कन्फ़्यूशियस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kanfyooshiyas

kanfyooshiyas ek prasiddh darshanik tatha sudharak, jisaka janm chin men hua tha. us samay chin men 'jhooo rajavnsh' ka basant aur sharad kal chal raha tha. samay ke sath jhooo rajavnsh ki shakti kam padane ke karan chin men bahut se rajy kayam ho gaye, jo sada apas men ladate rahate the. is karan ise 'jhagadate rajyon ka kal' kaha jane laga. atah chin ki praja bahut hi kasht jhel rahi thi. isi samay men chin vasiyon ko naitikata ka path padhane hetu mahatma kanfyooshiyas ka uday hua. kanfyooshiyas ne kabhi is bat ka dava nahin kiya ki use koee daivi shakti ya eeshvariy sndesh prapt hote the. vah keval is bat ka chintan karata tha ki vyakti kya hai aur samaj men usake kartavy kya hain. usane shakti pradarshan, asadharan evn amanushik shaktiyon, vidroh pravritti tatha devi-devataon ka zikr kabhi nahin kiya. usaka kathan tha ki "buddhimatta ki bat yahi hai ki pratyek vyakti poorn uttaradayitv aur eemanadari se apane kartavy ka palan kare."

janm

itihasakar szema chien ke matanusar kanfyooshiyas ka janm 550 ee. poo. men hua. unaka jatiy nam 'kung' tha. kung phootse ka latini svaroop hi kanfyooshiyas hai, jisaka arth hota hai- 'darshanik kung'. vartaman 'shantung' kahalane vale prachin loo pradesh ka vah nivasi tha, aur usaka pita 'shoo-liyagahih' tsaoo zile ka senapati tha. kanfyooshiyas ka janm apane pita ki vriddhavastha men hua tha, jo usake janm ke tin varsh ke uparant hi svargavasi ho gaya. pita ki mrityu ke pashchath‌ usaka parivar badi kathin paristhitiyon men phns gaya, jisase usaka balyakal badi hi arthik vipannata men vyatit hua. parntu usane apani is nirdhanata ko hi age chalakar apani vidvata tatha vibhinn kalaon men dakshata ka karan banaya. jab vah keval panch varsh ka tha, tabhi se apane sathiyon ke sath jo khel khelata, usamen dharmik snskaron tatha vibhinn kalaon ke prati usaki abhiruchi spasht roop se parilakshit hoti thi.[1]

vivah

19 varsh ki avastha men 'sung' namak pradesh ki ek kanya se usaka vivah ho gaya. vivah ke doosare varsh usake ek putr utpann hua aur usake pashchath‌ do kanyaen. vivah ke thode hi din pashchath‌ tsaoo namak zile ke svami ke yahan, jo ki jati ka pradhan tha, use naukari mil gee.

vidyalay ki sthapana

22 varsh ki avastha men kanfyooshiyas ne ek vidyalay ki sthapana ki. isamen aise yuvak aur praudh shiksha grahan karate the, jo sadacharan evn rajy snchalan ke siddhanton men parngat hona chahate the. apane shishyon se vah yathesht arthik sahayata liya karata tha. parntu kam se kam shulk de sakane vale vidyarthi ko bhi vah asvikar nahin karata tha; kintu sath hi aise shiksharthiyon ko bhi vah apane shiksha kendr men nahin rakhata tha, jinamen shiksha aur gyan ke prati abhiruchi tatha bauddhik kshamata nahin hoti thi.

laotse se bhent

517 ee. poo. men do sian yuvak apane jatiy pradhan ke mrityukalin adesh ke anusar kanfyooshiyas ki shishy mndali men sammilit hue. unhin ke sath vah rajadhani gaya, jahan usane rajakiy pustakalay ki amooly pustakon ka avalokan kiya or tatkalin rajadarabar men prachalit uchch koti ke sngit ka adhyayan kiya. vahan usane kee bar 'taovad' ke pravartak 'laotse' se bhent ki aur usase bahut prabhavit bhi hua.

loo pradesh ko vapasi

jab kanfyooshiyas lautakar loo pradesh men aya to usane dekha, pradesh men badi arajakata utpann ho gee hai. mntriyon se jhagada ho jane ke karan ukt pradesh ka samnt bhag kar pados ke tsi pradesh men chala gaya hai. kanfyooshiyas ko ye sab baten ruchikar nahin lagin aur vah bhi apani shishy mndali ke sath tsi pradesh ko chal diya. kaha jata hai, jab ve log ek parvat ke bich se ja rahe the, tab unhen vahan ek stri dikhaee di, jo kisi qabr ke pas baithi vilap kar rahi thi. karan poochhane par usane bataya ki ek chite ne vahan par usake shvasur ko mar dala tha, isake bad usake pati ki bhi vahin dasha huee aur ab usake putr ko chite ne mar dala hai. is par us stri se yah prashn kiya gaya ki vah aise vany tatha bhaynkar sthan men kyon rahati hai, to usane uttar diya ki us kshetr men koee damanakari sarakar nahin hai. is par kanfyooshiyas ne apane shishyon ko bataya ki kroor evn anuttaradayi sarakar chite se bhi adhik bhayanak hoti hai. kanfyooshiyas ko tsi men bhi rahana thik nahin laga. vahan ke shasak ke darabariyon ne usaki badi alochana ki, use aganit vichitrataon se bhara hua avyavaharik tatha atmabhimani manushy bataya, phir bhi vahan ka shasak samnt usaka bahut adar karata tha aur usane use rajakiy ay ka bahut bada bhag samarpit karane ka prastav kiya. kintu kanfyooshiyas ne kuchh bhi lena svikar n kiya aur spasht roop se kah diya ki yadi usake paramarsho par rajy ka snchalan n kiya gaya to use kisi bhi prakar ki sahayata ya pratishtha svikrit n hogi. asntusht man se vah loo pradesh ko pun: laut aya aur lagabhag 15 varsh tak ekant jivan vyatit karata hua svadhyay men dattachitt raha.[1]

nyayadhish ka pad

52 varsh ki avastha men use chungatoo pradesh ka mukhy nyayadhish bana diya gaya. usake is pad par ate hi janata ke vyavahar men ashcharyajanak sudhar dikhaee dene laga. tatkalin samnt shasak ne, jo vigat bhage hue sanmat ka chhota bhaee tha, kanfyooshiyas ko adhik uchch pad pradan kiya aur ant men use aparadh vibhag ka mntri niyukt kar diya. isi samay usake do shishyon ko bhi uchch evn prabhavashali pad prapt ho ge. apane in shishyon ki sahayata se kanfyooshiyas ne janata ke achar evn vyavahar men bahut adhik sudhar kiya. shasan ka jaise kayapalat ho gaya, beeemani aur parasparik avishvas door ho ge. janata men usaka bada adar samman hone laga aur vah sabaka poojy ban gaya.

shatru samnton ki sajish

kanfyooshiyas ke is badhate hue prabhav se tsi ke samnt aur usake mntrigan atnkit ho uthe. unhonne socha ki yadi kanfyooshiyas isi prakar apana kary karata raha to snpoorn rajy men loo pradesh ka prabhav sarvadhik ho jaega aur tsi pradesh ko badi kshati pahunchegi. paryapt vicharavimarsh ke pashchath‌ tsi ke mntriyon ne sngit evn nrity men kushal atynt sundar taruniyon ka ek dal loo pradesh ko bheja. yah chal chal gee. loo ki janata ne in vilasini ramaniyon ka khoob svagat kiya. janata ka dhyan inaki or akrisht hone laga aur usane snt kanfyooshiyas ke paramarshon tatha adarshon ki avahelana arnbh kar di. kanfyooshiyas ko isase bada khed hua aur usane loo pradesh chhod dene ka vichar kiya. samnt bhi usaki avahelana karane laga. kisi ek bade balidan ke pashchath‌ mans ka vah bhag kanfyooshiyas ke pas nahin bheja, jo use niyamanusar usake pas bhejana chahie tha. kanfyooshiyas ko rajyasabha chhod dene ka yah achchha avasar mila aur vah dhire-dhire vahan se alag hokar chal diya. yadyapi vah bade beman se ja raha tha aur yah asha karata tha ki shighr hi samnt ki buddhi sanmarg par a jaegi aur use vapas bula lega, kintu aisa hua nahin aur is mahatma ko apane jivan ke 56ven varsh men idhar-udhar vibhinn pradeshon men bhatakane ke lie chal dena pada.

vibhinn pradeshon ka bhraman

13 varsh tak kanfyooshiyas vibhinn pradeshon ka bhraman is asha se karata raha ki use koee aisa samnt shasak mil jae jo use apana mukhy paramarshadata niyukt kar le aur usake paramarshon par shasan ka snchalan kare, jisase usaka pradesh ek sarvadeshik sudhar ka kendr ban jae, kintu usaki sari ashaen vyarth siddh hueen. shasakagan usaka samman karate the, usako pratishtha evn adar samman tatha rajakiy sahayata dene ke lie udyat the, kintu koee usake paramarshon ko manane aur apani karyapranali men parivartan karane ke lie taiyar n tha. is prakar 13 varsh bhraman karane ke pashchath‌ apane jivan ke 69ven varsh men kanfyooshiyas phir se loo pradesh men vapas laut aya. isi samay usaka ek shishy ek sainik abhiyan men saphal hua aur usane pradesh ke mahamntri ko bataya ki usane apane guru dvara pradatt shiksha aur gyan ke adhar par hi ukt saphalata prapt ki. is shishy ne mahamntri se kanfyooshiyas ko pun: usaka pad pradan karane ki prarthana ki aur vah man bhi gaya, kintu kanfyooshiyas ne dubara rajakiy pad grahan karana svikar nahin kiya aur apane jivan ke antim din apani sahityik yojanaon ki poorti tatha shishyon ko gyanadan karane men laga dena usane adhik shreyaskar samajha.[1]

nidhan tatha samadhi

481 ee. poo. men kanfyooshiyas ke putr ka svargavas ho gaya, kintu jab 482 ee. poo. men usake atynt priy shishy 'yenahyi' ki mrityu ho gee, tab vah bahut hi shokakul hua. usake ek aur shishy 'tje too' ki bhi mrityu kuchh samay pashchath‌ ho gee. ek din prat: kal vah apane dvar par tahalate hue kah raha tha-

ooncha parvat ab niche girega
majaboot shahatir tootane vali hai
buddhiman manushy bhi paudhe ke saman nasht ho jaenge.

usaka shishy tje kung yah sunakar turnt usake pas aya. kanfyooshiyas ne usase kaha ki pichhali rat mainne ek svapn dekha hai, jisase mujhe snket mila ki mera ant ab nikat hai. usi din se kanfyooshiyas ne shaiya grahan ki aur sat din pashchath‌ vah mahatma is lok se vida ho gaya. usake anuyayiyon ne badi dhoomadham se usake sharir ko samadhisth kiya. unamen se bahut se tin varsh tak usi sthan par shok pradarshan ke lie baithe rahe aur usaka sarvapriy shishy 'tje kung' to agale tin varsh bhi usi sthan par jama raha. kanfyooshiyas ki mrityu ka samachar sabhi pradeshon men phail gaya aur jis mahapurush ki usake jivan kal men itani avahelana ki gee thi, mrityu ke uparant vah sarvaprashnsa aur adar ka patr ban gaya. kuifau nagar ke bahar kung samadhi sthal se alag kanfyooshiyas ki samadhi ab bhi vidyaman hai. samadhi ke samane sngamaramar ka ek chaukhata laga hua hai, jis par nimnalikhit abhilekh ankit hai-

prachin mahagyani sataguru, snpoorn vidyaon men parngat, sarvgy naradhip.

rachanaen

kanfyooshiyas ne kabhi bhi apane vicharon ko likhit roop dena avashyak nahin samajha. usaka mat tha ki vah vicharon ka vahak ho sakata hai, unaka srashta nahin. vah puratatv ka upasak tha, kayonki usaka vichar tha ki usi ke madhyam se yatharth gyan prapt prapt ho sakata hai. usaka kahana tha ki manushy ko usake samast karyakalapon ke lie niyam apane andar hi prapt ho sakate hain. n keval vyakti ke lie varanh snpoorn samaj ke sudhar aur sahi vikas ke niyam aur svaroop prachin mahatmaon ke shabdon evn kary shailiyon men prapt ho sakate hain. kanfyooshiyas ne koee aisa lekh nahin chhoda, jisamen usake dvara pratipadit naitik evn samajik vyavastha ke siddhanton ka niroopan ho. kintu usake pautr 'tje sje' dvara likhit 'ausat ka siddhant'[2] aur usake shishy tsang sin dvara likhit 'mahanh‌ shiksha'[3] namak pustakon men tatsnbndhi samast soochanaen prapt hoti hain. 'basnt aur patajhad'[4] namak ek grnth, jise 'loo ka itivritt' bhi kahate hain, kanfyooshiyas ka likha hua bataya jata hai. yah samoochi kriti prapt hai aur yadyapi bahut chhoti hai tathapi chin ke snkshipt itihason ke lie adarsh mani jati hai.[1]

shishy mndali

kanfyooshiyas ke shishyon ki snkhya sab milakar pray: 3000 tak pahunch gee thi, kintu unamen se 75 ke lagabhag hi uchch koti ke pratibhashali vidvanh the. usake param priy shishy usake pas hi raha karate the. ve usake asapas shraddhapoorvak uthate-baithate the aur usake acharan ki sookshm visheshataon par dhyan diya karate the tatha usake mukh se nikali vani ke pratyek shabd ko hridayngam kar lete aur us par manan karate the. ve usase prachin itihas, kavy tatha desh ki samajik prathaon ka adhyayan karate the.

samajik aur rajanitik vichar

kanfyooshiyas ka kahana tha ki kisi desh men achchha shasan aur shanti tabhi sthapit ho sakati hai, jab shasak, mntri tatha janata ka pratyek vyakti apane sthan par uchit kartavyon ka palan karata rahe. shasak ko sahi arthon men shasak hona chahie, mntri ko sahi artho men mntri hona chahie. kanfyooshiyas se ek bar poochha gaya ki yadi use kisi pradesh ke shasan sootr ke snchalan ka bhar saunpa jae to vah sabase pahala kaun-sa mahatvapoorn kary karega. isake lie usaka uttar tha– "namon men sudhar". isaka ashay yah tha ki jo jis nam ke pad par pratishthit ho use us pad se snlagn sabhi kartavyon ka vidhivat palan karana chahie, jisase usaka vah nam sarthak ho. use udaharan aur adarsh ki shakti men poorn vishvas tha. usaka vishvas tha ki adarsh vyakti apane sadacharan se jo udaharan prastut karate hain, am janata unake samane nishchay hi jhuk jati hai. yadi kisi desh ke shasak ko isaka bhali-bhanti gyan kara diya jae ki use shasan kary chalane men kya karana chahie aur kis prakar karana chahie to nishchay hi vah apana udaharan prastut karake am janata ke acharan men sudhar kar sakata hai aur apane rajy ko sukhi, samriddh evn snpann bana sakata hai. isi vishvas ke bal par kanfyooshiyas ne ghoshana ki thi ki yadi koee shasak 12 mahine ke lie use apana mukhy paramarshadata bana le to vah bahut kuchh karake dikha sakata hai aur yadi use tin varsh ka samay diya jae to vah apane adarshon aur ashaon ko moort roop pradan kar sakata hai.

vichar

kanfyooshiyas ne kabhi is bat ka dava nahin kiya ki use koee daivi shakti ya eeshvariy sndesh prapt hote the. vah keval is bat ka chintan karata tha ki vyakti kya hai aur samaj men usake kartavy kya hain. usane shakti pradarshan, asadharan evn amanushik shaktiyon, vidroh pravritti tatha devi-devataon ka zikr kabhi nahin kiya. usaka kathan tha ki buddhimatta ki bat yahi hai ki pratyek vyakti poorn uttaradayitv aur eemanadari se apane kartavy ka palan kare aur devi-devataon ka adar karate hue bhi unase alag rahe. usaka mat tha ki jo manushy manav ki seva nahin kar sakata vah devi-devataon ki seva kya karega. use apane aur doosaron ke sabhi kartavyon ka poorn dhyan tha, isilie usane kaha tha ki bura adami kabhi bhi shasan karane ke yogy nahin ho sakata, bhale hi vah kitana bhi shakti snpann ho. niyamon ka ullnghan karane valon ko to shasak dnd deta hi hai, parntu use kabhi yah nahin bhoolana chahie ki usake sadacharan ke adarsh prastut karane ki shakti se badhakar any koee shakti nahin hai.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 kanfyooshiyas (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 01 agast, 2014.
  2. angrezi anuvad, daktrin aauv d min
  3. angrezi anuvad, d gret larning
  4. angrezi anuvad, spring aind atam

snbndhit lekh