कपास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kapas ke phool

kapas ek nakadi fasal hai. isase ruee taiyar ki jati hai. bharat men kapas ko 'safed sona' bhi kaha jata hai. lambe reshe vale kapas sabase sarvottam prakar ke hote hain, jisaki lambaee 5 sen.mi. se adhik hoti hai. isase uchch koti ka kapada banaya jata hai. tatiy kshetron men paida hone ke karan ise 'samudr dvipiy kapas' bhi kahate hain. madhy reshe vala kapas, jisaki lambaee 3.5 se 5 sen.mi. tak hoti hai, 'mishrit kapas' kahalata hai. tisare prakar ka kapas chhote reshe vala hota hai, jisake reshe ki lambaee 3.5 sen.mi. tak hoti hai.

itihas

kapas bharat ki adi fasal hai, jisaki kheti bahut hi badi matra men ki jati hai. yahan aryavart men rigvaidik kal se hi isaki kheti ki jati rahi hai. bharat men isaka itihas kafi purana hai. hadappa nivasi kapas ke utpadan men snsar bhar men pratham mane jate the. kapas unake pramukh utpadanon men se ek tha. bharat se hi 327 ee.poo. ke lagabhag yoonan men is paudhe ka prachar hua. yah bhi ullekhaniy hai ki bharat se hi yah paudha chin aur vishv ke any deshon ko le jaya gaya. vishv men prativarsh lagabhag 150 lakh mitrik tan kapas paida hota hai. snyukt rajy amarika, chin, bharat, brajil, misr, soodan adi kapas ke pramukh utpadak desh hain.

bhaugolik dashaen

vartaman samay men kapas ki kheti ek bahut bade kshetraphal men ho rahi hai. manav jivan men isaka bahut hi mahattv hai. isilie kapas ki mang din pratidin badhati hi ja rahi hai. kapas ki kheti ke lie nimn bhaugolik avasthaen avashyak hoti hain-

tapaman

kapas ke paudhe ke lie uchch tapaman, sadharanatah 20° sentigret se 30° sentigret tak, ki avashyakata padati hai, kintu yah 40° tak ki garmi men bhi paida kiya sakata hai. pala athava ola isaki fasal ke lie ghatak hai. atah is paudhe ke vikas ke lie kam-se-kam 210 din pala-rahit ritu chahie. dodi khilane ke samay svachchh akash, tel aur chamakadar dhoop ka hona avashyak hai, jisase reshe men paryapt chamak a sake aur dodiya poori tarah khil saken. samudri pavanon ke prabhav men ugane vali kapas ka resha lamba aur chamakadar hota hai.
kapas ka paudha

varsha

kapas ke lie sadharanatah 50 se 100 se.mi. tak ki varsha paryapt hoti hai. yah matra thode-thode dinon ke antar se prapt honi chahie. 100 se.mi. se adhik varsha vale bhagon men isaki kheti nahin ho sakati. jahan varsha kam hoti hai, vahan sinchaee ke sahare kapas paida ki jati hai. shushk pradeshon men kida kam lagane ke karan hi sinchit kshetron men kapas adhik paida ki jati hai.

bharat men kapas dakshini-pashchimi manasoon ke arambh ke sath hi boyi jati hai, jabaki sinchaee par ashrit kapas ek-do mahine poorv hi boyi jati hai. desh men 49 pratishat kapas sinchit kshetron men paida ki jati hai. andhr pradesh, maharashtr karnatak rajy ke dakshini bhag men kapas joon se agast ke ant tak boyi jati hai aur chunaee janavari se aprail tak ki jati hai. tamilanadu men isako bona donon hi manasoonon ke anusar hota hai. dakshini prayadvip ke bahar yah march se julaee tak boyi jati hai aur aktoobar se janavari tak isaki chunaee hoti hai. kapas bharat ki samanyatah khariph ki fasal hai.

mitti

kapas ka utpadan vibhinn prakar ki mittiyon men kiya ja sakata hai, kintu ardratapoorn dakshini bharat ki chikani aur kali mitti adhik labhaprad mani jati hai. samanyatah bharat men kapas tin prakar ki mittiyon men paida ki jati hai-

  1. bhari kali domat mitti, jo gujarat v maharashtr rajyon men milati hai. bharat men kapas ka sarvotkrisht kshetr bharuch, ahamadabad tatha khanadesh zilon men phaila hai.
  2. lal aur kali chattani mitti, jo dakkan, barar aur malava ke pathar par phaili hai.
  3. sataluj aur gnga ke halki kachhari mitti ke kshetr men. dakshin bharat ki kali mitti kapas ke lie sarvadhik upayukt hai, isalie ise 'regur mitti' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai.

shram

kapas ka paudha

kapas ki kheti men bone, nirane aur didiyan chunane ke lie saste mazadooron ki avashyakata padati hai. jyon hi paudhe par dode nikalakar bade hone lagen tyon hi unako chun lena avashyak hota hai anyatha vah kharab hokar girane lagate hain aur kapas ki kism bigad jati hai. khet men hi kapas ki phasal 3-4 bar men ikatthi ki jati hai. isaka phool adhikatar striyon dvara hi chuna jata hai. din bhar men ek shramik 15 se 20 kilogram tak kapas chun sakata hai. isaki krishi ke lie dakshin bharat ki jalavayu uttari bharat ki apeksha anukool hai, kyonki yahan jade men bhi tapaman ooncha rahata hai. uttari pashchimi bharat men kohara, badal, varsha v ole ke prabhav evn kabhi-kabhi pale se fasal ko kshati pahunchati hai. isaki dodiyon men kida lag sakata hai.

krishi

bharat men kapas ke sath kee any fasalen bhi boyi jati hai. isake sath sabase adhik moongaphali bote hain. pnjab men amerikan aur deshi kapas milakar bote hain. uttar pradesh men ise methi, moongi, barasim, toriya, klovar adi fasalon ke sath bote hain. rajasthan, madhy pradesh, maharashtr, andhr pradesh aur tamilanadu men isake sath jvar boya jata hai. lal mitti vale kshetron men kapas ke sath arandi, til, jvar ya bajara boya jata hai. madhy maharashtr aur pashchimi maharashtr ke kali mitti vale kshetr men kapas aur makka tatha gujarat men kapas aur arandi tatha dhan aur andhr pradesh ke dakshini bhag men kapas aur moongaphali tatha ragi sath-sath boe jate hai. uttari bharat men kapas ka paudha taiyar hone men 6 mahine lag jate hain, jabaki dakshini bharat men 8 mahine tak lagate hain.

utpadan

kapas ka phool
snyukt rajy amerika kapas utpadan ka vishv men sabase bada utpadak desh hai. yahan vishv ka lagabhag 22% kapas paida kiya jata hai. chin men vishv ka 17% kapas ka utpadan kiya jata hai. chin men yangtasi nadi ki nichali ghati tatha hvang-ho nadi ka oopari delta pramukh kapas ke utpadak kshetr hain. bharat men 8% kapas ka utpadan kiya jata hai. kapas utpadan ki drishti se bharat ka vishv men tisara sthan hai. kapas utpadan ke pramukh rajyon men kramashah maharashtr, gujarat, rajasthan, pnjab, hariyana tatha pashchimi uttar pradesh pramukh hain. any utpadak deshon men brajil ka saopolo kshetr, misr ka nil delta, soodan ka jajira v safed nil ki ghati tatha pakistan adi mahattvapoorn hain.

kapas ki qism

vyaparik drishtikon se bharat men mukhyatah 14 qismon ki kapas paida ki jati hai. inaki achchhaee ya buraee, unaki mazabooti, dhage, sookshmata, rng, chamak aur motaee ki pratishatata par nirbhar karati hai. ye qismen is prakar hain- bngal, amarikan, dhaulera, umara, bhadauch, soorati, kampana, kambodiya, jayavnt, komil, dakshini jhelam, madras-yoogenda aur tirunalaveli.

  • reshe ki lambaee ke anusar kapas tin prakar ki hoti hai-
  1. chhote resh vali kapas - isaka dhaga 19 mimi. se kam hota hai. isaki mukhy qismen chinnapathi, mugara, umara, komila, uttar pradesh deshi, pnjab deshi, rajasthan deshi tatha methion hai. isaka utpadan adhikatar asam, manipur, tripura, andhr pradesh, uttar pradesh, hariyana, rajasthan, pnjab aur meghalay men kiya jata hai. kul utpadan ka 15 pratishat isi prakar ki kapas ka hota hai.
  2. madhyam reshe vali kapas - isaka dhaga 20 mimi. se 24 mimi. tak lamba hota hai. isaki mukhy qismen prabhani, gorani, pnjab, amerikan, digvijay, vijalp, snjay, indaur-2, boodi el-147, khanadesh, giranar jayadhar, kakinada, kalyan, uttari, jarila, biram, malavi, rajasthan amarikan hain. kul utpadan ka lagabhag 45 pratishat is prakar ki kapas ka hota hai.
  3. lambe reshe vali kapas - isaka dhaga 24.5 mimi. se 27 mimi. tak lamba hota hain. isaki mukhy qismen gujarat, deviraj, samudri kapas, badanavar-1, madras, kambodiya, sujata, boodi aur lakshmi hain. kul utpadan ka 40 pratishat is qism ka hota hai.

bharat men utpadak kshetr

kapas ka khet

bharat men kapas ki kheti ka kshetr atyant bikhara hua hai. in kshetron men vibhinn prakar ki jalavayu, mitti aur utpadan ki dashaen payi jati hain. at: pratyek kshetr ki kapas any kshetron se bhinn hoti hai aur us kshetr ki avasthaon ke anuroop hoti hai. kapas ke utpadan ki drishti se dakshin ki kali mitti ka pradesh bada mahattvapoorn hai. gujarat, karnatak, pnjab, andhr pradesh, tamilanadu, maharashtr aur madhy pradesh milakar desh ke utpadan ka lagabhag 90 pratishat kapas utpann karate hain. desh ki lagabhag 60 pratishat kapas ka utpadan keval tin rajyon gujarat, maharashtr aur andhr pradesh men hota hai. any mukhy utpadak rajy uttar pradesh aur hariyana hai.

gujarat men kul kshetr ka 21.7 pratishat tatha utpadan ka 31.9 pratishat milata hai. kapas utpadan ke kshetr men is rajy ka desh men pahala sthan hai. samudratatiy kshetron ko chhodakar mukhyatah tin kshetron men kapas paida ki jati hai. adhikatar utpadan varsha ke sahare hi hota hai. is rajy men chhote v madhyam reshe vali deshi kapas paida ki jati hai-

  1. uttari gujarat ke ahamadabad, mehasana aur banasakota zilon men sabaramati nadi ke par saurashtr aur uttari tatha kachchh men dhaulera aur bagad qism ki kapas paida ki jati hai. amareli, ahamadabad tatha dakshini saurashtr men ghatiya qism ki kapas paida hoti hai.
  2. madhy gujarat ke bharoonch, badodara, kheda, gohilavad, pnchamahal, sabarakantha zile men bharaunch kapas paida ki jati hai.
  3. dakshini gujarat ke soorat aur pashchimi khanadesh zilon men soorati, navasari tatha amarikan qismen paida ki jati hai.
  4. gujarat men mahi aur narmada nadi ke bich ke kshetron men sabase adhik kapas paida ki jati hai.

maharashtr kapas ke utpadak kshetron men pramukh hai. yahan kul kshetr ka 31 pratishat paya jata hai, jabaki kul utpadan ka 21.7 pratishat hota hai, arthath utpadan ki drishti se is rajy ka desh men doosara sthan hai. yahan kapas joon se agast tak boyi jati hai aur disambar-janavari tak chun li jati hai. yahan kapas ka utpadan kee kshetron men kiya jata hai-

  1. ankola aur amaravati zilon men oomara aur kambodiya kapas boyi jati hai.
  2. yavatamal zile men poosad, daravaha talluko men oomara aur kambodiya kapas hoti hai.
  3. buladhana zile ke malkapur, mahakar, khamaganv aur jalaganv tallukon men oomara aur kambodiya kapas paida ki jati hai. in sab zilon men kapas varsha ke sahare paida ki jati hai.
  4. nagapur, vardha, chandrapur aur chhindavada zilon men kambodiya kapas varsha ke sahare hi paida ki jati hai.
  5. sangali, bijapur, nasik, ahamadanagar, golapur, pune tatha prabhani any utpadak zilen hain, yahan oomara aur khanadeshi kapas hoti hai. is rajy men 43 lakh ganth kapas ka utpadan hota hai.
kapas ke phool

madhy pradesh men joon men buvaee ki jati hai aur navambar se faravari tak chunaee ki jati hai. yahan malavad ke pathar evn narmada aur tapi ki ghatiyon men kali aur kachhari mittiyon men isaka utpadan kiya jata hai. pashchim nimad, indaur, rayapur, dhar, devas, ujjain, ratalam, mandasaur zilon men oomara, jarila, biranar, malavi aur indauri kapas boyi jati hai. madhy pradesh men prativarsh lagabhag 12 lakh ganth kapas ka utpadan hota hai.

rajasthan men gng nahar kshetr men shrignganagar aur hanumanagadh zilen men pnjab-deshi aur pnjab-amarikan; jhalavad, kota, tonk, boondi zilon men malavi kapas tatha bhilavada, bansavada, chittaud aurh ajamer zilon men rajasthan deshi aur amarikan kapas boyi jati hain. is rajy men 6 lakh ganth kapas ka utpadan hota hai.

pnjab men kapas ki buvaee march se agast tak aur chunaee janavari tak ki jati hai. adhikatar utpadan sinchaee ke sahare kiya jata hai. pramukh utpadak zile pnjab men amritasar, jalandhar, ludhiyana, patiyala, sngaroor aur bhatinda hain. inamen adhikatar pnjab-amarikan kapas paida ki jati hai, yahan par vartaman men 24 lakh ganth ka utpadan hota hai.

hariyana men bhi pnjab ke saman sinchaee ke sahare hi kapas utpann ki jati hai. gudaganv, karanal, hisar, jind, ambala aur rohatak pramukh kapas utpadak zilen hain. yahan pnjab amerikan aur pnjab-deshi kapas boyi jati hai. is rajy men 8 se 10 lakh ganth ka prativarsh utpadan hota hai.

uttar pradesh men kapas mukhy roop se gnga aur yamuna ke doab tatha roohelakhand aur bundelakhand snbhagon men sinchaee ke sahare chhote reshe vali paida ki jati hai. lambe reshe vali kapas ka utpadan bhi ab kiya jane laga hai. merath, bijanaur, mujaffaranagar, eta, saharanapur, bulandashahar, aligadh, agara, itava, kanapur, ramapur, bareli, mathura, mainapuri aur farrukhabad pramukh utpadak zile hain. yahan deshi aur pnjab-amerikan kapas paida ki jati hai.

kapas ka phool

tamilanadu men kapas donon hi manasoon kalon men kisi-n-kisi kshetr men boyi jati hai. yahan adhikatar kambodiya, yoogenda, madras-yoogenda, sujata, salem, tiruchirapalli, lakshmi, karoongani qism ki kapas paida ki jati hai. yah sara utpadan kali mitti ke kshetron men kiya jata hai. kapas utpadak pramukh zile koyambatoor, salem, ramanathapuram, madurai, tiruchirapalli, chingalaput, tirunalavaili v tnjavoor hain.

andhr pradesh men kapas ka utpadan guntoor, kadappa, kurnool, pashchimi godavari, krishna, mahaboobanagar, adilabad aur anantapur zilon men kiya jata hai. yahan mukhyatah mugari, chiranar, kampata, kakinada, sabhani-amarikan, lakshmi, samudri qism boyi jati hai. bharat men andhr pradesh tisara kapas utpadak rajy hai. kapas ke kul utpadan ka 13.49 pratishat andhr pradesh men utpadit hota hai.

karnatak men kul kshetraphal ka 12 pratishat aur utpadan ka 5.3 pratishat prapt hota hai. yahan do pramukh utpadak kshetr hain. pratham kshetr kali mitti ka hai, jise 'salahatti kshetr' kahate hain. isake antargat vellari, hasan, shivamogga, chikamngaluru, rayachoor, gulabargi, dharavad, bijapur aur chitradurg zilon men varsha ke sahare adhikatar deshi kapas paida ki jati hai. doosara kshetr lal mitti ka hai, jise 'dodahatti' kahate hain. isamen varsha aur sinchaee donon ke sahare pnjab amarikan kapas boyi jati hai.

any utpadak rajy

any utpadak rajyon men bihar, udisa, pashchim bngal, asam v meghalay pramukh hain, jahan kahin-kahin kapas paida ki jati hai. khasi, jayantiya, sikir, lushaee, naga aur garo pahadi़yon men sidhidar kheton men vanon ko jalakar saf ki gayi bhoomi men kapas paida ki jati hai. bihar men saran, champaran, snthal paragana, mujaffarapur; jharakhand men hazaribag aur ranchi zilon men tatha udisa men dhenakanal, katak, sundaragadh aur koraput zilon men tatha pashchimi bngal men chaubis paragana aur murshidabad zilon men kapas paida ki jati hai.

vyapar

kapas ka paudha

desh ke vibhajan ke poorv kapas paida karane men bharat ka vishv men doosara sthan tha aur yahan par kafi matra men kapas ka niryat kiya jata tha. vartaman men bharat lambe resh ki chamakili v uttam kapas ka ayat karata hai evn chhote reshe ki kapas ka niryat achchhe deshon men karata he. bharat ki chhote reshe vali khuradari kapas ki mang snyukt rajy amarika aur japan men ab bhi rahati hai. yahan par oon ke sath milakar mote kambal v mote vastr banae jate rahe hain. thodi matra men ruee ka niryat yooropiy sajha bazar ke deshon tatha nyoojilaind ko bhi kiya jata hai. lambe reshe vali ruee ka ayat pakistan, misr, snyukt rajy amarika, peroo adi deshon se kiya jata hai. 1970-1971 men 14 karod rupaye aur 2008-2009 men 2,866 karod rupaye ke mooly ki kapas ka niryat bharat se kiya gaya. varsh 2008-2009 men desh men kul 713 karod rupaye mooly ki lambe reshe vali kapas ka ayat hua.

kapas ke kul utpadan men ganna evn sarason ki bhanti teji se utpadan badhana bahut avashyak hai. aisa prati hektear upaj badhakar evn sinchit kshetron men isaki krishi ki navin takanik ko apanakar vistar kiya ja sakata hai, anyatha badhata hua ayat bharat ki videshi mudra ko bhi kuprabhavit karega. vaise navin takanik, upacharit bij, jaiv takanik evn sinchit krishi ke dvara narama kapas v any unnat qismon ka utpadan ausat se tin se char guna 800 se 900 ki.gra. prati hektear tak prapt kiya ja sakata hai.

niryatak desh

snyukt rajy amerika, uzabekistan, yookren, pakistan, misr, soodan, brajil, peroo, maiksiko, turki, bharat, siriya, kolambiya adi.

kapas ke ayatak deshon men japan (15%), koriya (8%), chin (7%), itali (6%), jarmani (5%), phrans (4%), polaind (3%), slovakiya, indoneshiya, astreliya, bharat adi hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh