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khet ki jutaee karata bharatiy kisan

krishi bharat ki arthavyavastha ki ridh mani jati hai. vibhinn pnchavarshiy yojanaon dvara chalae ja rahe vibhinn karyakramon evn prayason se krishi ko rashtriy arthavyavastha men garimapoorn darja mila hai. krishi kshetron men lagabhag 64% shramikon ko rozagar mila hua hai. 1950-51 men kul ghareloo utpad men krishi ka hissa 59.2% tha jo ghatakar 1982-83 men 36.4% aur 1990-91 men 34.9% tatha 2001-2002 men 25% rah gaya. yah 2006-07 ki avadhi ke dauran ausat adhar par ghatakar 18.5% rah gaya. dasavin yojana (2002-2007) ke dauran samagr sakal ghareloo utpad ki ausat varshik vriddhi pad 7.6% thi jabaki is dauran krishi tatha sambaddh kshetr ki varshik vriddhi dar 2.3% rahi. 2001-02 se prarnbh huee nav sahastrabdi ke pratham 6 varshon men 3.0% ki varshik samany ausat vriddhi dar 2003-04 men 10% aur 2005-06 men 6% ki rahi.

desh men rashtriy ay ka lagabhag 28% krishi se prapt hota hai. lagabhag 70% janasnkhya apani ajivika ke lie krishi par nirbhar hai. desh se hone vale niryaton ka bada hissa bhi krishi se hi ata hai. gair krishi-kshetron men badi matra men upabhokta vastuen evn bahutayat udyogon ko kachcha mal isi kshetr dvara bheja jata hai.

vyavasay ke roop men

kapas ki kataee

krishi kheti aur vaniki ke madhyam se khady aur any saman ke utpadan se sambndhit vyavasay hai. isane sabhyataon ke uday aur vikas men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. daauktar naauraman boralaaug, jinhen bharat men 'haritakranti' ka janak mana jata hai, unhonne desh ko khadyann sampann banane ke lie kee yojanaen chalaee thin. kheti men pashupalan, jntu palan ka bhi yogadan hai. paudhon ko ugane tatha khadyann jutane ke lie is vyavasay ki vikas hua. bagabani bhi krishi ka hi ek roop hai. takanikon aur janakariyo ki bahut si shreniyan krishi ke arntagat ati hai, isamen ve tarike shamil hain jinase paudhe ugane ke lie upayukt bhoomi ka vistar kiya jata hai, isake lie pani ke chainal khode jate hain aur sinchaee ke any roopon ka upayog kiya jata hai. krishi yogy bhoomi par fasalon ko ugana aur charagahon aur par pashudhan ko gadariyon ke dvara charaya jana mukhyatah krishi se sambndhit kary hain. krishi ke bhinn roopon ki pahachan karana v unaka vikas karana pichhali shatabdi men vichar ke mukhy mudde ban ge hain.

mahattvapoorn fasalon ke tin sabase bade utpadak rajy, 2007-08
fasal/fasal samooh rajy utpadan (miliyan tan) desh ke kul utpadan ka pratishat
khadyann
chaval pashchim bngal 14.72 15.22
andhr pradesh 13.32 13.78
uttar pradesh 11.78 12.18
gehoon uttar pradesh 25.68 32.68
pnjab 15.72 20.01
hariyana 10.24 13.03
makka andhr pradesh 3.62 19.09
karnatak 3.25 17.14
rajasthan 1.96 10.34
mote anaj rajasthan 7.12 17.47
maharashtr 7.09 17.4
karnatak 6.94 17.03
dalen maharashtr 3.02 20.46
madhy pradesh 2.45 16.6
andhr pradesh 1.7 11.52
khadyann uttar pradesh 42.09 18.24
pnjab 26.82 11.62
andhr pradesh 19.3 8.36
tilahan
moongaphali gujarat 3.3 35.95
andhr pradesh 2.6 28.32
tamilanadu 1.05 11.44
repasid v sarason rajasthan 2.36 40.48
uttar pradesh 1 17.15
hariyana 0.6 10.29
soyabin madhy pradesh 5.48 49.95
maharashtr 3.98 36.28
rajasthan 1.07 9.75
soorajamukhi karnatak 0.59 40.41
andhr pradesh 0.44 30.14
maharashtr 0.2 13.7
tilahan madhy pradesh 6.35 21.34
maharashtr 4.87 16.36
gujarat 4.73 15.89
nakadi fasalen
ganna uttar pradesh 124.67 35.81
maharashtr 88.44 25.4
tamilanadu 38.07 10.93
kapas[1] gujarat 8.28 31.99
maharashtr 7.02 27.13
andhr pradesh 3.49 13.49
joot v mesta[2] pashchim bngal 8.29 73.95
bihar 1.46 13.02
asam 0.68 6.07
aloo uttar pradesh 9.99 41.77
pashchim bngal 7.46 31.21
bihar 1.23 5.16
pyaz maharashtr 2.47 28.44
gujarat 2.13 24.52
karnatak 0.87 10.02

bharat men panchaven dashak ke shuruati varshon men anaj ki prati vyakti dainik upalabdhata 395 gram thi, jo 1990-91 men badhakar 468 gram, 1996-97 men 528.77 gram, 1999-2000 men 467 gram, 2000-01 men 455 gram, 2001-02 men 416 gram, 2002-03 men 494 gram aur 2003-04 men 436 gram tak pahunch gee. varsh 2005-06 men yah upalabdhata prati vyakti pratidin 412 gram ho gee. vishv men sabase adhik kshetron men dalahani kheti karane vala desh bhi bharat hi hai. isake bavajood prati vyakti dal ki dainik upalabdhata sntoshajanak nahin rahi hai. isamen samanyat: prati varsh giravat darj ki gee hai. varsh 1951 men dal ki prati vyakti dainik upalabdhata 60.7 gram thi vahi yah 1961 men 69.0 gram, 1971 men 51.2 gram, 1981 men 37.5 gram, 1991 men 41.6 gram aur 2001 men 30.0 gram ho gee. varsh 2005 men prati vyakti pratidin dal ki nival upalabdh matra 31.5 gram tatha 2005-06 ke dauran 33 gram pratidin prati vyakti ho gee. bharat men hi sarvapratham kapas ka snkar bij taiyar kiya gaya hai. vibhinn krishi kshetron men adhunikatam evn upayukt praudyogiki ka vikas karane men bhi bharatiy vaigyanikon ne saphalata arjit ki hai.

fasal-chakr vividhatapoorn ho gaya hai. harit kranti ke shuroo hone ke bad ke samay men 1967-68 se 2005-06 tak krishi utpadan ki varshik vriddhi dar lagabhag 2.45% rahi. 1964-65 men khadyann utpadan 890 lakh tan se badhakar 1999-2000 men 2098 lakh tan, 2000-01 men 1968 lakh tan, 2001-02 men 2119 lakh tan, 2002-03 men 1748 lakh tan, 2003-04 men 2132 lakh tan, 2004-05 men 1984 lakh tan aur 2005-06 men 2086 lakh tan ho gaya jabaki 2006-07 ke dauran 2173 lakh khadyann utpandan snbhavit hai. fasal-chakr men parivartan ke parinamasvaroop soorajamukhi, soyabin tatha garmiyon men hone vali moongaphali jaisi gair paramparagat fasalon ka mahattv badhata ja raha hai. 1970-71 men krishi utpadan soochakank 85.9 tha. yah soochakank 1980-81 ke soochakank 102.1 aur 1990-91 ke soochakank 148.4 se badhakar 2001-2002 men 178.8, 2002-03 men 150.4, 2003-04 men 182.8, 2004-05 men 177.3 aur 2005-06 men yah soochakank 191.6 ho gaya jabaki 2006-07 men yah soochakank 197.1 snbhavit hai. isaka mukhy karan chaval, gehoon, dal, tilahan, ganna tatha any naqadi fasalon ki paidavar men vriddhi rahi hai.

pramukh fasalen

bharat men mukhy roop se tin fasalon boee jati hai- yatha kharif, rabi evn garmi (zayad). kharif ki fasal men mukhy roop se makka, jvar, bajara, dhan, moongaphali, soyabin, arahar adi hain. rabi ki mukhy fasalon men gehoon, jau, chana, matar, sarason, toriya adi hai. garmi ki fasalon men mukhy roop se sabziyan hi boee jati hai. desh ke kul bhaugolik kshetr ka 3287.3 lakh hekteyar ka 93.1% kheti ke prayog men liya jata hai.

krishi ek aisa vyavasay hai jisamen utpadan ke bahut se karak hain jin par krishak ya vaigyanikon ka koee vash nahin chalata he. is tarah ke karakon men jalavayu sabase mahattvapoorn karak hai. vibhinn sthanon par samany mausam-chakr ke atirikt bhi kab mausam kaisa ho jaega koee pata nahin. isake alava fasalen jalavayu ke anusar badali jati hain, n ki fasal ke anusar jalavayu. atev kisi sthan par kaun-si fasal boee jay, yah vahan ki jalavayu, mrida, oonchaee, varsha adi par nirbhar karata hai. aj bharat men krishi vaigyanikon ko anek suavasar upalabdh hain. unhen prayogashalaen tatha shodh adi ke lie bhi samast suvidhaen muhaiya karaee gayi hain, jisase desh ko khadyann sampann banaya ja sake. krishi vaigyanikon ke utsahavardhan aur unake samman ke lie unhen 'boralaaug puraskar' bhi pradan kiya jata hai.

bharatiy krishi ki visheshataen

bharatiy krishi ki ek jhalak

Indian-Agriculture.jpg

dhan ki kheti

Farmer-Cuts-The-Wheat-Crop.jpg

gehoon ki kataee

Rice-Harvest.jpg

chaval ki fasal

Sugarcane.jpg

ganne ki fasal

Tea-Worker.jpg

chay ka bagan

Indian-Agriculture-2.jpg

anaj barasati mahila

bharatiy krishi ki pramukh visheshatayen is prakar hain-

  1. bharatiy krishi ka adhikansh bhag sichaee ke lie manasoon par nirbhar karata hai.
  2. bharatiy krishi ki mahattvapoorn visheshata jot ikaiyon ki adhikata evn unake akar ka kam hona hai.
  3. bharatiy krishi men jot ke antargat kul kshetraphal khandon men vibhakt hai tatha sabhi khand doori par sthit hain.
  4. bhoomi par pratyaksh evn paroksh roop se janasnkhya ka adhik bhar hai.
  5. krishi utpadan mukhyataya prakriti par nirbhar rahata hai.
  6. bharatiy krishak garibi ke karan kheti men poonji nivesh kam karata hai.
  7. khadyann utpadan ko prathamikata di jati hai.
  8. krishi jivikoparjan ki sadhan mani jati hen
  9. bharatiy krishi men adhikansh krishi kary pashuon par nirbhar karata hai.

bhoomi upayog

bharat men bhoomi upayog men vividhata dekhane ko milati hai. desh ke kul bhaugolik kshetraphal 3287.3 lakh hekteyar men se 1950-51 men 404.8 lakh hekteyar bhoomi par van the. 1998-99 men yah kshetr badhakar 689.7 lakh hekteyar aur 2000-01 men 694-07 lakh hekteyar ho gaya. isi avadhi men buaee vali bhoomi 1,187.5 lakh hekteyar se badhakar kramash: 1,426 lakh hekteyar aur 1,411.01 lakh hekteyar ho gee. fasalon ke prakar ki drishti se agar dekha jaye to krishi vale kul kshetron men gair-khadyann ki apeksha khadyann ki krishi adhik hoti rahi hai, kintu khadyann ki krishi jo 1950-51 men 76.7% bhoomi par ho rahi thi, vah 1998-99 ke dauran ghatakar 65.6% rah gee. krishi ganana ke anusar badi jot (10 hekteyar aur isase adhik) ke antargat ane vala kshetr 1985-86 men 20.1% ki apeksha 1990-91 men ghatakar 17.3% rah gaya hai. isi prakar simant jot (1 hekteyar se kam ki jot) ke antargat ane vala kshetr 1985-86 men 13.4% se badhakar 1990-91 men 15% ho gaya hai.

bharatiy krishi ke prakar

bharatiy krishi anek vividhataon ke yukt hai. jalavayavik bhinnata, mitti ki urvarata, parivartanashil mausam, kheti karane ke dhng adi se bharatiy krishi prabhavit hai. utpadan ki matra tatha krishi dhng ke adhar par bharat ki krishi ko shuddh aur snkar krishi ke roop men vargikrit kiya ja sakata hai. shuddh krishi moolat: parnparagat prakar ki krishi hai jisake dvara krishakon ki keval moolabhoot avashyakataon ki poorti ho pati hai.

sasy vigyan

sasy vigyan (Agronomy) krishi ki vah shakha hai, jisake antargat fasal utpadan tatha bhoomi prabandh ke siddhanton aur krishi kriyaon ka adhyayan kiya jata hai. fasalon ka mahattv- prithvi par rahane vale sabhi jiv-jantuon ki jivan paroksh ya pratyaksh roop se vanaspatiyon par nirbhar karata hai. vanaspati se jiv-jantuon ko bhojan tatha aksijan ke alava janasnkhya hetu vastr, avas evn davaon adi ki poorti bhi ki jati hai.

fasalon ka vargikaran

  • jivan chakr ke anusar vargikaran
  1. ek varshi- ye fasalen apana jivan chakr ek varsh athava isase kam samay men poora karati hai, jaise – dhan, gehoon, jau, chana, soyabin adi.
  2. dvivarshi- aise paudhon men pahale varsh vanaspatik vriddhi hoti hai aur doosare varsh unamen phool tatha bij banate hain. yani ve apana jivan chakr do varshon men poora karate hain. yatha chukandar, ganna adi.
  3. bahuvarshi- aise paudhe anek varshon tak jivit rahate hain. parantu inake jivan chakr men prativarsh ya ek varsh ke antaral par phool aur phal ate hain aur jivan chakr poora ho jata hai. jaise- loosarn, nepiyar ghas.
  • rituon ke adhar par vargikaran
  1. kharif- in fasalon ko bote samay adhik tapaman evn ardrata tatha pakate samay shushk vatavaran ki avashyakata hoti hai. uttar bharat men inako joon-julaee men bote hain. dhan, makka, jvar, bajara, moong, moongaphali, ganna adi is ritu ki pramukh fasalen hain. kharif ki fasalen C3 shreni men ati hain. is shreni ke paudhe men jal upayog kshamata aur prakash snshleshan par donon hi adhik hoti hai jabaki prakash-shvasan dar kam hoti hai.
  2. rabi- in fasalon ko boaee ke sayam kam tapaman tatha pakate samay shushk aur garm vatavaran ki avashyakata hoti hai. ye fasalen samanyat: aktoobar-navambar ke mahinon men boee jati hain. gehoon, jau, chana, masoor, sarason, barasim adi is varg ki pramukh fasalen hain. rabi fasalen, C4 shreni men ati hain. is shreni ke paudhe ki visheshata hai ki inamen jal upayog kshamata evn prakash-snshleshan dar donon hi kam hoti hai. is prakar, in paudhon men din ke prakash men bhi shvasan evn prakash-snshleshan ki kriya snpann hoti hai.
  3. zayad- is varg ki fasalon men tez garmi aur shushk havaen sahan karane ki achchhi kshamata hoti hai. uttar bharat men ye fasalen mukhyat: march-aprail men boee jati hain. tarabooz, kakadi, khira adi is varg ki pramukh fasalen hain.

fasal v unamen hone vale rog

fasal ka nam rog
kela panama (sookha rog)
bajara argat, harit bali
chana uktha
moongaphali tikka
dhan khera, toongaroo
ganna lal sadan, grasi shoot
gehoon karanal bnt, eeyar kokal
sarason shvet phaphola
kapas blek arm
ninboo kenkar
am koyaliya
til phailodi
bhindi, papita, tambakoo pit shira
angoor hen v chikan
tamatar bak aee rot
gehoon aur jau molya
matar churnil phaphoond

sinchaee ke sadhan

bharat ka kul kshetraphal 32.8 karod hekteyar hai, jisake 92.2 pratishat ke bhoomi upayog sambandhi ankade upalabdh hain. vartaman men desh men shuddh boya gaya kshetr 16.2 karod hekteyar hai. is prakar kul kshetraphal ka lagabhag 51 pratishat bhag krishi ke antargat ata hai, jabaki lagabhag 4 pratishat bhoomi par charagah, 21 pratishat bhoomi par van tatha 24 pratishat bhoomi bnjar athava bina kisi upayog ki hai. 24 pratishat bnjar bhoomi men 5 pratishat parati bhoomi bhi shamil hai, jisamen prati varsh phasalen n bokar tisare ya panchave varsh boyi jati hai, jisase bhoomi ki urvarata snchit ho sake. is shuddh boye gaye 52 pratishat bhoo-bhag ke matr 28 pratishat bhag arthath 4.5 karod hekteyar bhoomi par hi sinchaee ki paryapt suvidha upalabdh hai, jabaki desh ka samast sinchit kshetr 8 karod hekteyar hai. is prakar kul krishi bhoomi ke lagabhag 72 pratishat bhag par ki jane vali krishi varsha par hi nirbhar karati hai aur kul sinchit kshetraphal ke adhe se adhik bhag par sinchaee ke chhote sadhanon, kuen, talab, jhilen, jalashay, bandh, nalakoop, mitti ke kachche bandh, nal tatha jal sroton dvara sinchaee ki jati hai. shesh bhag ki sinchaee bade sadhanon yatha- naharon, naliyon adi ke madhyam se ki jati hai.

Seealso.jpg inhen bhi dekhen: krishi ka mahattv evn krishi anusndhan kendr


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