कथकली नृत्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(कथकली se punarnirdeshit)
kathakali nrity, keral

kathakali nrity keral ke dakshin-pashchimi rajh‍y ka ek samriddh aur phalane-phoolane vala shastriy nrity tatha yahan ki paramh‍para hai. 'kathakali' ka arth hai- 'ek katha ka natak' ya 'ek nrith‍y natika'. 'katha' ka arth hai- 'kahani'. is nrity men abhineta ramayan aur mahabharat ke mahagrnthon aur puranon se lie ge charitron ka abhinay karate hain. yah ath‍ynt rng-birnga nrith‍y hai. isake nartak ubhare hue paridhanon, phooladar dupatton, abhooshanon aur mukut se saje hote hain. ve un vibhinh‍n bhoomikaon ko chitrit karane ke lie sanketik roop se vishishh‍t prakar ka roop dharate hain, jo vaiyaktik charitr ke bajae us charitr ke adhik nazadik hote hain.

katha nrity

bharatiy nrity roopon men advitiy kathakali nrity keral ka shastriy nrity natak hai. jvalnt aur samridv visheshataon jaise hathon ke sath gana, bhav men prakritik aur prabhavashali, halachal men sundar aur talabadv, nrity men manamohak aur sabase khas kalpana ke star par manabhavan ke karan bharatiy nrity kalaon men kathakali ko uchch darja prapt hai. vishayon ke adhar par kathakali prachin puranon ki kathaon par adharit hai. agar isaki puratan veshabhoosha, ajibo-garib roop sajja or bhavy abhooshanon ko dekhen to ham payenge ki kathakali bharat ka ekamatr aisa nrity hai, jo apani mardana pahaloo ki maulik takat par snrakshit hai.[1]

itihas

kathakali ke bare me yah mana jata hai ki yah 300 ya 400 sal purani kala nahin hain, isaki vastavik utpatti 1500 sal pahale se hai. kathakali vikas ki ek lnbi prakriya se gujari hai aur isaki is yatra ne keral men kee any mishrit kalaon ke janm aur vikas ka marg bhi prashast kiya hai. kathakali ko aryan aur dravid sabhyata ke pratik ke roop men bhi dekha ja sakata hai, jisane anushthan aur snskritiyon ko samajhate hue unake sath milakar in sabhyataon se natak aur nrity ki is kala ko udhar liya. kathakali ke itihas ke punarnirman men yah bat dhyan rakhana avashyak hai ki vyavaharik roop se sabhi prakar ke aupacharik nrity, natak aur nrity natak ki sabhi kalaon ko astitv men lane ka shrey kathakali ko hi jata hai. ek adhyayan ke dauran yah sabit bhi ho chuka hai ki keral ke sabhi prarnbhik nrity aur natak jaise- 'chakirakothoo' aur 'kodiyattam', kee dharmik nrity jo bhagavati pnth se snbndhit hai jaise- 'mudiyaattoo', 'thiyattam' aur 'theyam', samajik, dharmik aur vaivahit nrity jaise- 'sastrakali' aur 'ijamatkkali' aur bad men vikasit nrity jaise- 'krishnaattam' aur 'ramaattam' adi kathakali ki hi den hain. kathakali kala men kee nrity aur natakon ki visheshataon ko shamil kiya ja sakata hai aur yah varnan karane men bhi asan hai ki kathakali in roopon ke prarnbh men hi vikasit ho chuki thi.
kathakali nrity, keral

mookabhinay sampoorn kala

kathakali abhinay, 'nrity' (nach) aur 'gita' (sngit) tin kalaon se milakar bani ek snpoorn kala hai. yah ek mookabhinay hai, jisamen abhineta bolata evn gata nahin hai, lekin behad snvedanashil madhyamon jaise- hath ke ishare aur chehare ki bhavanaon ke sahare apani bhavanaon ki sugam abhivyakti deta hai. kathakali natakiy aur nrity kala donon hai. parntu mukhy taur par yah natak hai. yah sadharan natakiy kala se kahin jyada achchha prastutikaran hai. yah yatharthavadi kala nahin hai, lekin apani kalpanashilata ke chalate yah 'bharat natyashastr' ke samanannatar hai. pratyek bhavana adarshavadi tarike se gahan jivntata ke sath chehare ke bhavon dvara vyakt ki jati hai tatha yah shabdon ke abhav ki bhi poorti karati hai. chehare par vyakt pratyek abhivyakti nrity ki lay aur sngit ki tal ke sath chhayankit hoti hai.[1]

nrity men abhinay keval manaviy hriday ki bhavanaon ki vyaktiparak abhivyakti nahin hai, balki yah vyakti, chitr, jiv aur asapas ki vastuon ki snbndhon ke anusar udveshayaparak abhivyakti hai. isamen vastav men kala ke madhyam se pratiroopan shamil hai aur kathakali ka sachitr vaibhav aur kavy gaurav gatha ka prastutikaran bhi shamil hai. kathakali men sngit ek mahattvapoorn evn anivary tatv hai. isamen aaurkestra do mukhar sngitakaron dvara banaya jata hai, inamen se ek 'chengala' namak yntr ke sath git ki taiyari karata hai aur doosara 'jhanjh' aur 'mnjira' ke sath milakar 'ilatham' namak jodi ki rachana karata hai, jisamen chenda aur madalam bhi pramukh sthan rakhate hain. 'chenda' ek belanakar dhol hota hai, jo unchi lekin mithi avaj nikalata hai, jabaki 'madalam' mridng ka bada roop hota hai.

gayan shaili

kathakali sngit ki gayan shaili ko ek vishisht sopan shaili men vikasit kiya gaya hai, jisaki gati bahut dhimi hoti hai. isamen n hi rag aur rag alapana hai aur n hi niraval aur saraval prakar se unaka vistaran karana hai. ragon ki vyapak suvidhaon ke snrakshan aur tal ka savadhani se palan karate hue ve abhineta ko abhinay karane ki poori gujanish chhodate hue gana gate hain. kathakali men do mukhy sngitakar hote hain, jisamen mukhy sngitakar ko 'ponani' aur doosare ko 'sinakidi' ke nam se jana jata hai. kathakali gayan uchch kavy uchcharan men se hai, jinhen malayalam sahity ke ratnon men gina jata hai.[1]

'mudras' arthath 'hath ke ishare' ko shabdik bhasha ke vikalp ke taur par prayog kiya jata hai, lekin isase jyada ise istemal nahin kiya jata, n hi natak men aur n hi nrity men. chenda ke sath sngat karane ke lie madalam, chengala aur ithalam ka prayog sngitakaron ke dvara kiya jata hai, isake sath abhineta ke dvara chehare ke hav bhav, sharirik vyavahar, anguliyon ki bhasha aur hathon ke isharon ke madhyam se sngit ka anuvad bhi kiya jata hai. jaise hi gane ki shurooat hoti hai, abhineta apane mookabhinay ke sath aur apane isharon ke madhyam se aisi abhivyakti karata hai, jisase darshak sapanon ki duniya men apane ap ko mahasoos karata hai. abhineta gane ke shabdon aur tal ke sath natak aur nrity karata hai. mudras kala nrity aur abhinay ka ek abhinn hissa hai. kathakali ke adhikansh charitr pauranik hote hain, isalie unaki roop sajja yatharthavadi adhar par nahin hoti hai. in sabhi men roop sajja, poshak aur shrringar ke panch vibhinn prakar tay kie hain, jo unake vastavik charitr aur gunon ka varnan karate hain.

visheshataen

nrity men manav, devata saman, daith‍y adi ko shanadar veshabhoosha aur paridhanon ke madhh‍yam se pradarshit kiya jata hai. is nrith‍y ka sabase adhik prabhavashali bhag yah hai ki isake charitr kabhi bolate nahin hain, keval unake hathon ke hav bhav ki uchh‍ch vikasit bhasha tatha chehare ki abhivh‍yakti hoti hai, jo is natika ke pathy ko darshakon ke samane pradarshit karati hai. unake chehare ke chhote aur bade hav bhav, bhnvon ki gati, netron ka snchalan, galon, nak aur thodi ki abhivh‍yakti par bariki se kam kiya jata hai tatha ek kathakali abhineta nartak dvara vibhinh‍n bhavanaon ko prakat kiya jata hai. isamen adhikanshat: purush hi mahilaon ki bhoomika nibhate hain, jabaki ab kuchh samay se mahilaon ko kathakali men shamil kiya jane laga hai.[1]

vartaman samay ka kathakali ek nrith‍y natika ki paramh‍para hai, jo keral ke naty karm ki uchh‍ch vishishh‍t shaili ki paramh‍para ke sath shatabdiyon pahale vikasit hua tha, vishesh roop se kudiyattam. paramh‍parik riti rivaj jaise theyam, mudiyattam aur keral ki marshal kalaen nrith‍y ko vartaman sh‍varoop men lane ke lie mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhati hain.


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 kala aur snskriti (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 24 julaee, 2012.

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