sngit samaj, utkal smriti kala mndap aur mukti kala mndir.

tyohar

odisha ke anek apane parnparik tyohar hain. isaka ek anokha tyohar aktoobar ya navnbar (tithi hindoo pnchang ke anusar tay ki jati hai) men manaya jane vala boita bndana (naukaon ki pooja) anushtha hai. poornima se pahale lagatar panch dinon tak log nadi kinaron ya samudr taton par ekatr hote hain aur chhote-chhote nauka roop tairate hain. jo isaka pratik hai ki ve bhi apane poorvajon ki tarah sudoor sthanon (maleshiya, indoneshiya) ki yatra par nikalenge. puri men jagannath (brahmand ka svami) mndir hai, jo bharat ke sarvadhik prasiddh mndiron men se ek hai. yahan hone vali varshik rathayatra lakhon logon ko akrisht karati hai. yahan se kuchh hi kilomitar ki doori par bhagavan soory ke rath ke akar men bana konark mndir hai. yah mndir madhyakalin udiya snskriti ke utkrisht udaharanon men se ek hai.

shiksha

  • 1947 ke bad shaikshanik snsthanon men ullekhaniy vriddhi huee hai.
  • yahan panch vishvavidyalay (aur kee snbaddh mahavidyalay) hain, jinamen utkal vishvavidyalay aur udisa krishi evn prodyogiki vishvavidyalay sabase bade v vikhyat hain.
  • shaikshanik snsthanon ke nam is prakar hai:-
    • kaaulej aauf injiniyaring aind teknolaauji (bhuvaneshvar),
    • indira gandhi instityoot aauf teknolaauji (talachar),
    • instityoot aauf phiziks (bhuvaneshvar),
    • udisa injiniyaring kaaulej (bhuvaneshvar),
    • rijanal injiniyaring kaaulej (raukela),
    • revanashaau kaaulej (katak),
    • stivart sains kaaulej (katak),
    • yoonivarsiti kaaulej aauf injiniyaring (snbalapur),
    • vi. es. es. medikal kaaulej (burala) aur
    • zeviyar instityoot aauf mainejament (bhuvaneshvar) any mahattvapoorn shaikshanik snsthan hain.
  • in snsthanon ki upasthiti ke bavajood udisa ki janasnkhya ka ek chhota sa bhag hi vishvavidyalay star tak shikshit hai aur rajy ki saksharata dar (63.61 pratishat) rashtriy ausat (65.38 pratishat) se kam hai.

parivahan

1947 se pahale odisha men snchar suvidhaen avikasit thin, lekin isamen se rajavadon ke vilay aur khanij snsadhanon ki khoj se achchhi sadakon ke snjal ki avashyakata mahasoos ki gee. adhikansh pramukh nadiyon par pul nirman jaise bade vinirman karyakram odisha sarakar dvara shuroo kie ge. mahanadi ke muhane par paradip men sabhi mausamon ke lie upayukt, gahare bndaragah ka nirman kiya gaya hai. yah bndaragah rajy ke niryat, visheshakar koyale ke niryat ka kendr ban gaya hai.

odisha ka manachitr
Orrisa Map

rajy men vikas dar badhane ke lie parivahan ki anek yojanaon ko kriyanvit kiya ja raha hai-

sadaken

  • 2004 - 05 tak rajy men sadakon ki kul lnbaee 2,37,332 ki.mi. thi. isamen rashtriy rajamargon ki kul lnbaee 3,595 ki.mi., eksapres rajamargon ki kul lnbaee 29 kilomitar, rajakiy rajamargon ki kul lnbaee 5,102 ki.mi. zila mukhy sadakon ki kul lnbaee 3,189 ki.mi., any zila sadakon ki kul lnbaee 6,334 ki.mi. aur gramin sadakon ki kul lnbaee 27,882 ki.mi. hai. pnchayat samiti sadakon ki kul lnbaee 1,39,942 ki.mi. aur 88 ki.mi. gridako sadaken hain.

relave

31 march 2004 tak rajy men 2,287 kilomitar lnbi badi rel lainen aur 91 kilomitar chhoti lainen thi.

uddayan

bhuvaneshvar men havaee adde ka adhunikikaran ka kary ho raha hai. yahan se dilli, kolakata, chennee, nagapur aur haidarabad ke lie sidhi udanen hain. is samay rajy bhar men 13 havaee pattiyan aur 16 helipaid ki vyavastha hai.

bndaragah

paradip rajy ka ek matr mukhy bndaragah hai. gopalapur ko poore sal kam karane vale bndaragah ke roop men vikasit karane ka kary pragati par hai.

paryatan

rajy ke arthik vikas men paryatan ke mahattv ko samajhate hue midiya prabndhan ejensiyon aur parv prabndhakon ko prachar evn prasar ka kary diya gaya hai. odisha ko vibhinn mahattvapoorn paryatan parijanaon - dhauli men shanti park, lalitagiri, udayagiri tatha langudi ke bauddh sthalon ko dhanchagat vikas aur pipili men paryatan vikas ka kam kiya jaega. (puri) bhuvaneshvar ka ekagr utsav, konark ka konark parv ke melon aur tyoharon ke vikas ke lie prayas kiya ja raha hai. odisha paryatan vibhag ne bainkaauk, masko, lndan, kualalnpur, kochchi, kolakata, rayapur adi ke bhraman vyapar ke ayojanon men bhag liya. paryatan kshetr men niji kshetr ki bhagidari ko protsahan dene ke lie 373 margadarshakon (gaidon) ko prashikshan diya gaya.

paryatan sthal

  • soory mndir, konark
  • rajy ki rajadhani bhuvaneshvar lingaraj mandir ke lie prasiddh hai.
  • puri ka jagannath mandir
  • sundar puri tat
  • rajy ke any prasiddh paryatan kendr hain konark, nndanakanan, chilaka jhil, dhauli bauddh mndir, udayagiri-khndagiri ki prachin guphaen, ratnagiri, lalitagiri aur udayagiri ke bauddh bhittichitr aur guphaen, saptasajya ka manoram pahadi drishy, similipal rashtriy udyan tatha bagh pariyojana, hirakund bandh, duduma jalaprapat, ushakothi vany jiv abhayarany, gopanapur samudri tat, harishnkar, nrisinhanath, taratarini, taptapani, bhitarakanika, bhimakund kapilash adi sthan prasiddh hain.

samachar

guruvar, 25 march, 2011

udisa ab odisha ho gaya
udisa ka nam odisha kie jane snbndhi vidheyak ko lokasabha ke bad rajyasabha men bhi guruvar ko mnjoori de di gee. udisa vidhanasabha men 28 agast 2008 ko isaka prastav parit kiya gaya tha jise bad men kendr ko bhej diya gaya tha. kendriy grih mntri pi.chidambaram ne rajyasabha men udisa (vaikalpik nam) vidheyak, 2010 aur udiya bhasha ka nam badalakar odisha karane ke lie snvidhan (113 van snshodhan) vidheyak,2010 pesh kiya. donon vidheyakon ko rajyasabha ne parit kar diya. lokasabha pichhale sal navambar men hi inhen parit kar chuki hai. rajyasabha men vidheyak pesh karate hue chidambaram ne kaha ki snvidhan ki pahali anusoochi men shamil udisa ka nam badalakar odisha ho jaega.

samachar ko vibhinn sroton par padhen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar
  2. 2.0 2.1 ORISSA PROFILE (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) odisha ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 26 mee, 2011.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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