कुमारिल भट्ट  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kumaril bhatt (lagabhag 670 ee) ya 'kumaril svami' ya 'kumaril mishr' ka nam mimansa ke itihas men maulik chintan vishad evn spasht vyakhya tatha alaukik pratibha ke karan sada smaraniy rahega. inhonne vaidik dharm ka khndan karane vale bauddhon ko parast kar vaidik dharm ki pun: sthapana ki. shnkar digvijay tatha tibbati grnthon men inako aur dharmakirti ko lekar anek kathaen hain. yah bhi kaha jata hai ki inhonne vesh badalakar bauddhon se bauddh darshan ka adhyayan kiya aur bad men bauddhon ko parast kiya.

jivan parichay

kumaril bhatt ke janm sthan tatha kal ke vishay men bhi paryapt vivad hai. kuchh log inako dakshin bharat ka nivasi manate hain to doosare log inhen uttar bharat, vishesh roop se mithila, nivasi manate hain. tar nath ke anusar inaka kal 635 ee. hai, jabaki krippusvami ke anusar inaka kal 600 se 660 ke madhy hai. any log inaka samay satavin shatabdi ke ant men manate hain.

kumaril bhatt mimansa darshan ke do pradhan snpradayon men se ek evn bhatt snpraday ke snsthapak the. eesa ki satavin shatabdi men paida hue kumaril bhatt ne 'mimansa darshan' ke bhatt sampraday ki sthapana ki thi. kumaril bhatt, shnkarachary se aur vachaspati mishr (850 ee.) se pahale hue evn bhavabhooti (620-680) inhin ke shishy the. kuchh vidvanh kumaril bhatt ko dakshin ka nivasi manate hain. kumaril ne gyan ke svaroop tatha usake sadhanon ka vivechan vistar se kiya hai. unake anusar jis samay ko kisi vastu ka gyan hota hai, usi samay usaki satyata ka bhi gyan ho jata hai. usaki satyata siddh karane ke lie kisi any praman ki avashyakata nahin hoti.[1]

kumaril ke matanusar

kumaril ke matanusar snsar ki utpatti tatha pralay nahin hota. jivon ka janm-maran chalata rahata hai. kintu samagr snsar ki utpatti hoti hai, n vinash. nyay darshan ki bhanti ve bhi eeshvar ko jagath ka karan nahin manate. unake anusar atma nity tatha kartta aur karm-phal-bhokta donon hai. vedant ka adhyayan aur chintan moksh prapti men sahayak hota hai. moksh ki sthiti men sukh ki bhi anubhooti nahin rahati, atma du:kh se poornat: mukt ho jati hai.[1]

grnth

shabarabhashy par vritti roop se inake tin grnth bahut prasiddh hain:

  1. shlokavartik- jo karikabaddh grnth hai evn pratham adhyay ke pratham tarkavad ka vyakhyan hai.
  2. tntravartik- yah gadyaroop hai. isamen pratham adhyay ke dvitiy pad se lekar tritiy adhyay tak ki vyakhya hai.
  3. tuptika- antim nav adhyayon ki tippani.

bhattamat ke achary

kumaril bhatt ke anuyayi anek achary hue hain, jinamen mandanamishr, parthasarathi mishr, madhavachary, khandadev mishr adi adhik prasiddh hain. in acharyon ne anek grnthon ki rachana kar bhattamat ka prachar, prasar evn snrakshan kiya hai.

darshanik vichar

tatv vichar

tatvgyan ki drishti se kumaril bhatt ka darshan bahutatvavadi hai. inake mat men anek tatv hain, jinaka astitv hai, jinaka gyan hota hai tatha jinake vishay men anek prakar ke vyavahar hote hain. vaisheshik darshan ke saman kumaril bhatt bhi padarth ko do vargon men vibhajit karate hain-

  1. bhav padarth
  2. abhav padarth.

bhav padarth ke char bhed hote hain-

  1. dravy
  2. gun
  3. karm
  4. samany.

abhav bhi char prakar ka hota hai-

  1. pragabhav
  2. dhvnsabhav
  3. anyonyabhav
  4. atyantabhav.

in padarthon ka snkshipt varnan yahan prastut kiya jata hai-

dravy

yah gun tatha kriya ka ashray hota hai. shabd ko bhi dravy mana jata hai. kumaril bhatt ke anusar shabd ek nity evn sarvagat dravy hai. andhakar men nil roop aur kriya hai. 'nil andhakar chalata hai', is prakar ki pratiti evn vyavahar hota hai. at: tam ya andhakar ko bhi dravy mana gaya hai. isaka pratyaksh chakshu se hota hai, kintu isake gyan ke lie alok ka abhav sahakari karan hai. akash ka bhi is mat men chakshu se pratyaksh mana gaya hai.

atma

atma sharir, indriyan evn buddhi se bhinn nity dravy hai. yah avinashi hai tatha karmon ka karta evn phal ka vastavik bhokta hai. yah sarvavyapak hai. yah 'main', is pratyay ke dvara mana jata hai. isaka svaroop chetan hai. yah sukh tatha du:kh ka anubhav karane vala hai. atma tin prakar ke prapnch ke karan bndhan men rahata hai. tin prakar ke prapnch hain: bhogayatan 'sharir', bhog sadhan 'indriyan', tatha shabd sparsh, roop adi bhog 'vishay'. in tinon ke dvara jivan sukh aur du:kh ke vishay ka anubhav karata hua anadikal ke bndhan men pada hua hai. inhin tinon ke atyantik nash se mukti snbhav hai.

gun terah hain.

samany

kumaril ke anusar, jati, samany tatha akriti paryayavachi hain. akriti hi vyaktiyon men saman roop se vidyaman rahakar unako ek naye varg men rakhati hai aur any varg se alag karati hai. vyakti aur jati men nity evn avibhajy snbndh hai. samany vyakti se bhinn hota hai, phir bhi sabhi vyaktiyon men vidyaman rahata hai.

shesh padarthon ka svaroop vaisheshik darshan ke anuroop hai.

praman-vichar : prama tatha praman

yatharth anubhav ko prama kaha jata hai. kintu smriti aur snshay adi prama ke antargat nahin ate hain. at: agyat evn satyabhoot tatv ka gyan prama kahalata hai. is lakshan men 'agyat' shabd dene se smriti aur anuvad ka nivaran ho jata hai. ve prama ke antargat nahin a pate aur satyabhoot shabd dene se snshay, viparyay adi prama se alag ho jate hain. isi prama ke sadhan ko praman kaha jata hai.

praman bhed

bhattamat men praman chh: mane jate hain- pratyaksh, anuman, upaman, shabd, arthapatti tatha anupalabdhi ya abhav. inamen prarambh ke panch pramanon se bhav padarthon ka gyan hota hai aur antim anupalabdhi se abhav padarth ka gyan hota hai.

pratyaksh

indriy ka vishay se sambandh hone par jo gyan utpann hota hai, use pratyaksh kahate hain.

pratyaksh ke bhed

pratyaksh do prakar ka hota hai. nirvikalpak ya alochanatmak pratyaksh aur savikalpak pratyaksh.

jab koee (dravy, gun ya samany) indriy ke samaksh ata hai tab pahale usaka gyan 'kuchh hai', is roop men hota hai. usake varg, usaki visheshata, akriti adi ka spasht gyan us samay nahin rahata. isi gyan ko alochan gyan ya nirvikalpak pratyaksh kaha jata hai. kintu jab us vastu ke svaroop, varg, jati adi ka spasht gyan hone lagata hai tab vah savikalpak pratyaksh kahalata hai.

indriy tatha vishay ke sambandh ko 'samprayog' ya 'sannikarsh' kaha jata hai. nyay darshan men sannikarsh chh: mane ge hain, kintu kumaril bhatt keval do hi sannikarsh manate hain- snyog aur snyukt tadatmy. inake mat men dravy ke sath, gun, karm aur jati ka sambandh samavay nahin, balki tadatmy hai. at: keval do hi sannikarsh manane se hi kam chal jata hai. pratyaksh ka vishesh vivaran nyay darshan ke saman hai.

anuman

jaisa ki isake nam se hi spasht hai, yah kisi any gyan ke bad ata hai, arthath anuman pratyaksh gyan par adharit hota hai. pahale sadhy aur hetu ke sambangh ka gyan hota hai, jise vyapti gyan kaha jata hai. usake bad hetu ko dekhakar paksh men sadhy ka gyan prapt hota hai. udaharanarth, pahale yah gyan rahata hai ki jahan jahan dhoom hai, vahan vahan agni hai. ise hi vyapti gyan kahate hain. isake bad parvat men dhoom dikhalaee padane par parvat men agni ka gyan hota hai. yahi anuman se utpann gyan hai. is prakar anuman se gyan prapt kar jab doosare ko samajhaya jata hai, tab usake lie kuchh vakyon ka prayog karana padata hai, jinhen avayav vaky kahate hain. nyay darshan men ye avayav vaky panch hote hain, kintu kumaril bhatt keval tin hi avayav manate hain : udaharan, upanay evn nigaman athava udaharan, hetu evn pratigya, jinako is prakar se spasht kiya ja sakata hai. jahan jahan dhoom hai, vahan vahan agni hai, jaise rasoeeghar men (udaharan) vahan parvat men dhoom hai (upanay athava hetu) at: parvat men agni hai (nigaman athava pratigya).

upaman

upaman sadrishy gyan ko kahate hain. ise nyay aur mimansa donon men ek svatntr praman mana jata hai, kintu donon ki manyata men bhed hai. nyay darshan men upaman praman ke dvara 'nil gay' shabd 'nil gay' arth ka vachak hai. is prakar ki shakti ka gyan hota hai. kumaril bhatt ke anusar upaman praman ki vyakhya is prakar ki ja sakati hai-

ek vyakti jo gay ko janata hai, jngal men jata hai. vahan vah ek janavar ko dekhata hai. us janavar men use apani gay ki samanata dikh padati hai. isake bad usake man men pahale se gyat gay ka smaran hota hai ki meri gay mere samane upasthit janavar ke saman hai. is sadrishy se jo gyan hota hai, usaka vishay hai: vartaman janavar ki samanata se yukt apani gay. yahi upamiti hai. isase sadrishy ka pratyaksh aur gay ka smaran hota hai, kintu sadrishy yukt gay ka gyan n to pratyaksh se hota hai aur n hi smaran se. at: upaman praman avashyak evn svatntr praman mana jata hai.

shabd

gyat shabd se padarth ke smaran hone par jo vaky ke arth ka gyan hota hai, use shabdi prama ya shabd bodh kahate hain aur is prakar ka bodh karane vale vaky shabd praman kahe jate hain- paurushey aur apaurushey. paurushey vaky tabhi pramanit hote hain, jab unaka vyavahar apt purush ke dvara kiya jata hai. apaurushey vaky shruti hai. vah nity evn nirdosh hone se sada praman hai.

vaky ke aur bhi do bhed kiye jate hain

siddharthak vaky aur vidhayak vaky. vidhayak vaky bhi do prakar ke hote hain- upadeshak aur jatideshak. kisi padarth ki satta ko pradarshit karane vale vakyon ko siddharthak vaky kahate hain, jaise- 'satyn gyanamanatnmh brahm' (arth : brahm, saty evn annt hai). kisi anushthan ke lie prerana dene vala vaky vidhayak kahalata hai. 'aisa ise karana chahie', is prakar ke vidhan karane vale vaky ko upadeshak vaky kahate hain aur 'darsh poornamas yag ke dvara svarg ka sadhan kare, is prakar ke vidhayak vaky ko atideshak vaky kaha jata hai.

laukik gyan ke lie apt purush ka kathan praman ho sakata hai, kinatu dharm ki janakari keval ved vakyon se hi snbhav hai. ved nity aur nirdosh hain, kyonki ve apaurushey hain. shabd ke nity hone ke karan tatha arth ke sath usake sambandh ke nity hone ke karan shabd ki utpatti nahin hoti. uchcharan se keval dhvani ki utpatti hoti hai, jisase shabd abhivyakt hota hai. isi shabd nityata ke adhar par ved vakyon ko nity aur apaurushey mana gaya hai. vah guru parampara se sunakar aya hai. at: usaka nam shruti hai.

arthapatti

drisht ya shrrit vishay ki upapatti jis arth ke bina n ho, us arth ke gyan ko arthapatti kahate hain. udaharan ke lie devadatt namak ek vyakti ko lete hain, jo din men kabhi nahin khata, kintu phir bhi mota hai aur mota hota ja raha hai. yahan devadatt ki in donon sthitiyon (din men n khane aur mota hone) men bhed dikh padata hai. at: is virodh ko hatane ke lie yah manana padata hai ki devadatt rat men bhojan avashy karata hai. yahi arthapatti hai. snkshep men ise yon kaha ja sakata hai ki din men bhojan n karane vala devadatt mota hai arthath vah rat men bhojan karata hai. devadatt ka rat men bhojan karana arthapatti se gyat ho raha hai, kyonki yahi 'rat ka bhojan' ukt do vakyon ke virodh ko hata sakata hai.

arthapatti ke do bhed hote hain-

  1. drishtarthapatti- jahan dekhi gee kisi vastu ke lie arthantar ki kalpana ki jati hai, jaise oopar vale udaharan men
  2. shrutarthapatti- jahan ek shabd sunakar kisi vastu ki utpatti ke lie any shabd ki kalpana karani padati hai, jaise- 'band karo' shabd sunakar 'dvar' shabd ki kalpana ki jati hai. is kalpana ke bina 'band karo' shabd apana arth vyakt karane men asamarth hai. at: arthapatti men 'dvar' shabd ko milakar 'dvar band karo' yah arth kiya jata hai.

anupalabdhi

bhav padarthon ki janakari ke lie jin panch pramanon ki charcha ki gee hai, ve abhav ki janakari dene men asamarth hain. at: abhav ya anupalabdhi nam se ek any svatntr praman mana gaya hai, jisase abhav padarth ki janakari ho sake. udaharan ke lie, 'us kamare men ghada nahin hai', isaki janakari hamen tabhi hoti hai, jab ham ghade ki janakari ke sadhan ke rahate hue yah kahate hain ki ghada upalabdh nahin hai aur yadi hota to snshay upalabdh hota. at: anupalabdhi se ghade ke abhav ki janakari ho jati hai.

bhram

kumaril bhatt ke bhram sambandhi siddhant ko viparitakhyati ya anyathakhyati kahate hain. is bat ko samajhane ke lie ham bhram ke do udaharanon ko prastut karate hain. sipi men chandi ka gyan aur rassi men sanp ka gyan. ise viparitakhyati ya anyathakhyati isalie kaha jata hai ki sipi men jis chandi ki visheshata ka gyan ho raha hai, vah keval chandi men rahati hai, sipi men nahin. at: doosare ki visheshata viparit roop se doosare men bhramit hone ke karan yah viparit gyan ya viparit gyan ya viparitakhyati hai. usi prakar rassi men sanp ki visheshata ke n rahane par bhi gyan men rassi men hi sarp ki visheshata ki janakari prapt ho lagati hai, jo usaka viparit dharm ya visheshata hai.

svat:pramanyavad

pramanyavad mimansa aur nyayadarshan ka ek pramukh vishay hai. isaka tatpary yah nishchay karana hai ki gyan men praman kaise utpann hota hai aur usaki janakari kaise hoti hai.

gyatatavad

kumaril bhatt ke anusar gyan jis karan se utpann hota hai, vahi karan pramany ko bhi utpann karata hai aur jis praman se gyan ka gyan hota hai, usi se usake pramany ka bhi gyan hota hai. yahi svat: pramanyavad hai. isake virodhi mat ko parat: pramanyavad kahate hain, jisake anusar pramany karan ke gun se utpann hota hai aur usaka gyan gun ke gyan se hota hai. kumaril ke anusar gyan apane vishay men gyatata namak ek visheshata ko utpann karata hai. udaharanarth, jab ham ankh se ghada dekhate hain, tab yah kahate hain ki ghada hamen gyat hai. yah kahana tabhi snbhav hai, jab ham ghade men gyatata ki janakari prapt kar len. is prakar ka ham vyavahar karate hain. isase spasht hai ki hamen gyatata ki janakari ho jati hai aur yah gyatata gyan ke bina utpann nahin ho sakati. arthath arthapatti praman se ham gyan ka gyan prapt karate hain. is prakar gyan svayn prakash nahin hai, jo ki prabhakar ne mana hai.

moksh

kumaril bhatt ke anusar, prapnch sambandh ka vilay hi moksh hai. arthath is jagath ke sath atma ke sambandh ke vinash ka nam moksh hai.

sadhan

moksh ke sadhan ke roop men kumaril ne karm gyan samuchyavad ko svikar kiya hai. kamyakarm phal dete hain aur nishiddh karmon ke karane se pap hota hai. at: in donon se virat rahana chahie. kintu nity karmon ko karate rahana chahie. sath hi sath atmgyan bhi prapt karana chahie. moksh ke lie karm pradhan karan hai aur gyan sahakari karan. yahi kumaril karmgyan samuchyavad hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

giri, daau. raghanath vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 145.

  1. 1.0 1.1 liladhar, sharma bharatiy charit kosh (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: shiksha bharati, 170.

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