कृष्ण चन्द्र भट्टाचार्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

krishn chandr bhattachary
krishn chandr bhattachary
poora nam krishn chandr bhattachary
janm 12 mee, 1875
janm bhoomi siramapur, pashchim bngal
mrityu 11 disnbar, 1949
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr darshan
mukhy rachanaen Some aspects of Negation aur The Jaina theory of Anekantavada[1]
prasiddhi darshanik
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari krishnachandr bhattachary ke darshan ke vikas ko tin suspasht avadhiyon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai- pratham avadhi 1918 tak, dvitiy avadhi 1925 se 1932 tak, aur tritiy 1934 se 1938 tak.

krishn chandr bhattachary (angrezi: Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya, janm: 12 mee, 1875 - mrityu: 11 disnbar, 1949) kalakatta vishvavidyalay men darshanik the, jinhonne hindoo darshan par adhyayan kiya.

jivan parichay

krishnachandr bhattachary ka janm 12 mee, 1875 ee. ko siramapur pashchim bngal men hua tha. ve bngal shiksha seva se bahal hokar kee kaaulejon men vyakhyata rahe. 1930 men unhonne hugali kaaulej ke sthanapann pradhanachary ke pad par karate hue avakash grahan kiya. amalaner ke bharatiy darshan snsthan ke nideshak ke pad par bhi ve kuchh din rahe. 1935 men kalakatta vishvavidyalay ke darshan shastr ke pncham jaaurj profesar ka pad unako diya gaya.

darshan ke vikas ki avadhiyan

krishnachandr bhattachary ke darshan ke vikas ko tin suspasht avadhiyon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai- pratham avadhi 1918 tak, dvitiy avadhi 1925 se 1932 tak, aur tritiy 1934 se 1938 tak.

pratham avadhi

pratham avadhi men jis mukhy vishay ko unhonne liya, vah 'nishchit' aur 'anishchit' ke svaroop tatha in donon ke madhy snbndh ki samasya thi. nishchit vah hai jisaka anubhav itana suspasht ho ki kam se kam anubhav ke samay to usake kisi ek paksh ya poore ke bare men kisi bhi tarah ka koee sndeh vidyaman n ho. anishchit thik isake viparit hai. is arth men indriyanubhavavadiyon ke lie jo kuchh bhi indriyon dvara prapt hai, vah nishchit hai. isi tarah se tark buddhivadiyon ke lie vishay ka tarkik, snpratyayatmak aur snbndhatmak paksh nishchit hai. indriyanubhavavadiyon tatha tark buddhivadiyon, donon ke hi apane apane 'nishchit' hain, jinase ve arambh karate hain tatha jo unaki svikriti ke adhar stambh v antim manadand hain. kintu phir bhi donon hi tatsnbndhi anishchit se poornataya mukt nahin ho pae hain. har ek ne jahan tak sambhav ho saka hai, apane anishchit ki vyakhya apane nishchit ki bhasha men hi karane ka prayas kiya hai, kintu phir bhi isamen anishchit ka kuchh ansh sada vidyaman raha hai. udaharan ke lie, indriyanubhavavadiyon ne tarkashastr aur snbndhon ko 'indriyadatt' ke madhyam se samajhane ka prayas kiya hai. isake viparit tark buddhivadiyon ne is datt ko apoorn tarkabuddhi kaha aur usako aisi badha mana, jisase chhutakara pana atyant avashyak hai. unhonne ise tarkabuddhi ka apane ap ko nakarana tak kaha hai. kintu indriyanubhavavadiyon ke lie yah ek samasya hai ki ve snbndhon ko un vastavik padon se kaise snbndhit karen, jo datt hain, kyonki is prakram men vahi samasya phir uth khadi hoti hai. isake atirikt indriyanubhavavadiyon ko tark shastr ki vibhinn indriyanubhavaparak vyakhyaon ka tulanatmak moolyankan bhi karana hai, jo ki tab tak sambhav nahin hai, jab tak ki kisi adharabhoot anindriyanubhavik, phalat: anishchit tark shastr ka, svikar nahin kiya jata. doosari or tarkabuddhivadi bhi isi tarah datt se poornataya mukt nahin ho pae hain. unako ek andhakaramay prishthabhoomi ya kisi atarkik tatv ko svikar karane ko badhy hona pada hai. hegelavadiyon ne datt ko tarkabuddhi ka apane ap ko nakarana kahakar usase chhutakara pane ki koshish avashy ki, par isase datt ka thosapan jata raha.

ham shanti ke sath (vartaman sndarbh men) nishchit aur anishchit ko-vichar aur anubhav ko, mila bhi nahin sakate. isaka karan yah hai ki aisa karane ke lie hamen snbndhon ko snbndhiyon se jodane ka asnbhav kary karana hoga. vastav men is tarah se donon ko milane ki koee avashyakata hi nahin hai, kyonki har ek ka yah dava hai ki vah apane hi bal-boote par ek sangonpang darshan pradan kar sakata hai. chahe indriyanubhavavadi hon ya tark buddhivadi, donon ke lie darshan, anishchit ko nishchit men parivartit karane, yani anubhav men jo bhi anishchit ka ansh hai, usako nirantar nishchit men parivartit karane rahane ka, satat prayas hai, bhale hi vah kee charanon men ho. tark buddhivadiyon ke lie sadaiv asamadhey bana rahane vala datt har sthiti men vah anishchit hai, jo vahin tak nishchit men parivartit ho sakata hai, jahan tak vichar, jise anyatha tarkik tatv bhi kaha jata hai, 'datt' se satat mukt anubhoot hota hai. isako doosare roop men is tarah bhi kaha ja sakata hai ki niche ghor indriyaparata ke star tak pratyek charan men datt ka anubhav svayn ko pradan karane vale vichar ke roop men hota hai. vichar ka matr svayn ke roop men hi nahin, balki jo datt nahin hai, us roop men bhi 'a' sahi 'a' keval tabhi hai, jab vah n keval 'a' hai, balki vah any sab chijon ka nishedh bhi hai. apane paravarti chintan men bhattachary ne isako datt ka vibhedan karane vala vichar kaha. keval vichar ko unhonne vichchhinn vichar kaha aur bad ke chintan men vichchhedan aur vibhedan ko mukti ke kramash: nishedhatmak aur vidhyatmak roop kaha.

rachanaen

abhi tak jo vivaran diya gaya hai, vah bhattachary ke ek lekhak The place of indefinite in logic men upalabdh hai. kintu bhattachary ki yahi vicharadhara unake do lekhon Some aspects of Negation aur The Jaina theory of Anekantavada [2], men do bhinn roopon men vikasit huee. pratham lekh men unhonne yah dikhane ka prayatn kiya hai ki kis tarah se ek saral anekatmak sthit 'a' (aur) 'b' men, jisamen 'a' ki 'b' se bhinnata 'anishchit' matr hai, nishedh ka ek snbndhatmak roop (a b nahin), jo adhik nishchit hota hai, vikasit ho jata hai, itana hi nahin, bhattachary ne yah bhi dikha diya hai ki kis tarah se yah nishedh, jo ki svayn ek snbndh hai aur any samast snbndhon ka adhar hai aur adhik nishchit roop se 'a' ke ghatak ke roop men hota hai. apane doosare lekh, The Jaina theory of Anekantavada men bhattachary ne dikhaya hai ki thik yahi bat kuchh bhinn roop men jain darshan ke anekantavad ke mool men hai.

dvitiy avadhi

yahan tak yah bataya gaya hai ki tarkabuddhivadi kis tarah se kee charanon men (anishchit) datt ko nishchit men parivartit karata hai. apane chintan ki dvitiy avadhi men bhattachary indriyanubhavavadiyon ko lete hain aur yah dikhate hain ki

  1. datt men aise paksh hain, jinako nishchit men parivartit karane ki avashyakata hoti hai
  2. yadyapi datt sadaiv koee vastu hota hai jo ki mere lie bahy hai, phir bhi usake in pakshon ko kisi vastuparak bhasha ke madhyam se nishchit men parivartit nahin kiya ja sakata
  3. in pakshon ke nishchitikaran ka ek matr tarika unaki vishayanishthata se samikaran hai.

anushngat: pahali bar bhattachary ne is bat ko mana hai ki vastu jahan tak mere lie bahy hai, vahan tak sadaiv anishchit hi rahegi, kyonki bahy sadaiv apatik hota hai. main usake bare men kabhi bhi poorn roop se ashvast nahin ho sakata, halanki oopari taur se bina kisi prashn ke mujhe usako keval isalie svikar lena padata hai ki usane mere man par adhikatam bahyakari prabhav dala hai. isake viparit, vishayanishth, jahan tak ki vah vastavik vishayanishthata hai, vastav men main svayn hoon. at: vah n keval isilie nishchit hai ki vastuon se snbaddh apatikata usase poornat: alag ho gee hai, balki isalie bhi ki vah samast vastunishth visheshataon se vichchhinn hai aur unaka vibhedan karata hai, vah svayn prakash hai : svat:siddh vishayinishthata ke roop men adhikadhik anubhav hota hai aur isilie vah nishchitata ka saratatv hai.

datt ke paksh

datt ke paksh, jo indriyanubhavavadiyon ke lie samasya aur phalat: anishchit hain, kee prakar ke hain:

  1. tarkik
  2. snbndhon ke alava unake antargat ye sab bhi ate hain
  3. ve mithyabhas jinake mithyatv ka gyan ho chuka hai
  4. jo kuchh indriyon ke dvara grihit hai, usake vastavik hone ka bodh yani indriyanubhavavashrit pratigyptiyon ki satyata. isake atirikt apani pustak The subject as freedom men bhattachary ne inhen bhi bar-bar datt ke paksh bataya hai : bahar se dikhaee dene vala apana sharir, apane sharir ka antarik anubhav, abhav ke vibhinn prakaron ka gyan aur vibhinn prakar ke gyat abhav tatha binb pratyay adi.

apane lekhon, Sankara’s Doctrine of maya, correction of error as a logical process aur The false and the subjective men bhattachary ne mithya[3] ke snpratyay men nihit vastavik samasyaon ka vistrit vivaran diya hai aur yah bataya hai ki in samasyaon ka samadhan kis tarah se hona chahie aur usamen kya-kya baten nihit hain. sachchaee ke gyan ke pahale aisi mithya vastu sthan vishesh men pratit hoti thi, jisamen any vastavik vastuen thin. kintu sachchaee ke gyan ke bad yah nishchit roop se gyat ho jata hai ki n keval vah vastu us samay us sthan men nahin thi, apitu usaka is sthan men hona kabhi snbhav hi nahin tha. kintu isake adhar par tatkal hi yah nishkarsh nahin nikala ja sakata ki vah vastu kuchh nahin hai ya kuchh nahin thi. phir bhi, yah nahin ho sakata ki vah vastavik dikh men sthit koee vastu rahi hai. is bat ka tatpary keval yah hai ki ek vastu ke kisi sthan men dikhaee dene ke bad ab yah dava kiya jata hai ki vah asal men vishayita ka ek prakar matr thi, par vastu ke roop men pratit huee thi. prakashantar se bat yah huee ki us chiz ki pratiyaman vishayata ka lop hokar usaka vishayita ke roop men kisi tarah anubhav kiya jata hai. bhattachary is bat se advait vedant... ke paksh men aur bhi nishkarsh nikalate hain.

drishtikon

apane ek any lekh Knowledge and Truth men bhattachary ne 'satyata' ka bhi lagabhag isi tarah se vivechan kiya hai. unhonne gyan aur satyata (aur unake snbndhon) ke sadharan snpratyayon ka vishleshan karake yah dikhaya hai ki yadyapi gyan sadharanat: manasik avastha hai, (aur isilie vishayanishth hai), phir bhi, sarvapratham gyan ki satyata ka bodh hi hamen is bat ka ahasas karata hai ki gyan anivaryat:, shuddh vishayinishthata (ek shuddh vishayinishth kriya) hai tatha asal men gyan ki yah satyata is ahasas ka hi doosara nam hai. yah bhi vedant ka siddhant hai aur isi ke adhar par pahale ki hi tarah bhattachary ne age ke aur bhi tatvamimansiy nishkarsh nikale hain. isi lekh men bhattachary pahali bar kant aur vedant (advait) ke madhy snbndh ki charcha karate hain. unaka yah kahana hai ki jahan kant ne apani gyanamimansa men shuddh ahnpratyay (vishayita ka pratyay) ko spasht gyan roopi manasik sthiti ka pragannbhavik poorvalamb bataya hai. vahan vedant ne isase bhi age jakar satyata ke apane snpratyay se satta ke bare men ek siddhant ka vikas kiya hai.

is prakar darshanik chintan ki is dvitiy avadhi men bhattachary ka mukhy uddeshy yah dikhana tha ki prakritik manovritti ke star par jis chiz ka bhi anubhav anishchit (sndigdh) ke roop men hota hai, anant-yani jab vah nishchit men parivartit ho jati hai-aur kuchh nahin balki shuddh vishayinishthata hi hai. yah bat n keval mithyatv aur satyata ke sndarbh men sahi hai, balki snbndhon, aur jo tarkashastr kahalata hai usake, sndarbh men sahi hai. jo anishchit apani pratham avastha men nishchit datt ko ghere hue tha aur nishchitikaran ki mang kar raha tha, vah doosari avastha men shuddh vishayitamatr ke roop men nishchitikaran yogy siddh ho gaya.

jaisa ki pahale hi kaha ja chuka hai, apane granth The Subject as Freedom men anubhav ke vibhinn staron par bhattachary ne aise kee anishchiti (virodhabhasi ghatanaon) ko liya hai aur bahut hi sookshm vishleshan ke dvara yah dikhaya hai ki pratyek star par nishchitikaran ke prayas men koee shaktishali datt, chahe vah koee bahy vastu ho, ya bahar se dikhane vala vyakti ka apana sharir ho,[4] ya apane sharir ki hi antarik anubhooti ho, ya char prakar ke abhav ya unake anubhav hon, ya koee bhavatmak manasik tathy ho, jaise pratima ya vichar (aur inake upaprakar), usamen vilin ho jata hai, jo snbndhit star ya upastar par apekshakrit vishayanishth hai, arthath vishayinishthata gunon se vichchhinn kar deta hai aur aisi vastu ka vibhedan karata hai. yah sab bhattachary ne savistar dikhaya hai aur phir bhi unaka yah dava hai ki unaka kary ek sadharan manovaigyanik ka nahin hai. sadharan manovigyan ke lie vishayinishth keval manasik tathy (sthiti) hai, jisaka antanirikshan dvara vastu ke roop men anubhav kiya jata hai. doosari or bhattachary vishayinishthata ke do aur prakar batate hain-

  1. av-manasik vishayinishthata
  2. adhi-manasik vishayinishthata.

av-manasik ka kshetr pratyaksh se lekar vibhinn prakar ke abhavon ke anubhav tak hai. usaka antanirikshan dvara anubhav snbndhit vastuon se, arthath svatntrata ke kramik roopon- jaise ki manasik tathy sadaiv hote hain, se vichchhinn kar kisi bhi prakar nahin nahin kiya ja sakata, halanki isaka bhi vastuon ke roop men anubhav un vastuon ke sath kisi tarah se vyatikar hone ke karan hota hai, jinaki or isaka (manasik tathy) antat: nirdesh hota hai. doosari or, koee aisi vastu hoti hi nahin, jisase adhi manasik ka vichchhed karane ki zaroorat ho aur isalie usaka kisi vastu ke sath vyatikar hone ka prashn hi nahin uthata. vah vishayinishthata ka shuddhatam roop hai, jise keval apana hi bodh hota hai. yani jo svayn prakashy hai. is arth men adhimanasik vishayinishthata ke do roop hain- avimarshatmak aur vimarshatmak. apane avimarshatmak roop men bhattachary ke anusar yah 'bhavana' hai tatha vimarshatmak roop men atmik antanirikshan. isake viparit, pratyek manasik tathy chahe vah kisi bhi star par ho, ek antanirikshit[5] vastu hoti hai aur kisi tarah se us antanirikshan se abhinn bhi. vah usase abhinn vahin tak hota hai, jahan tak ki vah pratyakshik roop men us manasik avastha (gyan) ka vishay hoti hai.

The subject as Freedom men bhattachary atmik antanirikshan se bhi age ki ek avastha ko svikar karate hain. vastav men atmik antanirikshan kant ka praganubhavik ahnpratyay hi hai, jo sadaiv ek kriya hota hai, n ki koee astitvavan vastu ya aur pichhe vidyaman kisi dravy ka soochak. kant ne is bat ko bhi kabhi spasht nahin kiya ki unaka praganubhavik ahnpratyay (shuddh tarkabuddhi) vaiyaktik (vaisheshtik) hai ya ati-vaiyaktik. isake viparit, bhattachary in donon ke hi bare men poornataya spasht hain. atmik antanirikshan yadyapi asndigdh roop se vaiyaktik uttam purush 'main' hai, tathapi naitik paristhiti men vah madhyam purush 'tum' se aur parikshat: any purush 'vah' tak se parivarik sadrishy rakhata hai tatha dharmik chetana men vah ati-vaiyaktik 'ahnta' ke nishedh ki mang (jo ki abhi poori nahin huee hai) jhalakati hai. doosare shabdon men mang yah hai ki svanubhoot vyashtik vishayanishthata ke is nishedh dvara age ke star par jisaki prapti karani hai, vah hai nirapeksh, jo bhattachary ke anusar ab bhi vishayinishthata arthath svatntrata hai, halanki ab usaka bodh vastuvath matr hota hai atmavath nahin. bhattachary ke anusar svatntrata ke roop men param vishayanishthata hai. apane granth The Subject as Freedom ke prarambh men bhattachary ne vishayi[6] aur vishay[7] ke snpratyayon ka spasht vishleshan kiya hai.

tritiy avadhi

param tattv ya brahm ke isi pratyay ko bhattachary ne apane chintan ki tritiy avadhi men apane lekh The concept of philosophy men, dhairyapoorv vikasit kiya hai. brahm vah saty hai jisaki sattatmak sthiti ki mang hai. vah ek pratikatmak saty hai, shabdik saty nahin. is lekh ki do any nee visheshataen hain-

  1. bhattachary ne is snpratyay ka vikas sopanik kram men in tin any snpratyayon ke vistrit vishleshan ke dvara kiya hai- (indriyanubhavik) tathy, svaynbhoo (vastu-samany), aur vishayinishthata (uttam purush 'main') vastavikata ke roop men.
  2. jo lekh ki vishesh roop se ullekhaniy nee bat hai, vah yah ki bhattachary ke anusar brahm ko tin vaikalpik ritiyon se pratikatmak roop men sicha ja sakata hai.

'tathy'

  1. jisake vishay men kuchh kahane ki avashyakata to nahin hoti, kintu phir bhi kaha ja sakata hai, arthath jo bina kuchh kahe hi bodhagamy hai
  2. jise shabdik arth men socha jata hai
  3. jisaka ya to indriyon ke madhyam se pratyaksh hota hai ya phir jisake aise pratyaksh ki kalpana ki jati hai.

isake viparit, jo svaynbhoo (vastu) hai, usake bare men aisa mana jata hai ki

  1. yadi usake vishay men kaha ja jaye to vah bodhagamy nahin hoti, halanki vah vyakti ke dvara vyakt vishvas se poornataya svatntr hoti hai. yah kahana ki 'vahan par koee vastu hai' ya vastuon ke amuk prakar hain.
  2. vah shabdik arth men vichar ka vishay hai
  3. n to usaka indriy pratyaksh hota hai aur n usake aise pratyaksh ki kalpana hi ki jati hai.

jahan tak vastavikata[8] ka prashn hai, usaka bhi svaynbhoo vastu ki bhanti hi bodh hota hai. antar keval itana hota hai ki usaka bodh ek indriyanubhavik ya tatvamimansasiy vastu ke roop men nahin hota. aisi vastavikata ka sakshat gyan hota hai tatha isaka mere kahane se prithakh roop men anubhav nahin kiya jata. yadyapi isaka shrota aur vakta donon ko hi saman bodh hota hai, tathapi yah donon ke dvara vyakt vishvas se poornataya svatntr hoti hai aur isaki apani sattatmak sthiti hoti hai. tathy, svaynbhoo vastu tatha vishayi ke roop men sakshat roop se gyat vastavikata shabdik arth men vichar ke vishay hai, kintu brahm jo ki vastavikata se bhi pare mana gaya hai,[9] shabdik arth tak men vichar ka vishay nahin hai. usake snbndh men to kahi gee bat ke nishedh dvara hi kuchh kaha ja sakata hai. vichar ke ye charon prakar hain. pratyek ka vishay ek vishvas rahata hai, jisaka kathan hota hai, kintu antim men vah sadaiv gyey ke roop men jana jata hai.[10] is prakar usaki satta ka nishedh nahin kiya jata.

brahm ke vaikalpik roop

is brahm ka tin vaikalpik roopon se gyan ho sakata hai-

  1. charam satta ke roop men, is roop men vah aisa saty hai, jo antim atm-abhed hai, is roop men ki usaka any kisi chiz se bhed nahin kiya ja sakata
  2. poorn vichchhed, poorn svatntry ke roop men jisamen vichchhed ki prakriya uchchatam sima par pahunch gee ho aur koee aisi chiz shesh n rahe, jisase abhi vichchhed hona baki ho
  3. ukt donon vikalpon ke aniyat kramantaran ke roop men.

ye tinon vikalp vakta ke drishtikon se brahm ke tin vaikalpik varnan hain, usake yatharth chitran nahin. isake sath hi tinon vikalp saman roop se (kintu ek sath nahin) saty ke kathan hain. in vikalpon men se pratham advait vedant ka hai, doosara (madhyamik) bauddh darshan ka, aur tisara hegel tatha shaiv mat ka. yadi pratyaksh brahm ko saty ke roop men manata hai aur doosara svatntrata ke roop men to tisara 'mooly' ke roop men manata hai, jo satta ke sath sath satat vibhedan bhi hai. hegel saty aur svatntrata ke aniyat kramantaran ko nahin samajh pae aur isalie in donon ki ekata ki bat galati se kar ge.

"param brahm saty ho sakata hai ya vah jo saty nahin hai, athava vah in donon ki matr bhinnata bhi ho sakata hai, jisaki prishthabhoomi men koee ekata nahin hai."

brahm ke in vaikalpik snpratyayon ka bhattachary ne apane lekh The concept of the Absolute and its alternative forms men adhik vistar ke sath vikas kiya hai. lekh ke arambh men bhattachary, gyan, bhavana aur snkalp men, antarvastu aur chetana ke madhy snbndh ka vimarshatmak vishleshan karate hain. bhattachary ne yah dava dikha diya hai ki gyan, bhavana v snkalp brahm ko kramash: saty, mooly aur svatntrata (vastavikata) ke roop men kalpit karate hain. saty vah antarvastu hai, jisako antat: antarvastu ke sndarbh men mukt hona hai aur mooly ek tarah se antarvastu aur chetana ki mukt ekata hai. ye tinon ikatthe nahin hain, jo vastavik (svatntr) hai, vah saty nahin hai, kintu saty vastavik ho sakata hai, saty mooly nahin hai, kintu mooly asaty nahin hai, aur yadyapi mooly ke vastavik aur saty visheshan nahin ho sakate, tathapi yah nahin kaha ja sakata ki vastavikata (svatntrata) mooly nahin hai, param tatv ya brahm ko isi arth men satyata, mooly aur vastavikata ka kramantaran kaha jata hai.

mooly ke snpratyay ka poorn vivechan bhattachary ne apane The concept of value men kiya hai. unhonne is lekh ek bar phir yah dikhaya hai ki bhavana gyan aur snkalp ke kya kya kary hain. unhonne bhavana ko mukhy bataya hai tatha gyan aur snkalp ko gaun.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bhattachary, pro. kalidas vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 359.

  1. jo sambhavat: unake chintan ki pratham avadhi men likha gaya tha aur dvitiy avadhi ke prarambh men prakashit hua
  2. jo sambhavat: unake chintan ki pratham avadhi men likha gaya tha aur dvitiy avadhi ke prarambh men prakashit hua
  3. jisake mithyatv ka pata lag gaya hai
  4. jo sharir ke pratyaksh hi samanarthak hai
  5. kam se kam antanirikshanagamy
  6. uttam, madhyam aur any purush-kramash: main, tum aur vah
  7. sarvanam 'yah' ke dvara snketit
  8. uttam purush 'main' jisaka svayn ko sakshath gyan hota hai
  9. aur jisako bhattachary ne satyata kaha hai
  10. agyey ke roop men kadapi nahin

snbndhit lekh

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