कश्मीरी भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat ke uttari rajy jammoo-kashmir men kashmir prant ke 10,000 varg mil men phaili ghati men boli jane vali bhasha aur boliyan hai. is kshetr men bharat ki janasnkhya ka 0.8 pratishat hissa nivas karata hai. ghati men kashmiri bhasha bolane valon ki snkhya anumanatah 1981 janaganana ke anusar 3,174,684 hai, jisamen rajy ki simaon ke bhitar sthit chhote-chhote pravasi samooh bhi shamil hain. kashmiri bhasha ka bharat ke snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi men sarakari bhasha ka darja diya gaya hai, lekin svayn kashmir men sarakari kamakaj men isaka upayog nagany hai. vichhinn roop se yah bhasha any vyapak snchar bhashaon ke prabhav ke karan lagatar sngharshan ki sthiti se guzar rahi hai. kashmiri log apani bhasha ko kashur aur kashmir prant ko kashir kahate hain. any bharatiy bhashaon, jaise hindi, pnjabi aur tamil men is bhasha ko kashmiri kaha jata hai.

vyutpatti

kashmiri bhasha ki utpatti aur bhashashastriy nikatata lambe samay se vivad ka vishay rahi hai. snrachana aur shabd sngrah ke mamale men kashmiri bhasha ne any bhashaon ke sath vyapak bhasha sampark aur sammilan ki visheshataon ko snrakshit rakha hai. uttar men yah shina (ek dardiy bhasha), poorv men tibbati-barmi bhashaon (udaharan ke lie balti aur laddakhi) pashchim men pahadi v pnjabi boliyon aur dakshin men dogari v pahadi boliyon (jinamen se sabhi bharatiy ary hain) se ghiri huee hain.

visheshata

kashmiri bhasha ki visheshataon men nimnalikhit svar vegyanik gun hain–

  • tvarit mahapran ki anupasthiti (hindi gh, dh aur bh);
  • agradhh madhy aur pashch svaron men vibhed- udaharanatah ee aur yoo;
  • matra svar ka uchcharan laghu svar ke roop men hota hai, jo ant men ya do vynjanon ke bich men sthit hota hai;
  • ant men uchchhvasit viram (jaise p, b, t, d);
  • prakrit grihit vynjanon ki punaravritti aur svar parivartan ka abhav;
  • svaron men t ka lop n hona;
  • bahut kam vynjan+vynjan kram.

isake vyakaran ki visheshataon men nimnalikhit tattv shamil hain–

  • apoorn abhivyakti ke roop men a (ah) ki upasthiti;
  • pishachi (dardi) ki visheshata mane jane vale parasargon ka badi snkhya men upayog;
  • snkhya vachak ki pishachi se samanata;
  • snket vachak sarvanamon ki tri–stariy pranali (yi-yah, hoo-vah {pratyaksh}, aur
  • suti-vah {paroksh}); aur
  • bhootakal ke lie tri–stariy pranali.

adhikansh mayanon men kashmiri bhasha ki vaky-snrachana bharatiy ary bhashaon ke saman hai, jaise karmavachy ki rachana men, karta-kriya samnjasy men aur eragaitiv karak.[1] kashmiri shabdakram bharatiy-ary bhashaon se is mayane men alag hai ki isamen samapika kriya doosare kram men, kriya ke bad hoti hai.

udaharanarth- hindi-urdoo men ram ja raha hai aur kashmiri bhasha men ram choo gatshan. yahaph choo ko angrezi ke saman karta ke bad men lagaya gaya hai. is mamale men kashmiri bhasha dach, jarman, aisalaindi aur yiddish ke saman hai.

bhasha samuday

bhasha men bhinnata ke adhar par kashmiri bhasha samuday ko kee adharon par vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai. kshetriy bhinnataen tin pramukh samoohon ko darshati hain–

  • maraz (dakshin aur dakshin-poorvi kshetr);
  • kamraz (uttari aur pashchimottar kshetr);
  • shrinagar aur isake asapas men boli jane vali bhasha, jise paramparik roop se manak mana jata hai.

gramin boliyan aur shrinagar men boli jane vali bhasha ke bich bhi vibhed kiya gaya hai. ghati ke bahar boli jane vali ekamatr boli kashtavari (ya kishtavari) hai, jo kishtavar men boli jati hai, yah dakshini-poorvi kashmir men oopari chinab nadi ke tat par sthit oodhamapur zile ka ek shahar (aur ghati) hai. kashtavari par pahadi aur lahnda boliyon ka gahara prabhav hai aur ise takri aksharon se likha jata hai. any kshetriy boliyon par kashmiri bhasha ka sirf anshik prabhav hi pada hai. ye paramparik kshetron men boli jati hai aur inamen pakistan ki pogal ghati men boli jane vali poguli, chinab nadi ke tat par sthit doda shahar men boli jane vali shiraji boli aur jammoo v shrinagar ke bich chhote kshetr men boli jane vali ramabani, jahan isaka kary ek snkraman kshetr men simit hai aur isamen dogari, kashmiri v shiraji ke lakshan vidyaman hain.

sahityik kritiyan

snskrit aur farasi se prabhavit kashmiri ke prabhavon ko bhi inake boli, svaroop aur sahityik kritiyon men manyata prapt hai. ye prabhav shabd-sngrah men svar vaigyanik aur roop-vidhan visheshataon aur prabandh nitiyon ke prakaron men parilakshit hote hain. ek prakar se doosare prakar men parivartan ka upayog shailigat prabhav aur pahachan qayam karane ke lie kiya jata hai. ek lekhak apani ek kriti men in bhashashastriy snsadhanon ka upayog kar sakata hai, jaisa ki paramanand (1791-1879), jindan kaul (1884-1965) aur gulam ahamad mahajoor (1885-1952) ki kavitaon men parilakshit hota hai.

lipi

aitihasik roop se kashmiri bhasha ko char lipiyon men likha jata hai, sharada, devanagari, farasi-arabi aur roman. brahmi lipi (tisari shatabdi ee. poo.) se sambaddh sharada lipi ka upayog kashmir ke pnditon ke dvara vyapak star par kiya gaya, yah nagari lipi se milati-julati lipi thi aur ab yah lagabhag lupt ho chuki hai. farasi-arabi lipi, jisamen kee parivartan kie ge hain, ko rajy sarakar ne is bhasha ki sarakari lipi ke taur par apana liya hai. devanagari aur roman lipiyon ke kee parivartit prakaron ka upayog ab bhi kashmiri bhasha men prakashit atyalp samagri ke lie hota hai. bngal men seramapor (shriramapur) ke baiptist mishanariyon dvara nyoo testament ke kashmiri roopantar (1821) aur old testament ke kuchh hisson (1827, 1832) ke prakashan men sharada lipi ka upayog kiya gaya. british aur faauren baibil sosaiti ne 1884 men farasi lipi men nyoo testament ka prakashan kiya.

dhvanimala

kashmiri dhvanimala men kul 46 dhvanim (fonim) hain.

svar : a, a; i, ee; u, oo; e; o; a, a; u; oo; e; o;

matra svar : i, -u, -oo

anusvar : an

ant:sth svar : y, v

vynjan : k, kh, g, n; ch, chh, j; ch, chh़, z, n;

t, th, d; t, th, d, n; p, ph, b, m;

y, r, l, v; sh, s, h

i, ee, u, oo aur e ke roop padarnbh men yi, yi, -vu, voo aur ye ho jate hain. ch, chh, aur z dntatalavy hain aur chh़ z ka mahapran hain. padant a bola nahin jata.

sahityik itihas

kashmiri bhasha ka ek satat sahityik itihas hai, jo 13vin shatabdi se jari hai. is bhasha ki sahityik snskriti ke vikas ke lie koee gambhir rajanitik ya sahityik snrakshan n milane ke bavajood yah ab bhi baraqarar hai. is bhasha ka pradhan srot 1932 men griyarsan dvara mukundaram shastri ke sahayog se snkalit 1,252 prishthon ka shabdakosh (punarmudran 1985) hai, jo samakalin n hote hue bhi upayogi shabd sngrah hai, jisamen roman, devanagari aur kabhi-kabhi farasi-arabi lipiyon men shabd lie ge hain. inake sath angrezi ki vyakhya bhi hai. hal ke varshon men rajy ki kala, snskriti aur bhasha akadami ne any shabdakosh bhi prakashit kie hain, jo ekabhashi v dvibhashi, donon hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jisamen kuchh kalon men sakarmak kriya ka karta vishesh matra grahan karata hai aur jahan kriya karta ke anusar nahin, balki karm ke anuroop hoti hai, jo karta karak men hota hai

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah