कृष्ण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

krishn vishay soochi
snkshipt parichay
krishn
Radha-Krishna-1.jpg
any nam vasudev, mohan, dvarikadhish, keshav, gopal, nndalal, banke bihari, kanhaiya, giradhari, murari, mukund, govind, yadunandan, ranachhod adi
avatar solah kala yukt poornavatar (vishnu)
vnsh-gotr vrishni vnsh (chndravnsh)
kul yadukul
pita vasudev
mata devaki
palak pita nndababa
palak mata yashoda
janm vivaran bhadrapad, krishn paksh, ashtami
samay-kal mahabharat kal
parijan rohini (vimata), balaram (bhaee), subhadra (bahan), gad (bhaee)
guru sndipan, angiras
vivah rukmini, satyabhama, janbavati, mitravinda, bhadra, satya, lakshmana, kalindi
sntan pradyumn, aniruddh, sanb
vidya parngat solah kala, chakr chalana
rachanaen 'gita'
shasan-rajy dvarika
sndarbh grnth 'mahabharat', 'bhagavat', 'chhandogy upanishad'.
mrityu pair men tir lagane se.
snbndhit lekh krishn janm ghatanakram, krishn balalila, govardhan lila, krishn balaram ka mathura agaman, kns vadh, krishn aur mahabharat, krishn ka antim samay

shrikrishn ko hindoo dharm men bhagavan vishnu ka avatar mana jata hai. sanatan dharm ke anusar bhagavan vishnu sarvapapahari pavitr aur samast manushyon ko bhog tatha moksh pradan karane vale pramukh devata hain. shrikrishn sadharan vyakti n hokar 'yug purush' the. unake vyaktitv men bharat ko ek pratibha sampann 'rajanitivetta' hi nahi, ek mahanh 'karmayogi' aur 'darshanik' prapt hua, jisaka 'gita' gyan samast manav-jati evn sabhi desh-kal ke lie path-pradarshak hai. krishn ki stuti lagabhag sare bharat men kisi n kisi roop men ki jati hai. ve log jinhen ham sadharan roop men nastik ya dharm nirapeksh ki shreni men rakhate hain, nishchit roop se 'shrimadh‍ bhagavadgita' se prabhavit hain. 'gita' kisane aur kis kal men kahi ya likhi yah shodh ka vishay hai, kintu 'gita' ko krishn se hi joda jata hai. yah astha ka prashn hai aur yoon bhi astha ke prashnon ke uttar itihas men nahin talashe jate.
krishn

braj

braj ya shoorasen janapad ke itihas men shrikrishn ka samay bade mahattv ka hai. isi samay men prajatntr aur nripatntr ke bich kathor sngharsh hue. magadh rajy ki shakti ka vistar hua aur bharat ka vah mahanh bhishan sngram hua, jise mahabharat yuddh kahate hain. in rajanitik halachalon ke atirikt is kal ka sanskritik mahattv bhi hai. mathura nagari is mahanh vibhooti ka janmasthan hone ke karan dhany ho gee. mathura hi nahin, sara shoorasen ya braj janapad anndaknd krishn ki manohar lilaon ki kridabhoomi hone ke karan gauravanvit ho gaya. mathura aur braj ko kalantar men jo asadharan mahattv prapt hua, vah is mahapurush ki janmabhoomi aur kridabhoomi hone ke karan hi prapt hua. shrikrishn bhagavat dharm ke mahanh srot hue. is dharm ne koti-koti bharatiy jan ka anurnjan to kiya hi, sath hi kitane hi videshi isake dvara prabhavit hue. prachin aur arvachin sahity ka ek bada bhag krishn ki manohar lilaon se ot-prot hai. unake lokarnjak roop ne bharatiy janata ke manas-patal par jo chhap laga di hai, vah amit hai. braj men bhagavan shrikrishn ko log kee namon se pukarate hai- kanha, gopal, giradhar, madhav, keshav, madhusoodan, giradhari, ranachhod, bnshidhar, nndalal, muralidhar adi namon se jane jate hain.

krishn janm ka samay

vartaman aitihasik anusndhanon ke adhar par shrikrishn ka janm lagabhag ee. poo. 1500 mana jata hai. ye sambhavat: 100 varsh se kuchh oopar ki ayu tak jivit rahe. apane is dirgh jivan men unhen vividh prakar ke karyon men vyast rahana pada. unaka prarnbhik jivan to braj men kata aur shesh dvaraka men vyatit hua. bich-bich men unhen any anek janapadon men bhi jana pada. jo anek ghatanaen unake samay men ghatin, unaki vistrit charcha puranon tatha mahabharat men milati hai. vaidik sahity[1] men to krishn ka ullekh bahut kam milata hai aur usamen unhen manav-roop men hi dikhaya gaya hai, n ki narayan ya vishnu ke avatar roop men.

vishnu ke avatar

sanatan dharm ke anusar bhagavan vishnu sarvapapahari pavitr aur samast manushyon ko bhog tatha moksh pradan karane vale pramukh devata hain. jab-jab is prithvi par asur evn rakshason ke papon ka atnk vyapt hota hai, tab-tab bhagavan vishnu kisi n kisi roop men avatarit hokar prithvi ke bhar ko kam karate hain. vaise to bhagavan vishnu ne abhi tak teees avataron ko dharan kiya. in avataron men unake sabase mahatvapoorn avatar 'shriram' aur 'shrikrishn' ke hi mane jate hain. shrikrishn aitihasik purush the, isaka spasht praman 'chhandogy upanishad' ke ek ullekh men milata hai. vahan[2] kaha gaya hai ki "devaki putr shrikrishn ko maharshidev:koti angiras ne nishkam karm roop ygy upasana ki shiksha di thi, jise grahan kar shrikrishn 'tript' arthath poorn purush ho ge the." shrikrishn ka jivan, jaisa ki mahabharat men varnit hai, isi shiksha se anupranit tha aur 'gita' men usi shiksha ka pratipadan unake hi madhyam se kiya gaya hai.

lilaon ka sndesh

krishn lilaon ka jo vistrit varnan bhagavat grnth men kiya gaya hai, usaka uddeshy kya keval krishn bhakton ki shraddha badhana hai ya manushy matr ke lie isaka kuchh sndesh hai? tarkik man ko vichitr-si lagane vali in ghatanaon ke varnan ka uddeshy kya aise man ko atimanaviy parashakti ki rahasyamayata se vimoodhavat bana dena hai athava use usake tarkik star par hi kuchh gahara sndesh dena hai, is par vichar karana chahie. shrikrishn ek aitihasik purush hue hain, isaka spasht praman 'chhandogy upanishad' ke ek ullekh men milata hai. vahan[3] kaha gaya hai ki devaki putr shrikrishn ko maharshidev:koti angiras ne nishkam karm roop ygy upasana ki shiksha di thi, jise grahan kar shrikrishn 'tript' arthath poorn purush ho ge the.

shrikrishn ka jivan, jaisa ki mahabharat men varnit hai, isi shiksha se anupranit tha aur 'gita' men usi shiksha ka pratipadan unake hi madhyam se kiya gaya hai. kintu inake janm aur bal-jivan ka jo varnan prapt hai, vah moolatah shrimadbhagavat ka hai aur vah aitihasik kam, adhyatmik adhik hai aur yah bat grnth ke adhyatmik svaroop ke anusar hi hai. grnth men chamatkari bhautik varnanon ke parde ke pichhe gahan adhyatmik snket snjoe ge hain. vastutah bhagavat men srishti ki snpoorn vikas prakriya ka aur us prakriya ko gati dene vali paramatm shakti ka darshan karaya gaya hai. grnth ke poorvardh[4] men srishti ke kramik vikas[5] ka aur uttarardh (dasham skndh) men shrikrishn ki lilaon ke dvara vyakti ke adhyatmik vikas ka varnan pratik shaili men kiya gaya hai.



inhen bhi dekhen: krishn chalisa, kunjabihari ji ki arati evn krishn janmashtami


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. chhandogy upanishad (3,17,6), jisamen devaki putr krishn ka ullekh hai aur unhen ghor angiras ka shishy kaha hai, paravarti sahity men shrikrishn ko dev ya vishnu roop men pradarshit karane ka bhav milata hai. (taittiriy aranyak, 10, 1, 6; panini-ashtadhyayi, 4, 3, 98 adi) mahabharat tatha harivnsh puran, vishnu puran, brahm puran, vayu puran, bhagavat, padm puran, devi bhagavat, agni puran tatha brahmavart puranon men unhen pray: bhagavan ke roop men hi dikhaya gaya hai. in grnthon men yadyapi krishn ke alaukik tattv ki pradhanata hai to bhi unake manav ya aitihasik roop ke bhi darshan yatr-tatr milate hain. puranon men krishn-snbndhi vibhinn varnanon ke adhar par kuchh pashchaty vidvanon ko yah kalpana karane ka avasar mila ki krishn aitihasik purush nahin the. is kalpana ki pushti men anek dalilen di gee hain, jo thik nahin siddh hotin. yadi mahabharat aur puranon ke atirikt, brahman-grnthon tatha upanishadon ke ullekh dekhe jayen to krishn ke aitihasik tattv ka pata chal jayaga. bauddh-grnth ghat jatak tatha jain-grnth 'uttaradhyayan sootr' se bhi shrikrishn ka aitihasik hona siddh hai. yah mat bhi bhramak hai ki braj ke krishn, dvaraka ke krishn tatha mahabharat ke krishn ek n hokar alag-alag vyakti the. (shrikrishn ki aitihasikata tatha tatsnbndhi any samasyaon ke lie dekhie- ray chaudhari-arli histri aauph vaishnav sekt, pri. 39, 52; ar.ji. bhndarakar-grnthamala, jild 2, pri0 58-291; vintaranij-histri aauph indiyan litarechar, jild 1, pri. 456; maikadaaunal tatha kith-vaidik indeks, ji.1, pri. 184; griyarsan-enasaiklopidiya aauph rilijns ('bhakti' par nibndh); bhagavanadas- krishn; tadapatrikar-d krishn prayalam; parjitar-ऎshynt indiyan histaaurikal tredishan adi.
  2. 3.17.6
  3. 3.17.6
  4. skndh 1 se 9
  5. jad-jiv-manav nirman

snbndhit lekh