कन्नड़  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg kannad ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- kannad (bahuvikalpi)

kannad bhasha kannadi bhi kahalati hai. dakshin-pashchim bharat ke karnatak rajy ki rajabhasha, jo dakshin dravid shakha se sambaddh hai aur sahityik parampara vali char pradhan dravid bhashaon men doosari sabase prachin bhasha hai. halamidi sthit pahala kannad abhilekh 450 ee. ka hai.

lipi

kannad lipi ka vikas ashok ki brahmi lipi ke dakshini prakaron se hua hai aur telugu lipi se isaka nikat sambandh hai. in donon ki utpatti ek prachin kannad lipi (10vin shatabdi) se huee hai. is bhasha ke vikas men tin aitihasik charanon ki pahachan ki gee hai.

  • prachin kannad (450-1200 ee.),
  • madhy kannad (1200-1700 ee.) aur
  • adhunik kannad (1700 ee. se vartaman kal tak).

vyakaran

kannad mukhyatah karnatak aur isake padosi rajyon men boli jati hai. tulu aur kadagu bolane valon ki yah doosari bhasha hai. 1997 men kannadabhashi logon ki snkhya anumanatah char karod sath lakh thi. vaky men shabd kram karta–karm–kriya ka hota hai, jaisa any dravid bhashaon men hai. kriyaon ko purush, vachan aur ling ke adhar par chihnit kiya jata hai. is bhasha men moordhany vynjan hote hain, udaharan ke lie, t, d aur n ki dhvaniyon ka uchcharan talu par mudi huee jihva ke chhor ki sthiti se hota hai. jo ek khas dravid lakshan hai. sabase prachin upalabdh vyakaran nagavarma (arambhik 12vin shatabdi) ka hai. keshiraj (1260 ee.) ke shabd mani darpan ko ab bhi samman prapt hai.

samany bolachal

kannad ke tin kshetriy prakaron ki pahachan ki ja sakati hai, dakshini (maisoor), uttari (dharavad) aur tatiy (mngalor). samajik, arthik aur shaikshik karakon ke adhar par is bhasha men boligat bhinnataen bhi parilakshit hoti hain. isi tarah se aupacharik aur samany bolachal ke prakar bhi hain. bngalor aur maisoor men boli jane vali bhasha ko utkrisht koti ka mana jata hai.

kannad tatha karnatak shabdon ki vyutpatti ke snbndh men yadi kisi vidvanh‌ ka yah mat hai ki 'knriduanadu' arthath‌ 'kali mitti ka desh' se kannad shabd bana hai to doosare vidvanh‌ ke anusar 'kapitu nadu' arthath‌ 'sugndhit desh' se 'kannadu' aur 'kannadu' se 'kannad' ki vyutpatti huee hai. kannad sahity ke itihasakar ar.narasinhachar ne is mat ko svikar kiya hai. kuchh vaiyakaranon ka kathan hai ki kannad snskrit shabd 'karnat' ka tadbhoov roop hai. yah bhi kaha jata hai ki 'karnayo atati iti karnatak' arthat jo kanon men goonjata hai vah karnatak hai.

prachin grnthon men kannad, karnat, karnatak shabd samanarth men prayukt hue hain. mahabharat men karnat shabd ka prayog anek bar hua hai.[1] doosari shatabdi men likhe hue tamil 'shilappadikaramh‌' namak kavy men kannad bhasha bolanevalon ka nam 'karunadar' bataya gaya hai. varahamihir ke brihatsnhita, somadev ke 'kathasaritsagar' gunadhay ki paishachi 'brihatkatha' adi grnthon men bhi karnat shabd ka barabar ullekh milata hai.

angreji men karnatak shabd vikrit hokar karnatik athava kenara, phir kenara se kenariz ban gaya hai. uttari bharat ki hindi tatha any bhashaon men kannad shabd ke lie kanadi, kannadi, kenara, kanari ka prayog milata hai. ajakal karnatak tatha kannad shabdon ka nishchit arth men prayog hota hai–'karnatak' pradesh ka nam hai aur 'kannad' bhasha ka.

kannad bhasha tatha lipi

dravid bhasha parivar ki bhashaen pnchadravid bhashaen kahalati hain. kisi samay in pnchadravid bhashaon men kannad, tamil, telugu, gujarati tatha marathi bhashaen sammilit thin. kintu ajakal pnchadravid bhashaon ke antargat kannad, tamil, telugu, malayalam tatha tulu mani jati hain. vastut: tulu kannad ki hi ek pusht boli hai jo dakshin kannad jile men boli jati hai. tulu ke atirikt kannad ki any boliyan hain–kodagu, tod, kot tatha badag. kodagu kurg men boli jati hai aur baki tinon ka nilagiri jile men prachalan hai. nilagiri jila tamilanadu rajy ke antargat hai.

ramayan-mahabharat-kal men bhi kannad boli jati thi, to bhi eesa ke poorv kannad ka koee likhit roop nahin milata. prarnbhik kannad ka likhit roop shilalekhon men milata hai. in shilalekhon men halmidi namak sthan se prapt shilalekh sabase prachin hai, jisaka rachanakal 450 ee. hai. satavin shatabdi men likhe ge shilalekhon men badami aur shravan belagol ke shilalekh mahatvapoorn hain. pray: athavin shatabdi ke poorv ke shilalekhon men gady ka hi prayog hua hai aur usake bad ke shilalekhon men kavyalakshanon se yukt pady ke uttam namoone prapt hote hain. in shilalekhon ki bhasha jahan sugathit tatha praudh hai vahan usapar snskrit ka gahara prabhav dikhaee deta hai. is prakar yadyapi athavi shatabdi tak ke shilalekhon ke adhar par kannad men gady-pady-rachana ka praman milata hai to bhi kannad ke upalabdh sarvapratham grnth ka nam 'kavirajamarg' ke uparant kannad men grnthanirman ka kary uttarottar badha aur bhasha nirntar vikasit hoti gee. kannad bhasha ke vikasakram ki char avasthaen mani gee hain jo is prakar hai:

  1. atiprachin kannad[2],
  2. hळ kannad–prachin kannad[3],
  3. nadu gannad madhyayugin kannad[4], aur
  4. hos gannad–adhunik kannad.[5]

charon dravid bhashaon ki apani prithak-prithak lipiyan hain. daau.em.ech. krishn ke anusar in charon lipiyon ka vikas prachin anshakalin brahmi lipi ki dakshini shakha se hua hai. banavat ki drishti se kannad aur telugu men tatha tamil aur malayalam men samy hai. 13vin shatabdi ke poorv likhe ge telugu shilalekhon ke adhar par yah bataya jata hai ki prachin kal men telugu aur kannad ki lipiyan ek hi thi. vartaman kannad ki lipi banavat ki drishti se devanagari lipi se bhinn dikhaee deti hain, kintu donon ke dhvanisamooh men adhik antar nahin hai. antar itana hi hai ki kannad men svaron ke atnrgat 'e' aur 'o' ke hhrasv roop tatha vynjanon ke antargat vatsy 'l' ke sath-sath moordhany 'l' varn bhi pae jate hain. prachin kannad men 'r' aur 'ळ' pratyek ke ek-ek moordhany roop ka prachalan tha, kintu adhunik kannad men in donon varno ka prayog lupt ho gaya hai. baki dhvanisamooh snskrit ke saman hai. kannad ki varnamala men kul 47 varn hain. ajakal inaki snkhya bavan tak badha di gee hai.[6]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. karnatakashch kutashch padmajala: satinara:, sabhaparv, 78, 94; karnataka mahishika vikalpa mooshakastatha, bhishmaparv 58-59
  2. athavin shatabdi ke ant tak ki avastha
  3. navin shatabdi ke arnbh se 12vin shatabdi ke madhyakal tak ki avastha
  4. 12vin shatabdi ke uttarardh se 19vin shatabdi ke poorvardh tak ki avastha
  5. 19vin shatabdi ke uttarardh se ab tak ki avastha
  6. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 289 |

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